Now showing items 20234-20253 of 20330


      Pogrow, Stanley; JUETTNER, VIRGINIA WEAVER.; Chilcott, John; Sacken, Donal M.; Goodman, Kenneth; Goodman, Yetta (The University of Arizona., 1987)
      This research project studied a class of high school 11th and 12th grade writing students, for one semester, as they learned to use word processors for composing and editing assignments. The goals of the study were to (a) determine whether the use of a word processor created a special learning environment, (b) document the learning environment created, (c) document the resultant student word processing concepts, schemata and strategies, and (d) document the effects on the writing of students. Five predictions, based on research on language thought and symbol systems, and the application of a theoretical model formed the basis for observations. The predictions were tested by collecting and analyzing student writing and observational data. Student concepts, schemata and strategies were documented through use of the checklists and through observation. Pre- and post-student writing samples were matched and analyzed using individual T-tests, ANOVA and MANCOVA to determine any impact on writing due to the use of word processors. Questionnaires provided background information on English teacher and student writing/word processing backgrounds. Findings indicate support for the research model and predictions 1-4. The research model was found to be useful in organizing data and summarizing prediction results, and may offer assistance to teachers and researchers who want to study the impact of microcomputers from a total learning environment perspective.
    • Word processing: The effect on the type of revisions made by young writers.

      Clark, Donald C.; Stock, Lynette Marie. (The University of Arizona., 1990)
      Research studies conducted where word processing programs were used for composition and revision indicate that computers affect the way writers at all maturity levels compose and revise. Student writers, as a rule, are not given an opportunity to use word processing for composing since many schools are not equipped with enough computer terminals to allow for extensive use of word processing by teachers in their writing programs. However, when student writers are able to use word processing, research indicates they are motivated to spend more time writing, they have a better attitude about revising, and they begin to understand that one draft does not represent a finished product. These three findings would indicate that word processing is a positive alternative to the traditional paper and pencil composition instruction used to teach writing and revising. Encouraged by the positive results of previous research findings, this study was constructed to provide a group of young writers with intensive writing practice using the APPLEWORKS word processing system. The goal of the study was to build on the motivational aspects of computer use and to determine if combining it with use of word processing software would encourage higher level revision strategies to develop in student writers. A variety of writing topics were presented to two groups of seventh grade students and three levels of revisions (mechanical, structural and conceptual) were monitored during one school semester. The importance of revising was stressed to both groups, and students were encouraged to revise often and get feedback on each revision. A higher incidence of structural and/or conceptual revisions to a composition would indicate a shift in revision strategy, since student writers primarily focus on mechanical revision. Structural revisions made by the word processing group showed a significant change that was not evident in the group writing with paper and pencil. This would indicate the use of word processing does impact levels of revision with student writers. A questionnaire is also included in the study. It was designed to gauge a student's perception of the revision process as a result of the study.
    • Word retrieval deficits in adults with brain tumors

      Holland, Audrey L.; Zak, Marsha Gale (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      The relationship between brain invaded by tumor and consequent word retrieval deficits was investigated. Performance scores from 10 individuals who underwent craniotomy for tumor resection were obtained using contexts of constrained naming, verbal fluency, and picture description during pre- and post-craniotomy. This study described qualitative and quantitative differences of impairment to elucidate the nature and extent of naming impairment in individuals with cerebral hemisphere tumors. For all tasks, independent of group, performance decrements were reported pre-operatively in relation to normative data, with subsequent post-operative decline. This was particularly true for the Left Hemisphere Group who exhibited poorer performance than the Right Hemisphere Group. It was expected that the Frontal Group would have greater difficulty on tasks requiring intact frontal lobe function (i.e. Verbal Fluency), but the Non-Frontal Group performed more poorly. Surprisingly, the Frontal Lobe Group showed the smallest decrement, and the Non-Frontal and Left Hemisphere Groups showed the worst performance overall. Pre- and post-operatively, all subjects exhibited greater word retrieval deficits than normal controls during verbal fluency tasks. The overall disruption of word retrieval across tasks was predictable for time of examination, but not for site of lesion. The results of this study suggest that the word retrieval deficits of brain tumor patients may differ from traditional aphasia profiles. This knowledge may contribute to a better understanding of language processing and production in tumor-related aphasia.
    • Word Syntax of Nominal Compounds: Internal and Aphasiological Evidence from Turkish

      Karimi, Simin; Harley, Heidi; Tat, Deniz; Karimi, Simin; Harley, Heidi; Carnie, Andrew; Kornfilt, Jaklin; Piattelli-Palmarini, Massimo (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      This dissertation is an analysis of two types of nominal compounds in Turkish, primary compounds and synthetic compounds within the framework of Distributed Morphology. A nominal primary compound is formed by two nouns, and its meaning is largely determined by world knowledge. A synthetic compound, on the other hand, is formed by a noun and a derverbal noun, such that the former is a true argument of the latter. The meaning of such compounds is always compositional. In many languages, the structural difference between these two types of compounds is not immediately observable. However, in Turkish, a primary compound would be obligatorily marked with the compound marker, -(s)I(n) while a synthetic compound would never be marked as such. In this dissertation, I claim that primary compounds in Turkish are underlyingly possessive phrases, a claim that has been previously made by several others. My analysis differs from those previous analyses in that it maintains that -(s)I(n) figures in a morphological component that follows syntax but precedes PF. Such a post-syntactic analysis has a number of advantages as it can account for a wide range of descriptive observations about the behavior of -(s)I(n). I claim that -(s)I(n) and an agreement marker never form a sequence at any stage in the grammar. I test this claim in an experiment conducted with Turkish-speaking individuals with aphasia, and show that only a vanishingly rare number of -(s)I(n)-agreement sequences are attested in aphasic speech. My analysis of synthetic compounds in Turkish is based on three types of nominalizers and the types of categories they can select. I show that only event-denoting nominals can form true synthetic compounds. I also show that nominals that are derived directly from roots can never form true synthetic compounds, which casts doubts on roots as projecting categories. I also consider a third group of seemingly synthetic compounds, which have an overt complex verbal stem, and yet, fail to derive true synthetic compounds. Following Marantz (2013), I claim that such pseudo-synthetic compounds, in fact, have semantically null verbalizing morphemes, and therefore, the root and the nominalizing head are semantically adjacent at LF.
    • Work Engagement, Moral Distress, Education Level, and Critical Reflective Practice in Intensive Care Nurses

      Lawrence, Lisa Ann; Reed, Pamela G.; Jones, Elaine; Michaels, Cathleen L. (The University of Arizona., 2009)
      The purpose of this study was to examine how nurses' critical reflective practice, education level, and moral distress related to their work engagement. This is an area of study relevant to nursing, given documented United States Registered Nurse (RN) experiences of job related distress and work dissatisfaction, and the nursing shortage crisis. Nurses are central players in the provision of quality health care. There is need for better understanding of RNs' work engagement and factors that may enhance their work experience. A theoretical framework of critical reflective practice was developed and examined in this study.A non-experimental, descriptive, correlational design was used to examine the relationships among four study variables: critical reflective practice, education level, moral distress, and work engagement. The purposive sample consisted of 28 intensive care unit RNs (ICU-RNs) from three separate ICUs (medical, neonatal, and pediatric) in a 355-bed Southwest magnet-designated hospital. Measures of the key variables were as follows: (1) Critical Reflective Practice Questionnaire (CRPQ) developed for this study; (2) a subscale of Mary C. Corley's Moral Distress Scale; (3) Education level measured as the highest nursing degree earned to practice as a RN; and (4) the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. All instruments demonstrated adequate reliability and validity.Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated support for the theoretical framework: There was a negative direct relationship between moral distress and work engagement, a positive direct relationship between critical reflective practice and work engagement, and moral distress and critical reflective practice, together, explained 47% of the variance in work engagement. Additionally, in the NICU, results indicated a positive direct relationship between increased educational level and critical reflective practice. Results also indicated that moral distress was a clinically significant issue for ICU-RNs in this sample.Strategies to promote critical reflective practice and reduce moral distress are recommended. Additionally, the findings support continued study of critical reflective practice and moral distress, and the role of education level, in nurses' work engagement. Research goals include continued study of the theoretical framework in larger study samples and in reference to additional explanatory factors.
    • The Work Experiences of Student Affairs Professionals: What Values Guide Practice?

      Rhoades, Gary D.; Orgera, Jeffrey Michael; Rhoades, Gary D.; Cheslock, John; Lee, Jenny (The University of Arizona., 2007)
      One segment of the academic community that is overlooked in most research is the large cadre of professionals who deliver a multitude of services to students outside of the classroom. From the perspective of students, the student affairs professionals they encounter in the residence halls, advising offices, and within other aspects of the campus life fabric, are the face of the university. This case study of student affairs professionals within four departments at one large, public, Research-I University seeks to define the core values of the work, understand perspectives on the individuals they work with, how practice unfolds within the organization context of the campus, and what values guide practice. The literatures drawn upon include; student affairs ideology, service delivery patterns and techniques, institutional theory, professional specialization, and trends in higher education. The findings from this study illustrate that the work experiences of student affairs professionals are dominated by brief encounters with students that occur within a work environment that is frequently overwhelming. High volumes of students seeking service and limited opportunities to develop ongoing relationships create challenging work expectations for student affairs professionals. The core values of the profession are in transition as institutional priorities that focus on efficiency and competitive advantage become further established within academe. Policy recommendations for the student affairs profession and institutional decision makers are made in the final chapter.
    • Work matters: The educational, cultural and economic ecology of two Gulf-Coast communities

      Moll, Luis; Brenden, Marcia R. (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      This dissertation explores the connections between the institutions of work, family, and school as revealed through a team ethnography study of two southern Louisiana communities. The study focused on the gathering of first-hand accounts of the cultural, social, and economic continuum of changes that local households and individuals are experiencing in relation to the vicissitudes of employment in the oil and gas industry and the various ways in which household members negotiated, accommodated, and resisted the impacts. This dissertation also reports on a collaborative research methodology that employed a "funds of knowledge" approach that situated public school teacher-researchers as crucial local members of the project team. Their position as insiders within the local schools and households grounded the research process and provided the team with multiple member checks that helped to validate and authenticate the research. As a background to the analyses undertaken here, this study reviews the relevant literature on structure and agency as well as critical educational studies of social reproduction and cultural production. Finally, suggestions are made as to possible directions public schools might take to critically connect schools to work and communities.
    • Work Readiness of Newly Graduated Nurses with Implications for Academia and Employers

      Koithan, Mary S.; Davis, Mary; Hayter, Karen; Koithan, Mary S.; Davis, Mary; Reed, Pamela G. (The University of Arizona., 2017)
      Background: The transition and retention of newly graduated nurses are worldwide problems. With the nursing shortage and 33-61% of newly graduated nurses leaving their job within the first year, newly graduated nurses need to be work ready. Work readiness of new nurses is a new concept developed in Australia. Significance: New nurses are a vulnerable population that is dependent upon experienced nurses for knowledge, skills, and socialization into the profession. However, new nurses often experience rudeness, humiliation and conflict influencing professional success, patient care, and retention. Purpose: To apply the Work Readiness Scale – Graduate Nurses (WRS-GN) to a population of Baccalaureate (BSN) and Master’s Entry into the Profession of Nursing (MEPN) graduates from a southwestern university and determine if there is a relationship between the variables of work readiness, individual experiences of graduates, and the two groups. Research questions included: 1) What is the relationship between work readiness (social intelligence, personal work characteristics, work competence, and organizational acumen) and individual experiences? 2) Do newly graduated BSN and MEPN degree nurses differ on the WRS-GN constructs of social intelligence, personal work characteristics, work competence, and organizational acumen? Method: Descriptive correlational study with a convenience sample of graduates from a southwestern university. Participants received a survey through their school email account and a message was placed on the Alumni Facebook page. Results: Thirty participants (9.2% response rate), 93.3% were female, and 76.7% work in Arizona. None of the participants were planning to leave the profession of nursing in the next year. A statistically significant relationship was detected between work competency and length of nurse residency (r=.44, p=0.02) and a negative relationship was detected between personal work characteristics and nurse residency (r=-.41, p=0.02). No relationship was detected between the two groups and constructs of work readiness. Implications/conclusions: Work readiness is complex. Longer nurse residency is associated with greater work competence. Academia and employers should collaborate and provide courses that enhance the work readiness of newly graduated nurses. The WRS-GN has been tested once in a population of Australian graduate nurses therefore further research is needed to validate the WRS-GN.

      Yuprasert, Phongpan, 1939- (The University of Arizona., 1976)

      Flippo, Edwin B.; Eisenbeis, H. Richard (The University of Arizona., 1980)
      This study was undertaken to investigate the relationships and interdependencies of work-unit technology, structure, leadership style and attitudes of personnel at the middle and lower level of the organizational hierarchy and to determine if a correlation exists between proper alignment of these variables and overall organizational effectiveness. Six variables have been identified by contingency theorists which must be properly aligned if organizations are to operate at peak efficiency and maximum effectiveness. These variables are the firm's outer environment, its objectives and goals, the adaptation of technology to attain these goals, organizational structure to coordinate and confine the technology, and the leadership style and personnel who use the technology within individual work units to satisfy the demands of the outer environment and meet organizational goals and objectives. Previous emphasis in contingency theory has been upon determining what constitutes proper alignment of these variables on a firm by firm or industry by industry basis, neglecting the fact that complex organizations are composed of many interacting work units in which these variables must also be properly aligned if maximum effectiveness is to be achieved. Four U.S. copper mining companies responsible for over 60 percent of domestic production consented to participate in the study. The data suggest that not only is the proper alignment of contingency variables within the firm as a whole important to organizational effectiveness as indicated by prior research, but the proper alignment of these variables within individual work units may be just as important a consideration in determining overall organizational effectiveness. Results further suggest that those mining firms within the industry whose work unit technologies show the closest alignment of routine technologies with mechanistic structures, autocratic leadership styles and personnel willing to conform, and non-routine technologies with organic structures, democratic leadership styles and personnel less willing to conform are more effective than those firms in which these variables were not so closely aligned. Implications of this study are that industrial firms can improve their overall performance and effectiveness by aligning technology, structure, leadership style and personnel within work units. The greater the number or work units in which these contingency variables are properly aligned within a business firm, the greater the success that firm will experience in realizing its primary objectives.
    • Working as a Real Estate Agent Dispositions, Matching & the Production of Market Inequalities

      Zavisca, Jane; Benites-Gambirazio, Eliza; Galaskiewicz, Joseph; Poupeau, Franck; Sallaz, Jeffrey (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      This dissertation examines the work of real estate professionals (brokers and salespersons) on a local housing market and highlights how their professional activities contribute to influence transaction outcomes such as pricing, product and neighborhood preferences. Departing from the theoretical framework of market intermediaries, which posits that the exchange of goods is not based upon an automatic price matching between supply and demand, the research explores the formal and informal socialization of agents through a set of norms and rules to behave as market professionals; the use of social relationships to profit-making ends; and the participation of agents in the process of creating symbolic and market value by influencing preferences and prices, generating important implications for social and racial segregation. At the intersection of cultural, urban and economic sociology, this work sheds light on the dynamics of a market with intermediaries to refine our understanding of housing inequalities. Conducted between 2013 and 2016 in Tucson, Arizona, the research draws on ethnographic fieldwork throughout different entries and sites of fieldwork – at the local real estate school, at two real estate companies and observing interactions between agents, buyers and sellers during various moments of the transaction – and interviews (N= 79) with real estate agents with variation on experience and status within the field, on class, gender and race were also conducted. These interviews and ethnographic observations serve to analyze the discursive and behavioral aspects of market work, how agents both talk and act on the market to create the conditions for market interactions such as selling and buying a house. The dissertation research investigates first the acquisition of socio-professional dispositions and the ethos of the real estate agent. It objectifies the professional culture in which real estate agents are socialized and the inculcation of professional dispositions; second, it examines the discovery of the client or the relational mechanisms of trust and client capture. It rests on a game of anticipations which must accurately decipher the social and symbolic horizon of clients. Third, the research evidences the matching of supply and demand or the contribution to clients’ preferences, pricing and location of the goods. It analyzes the professional and market practices around the encounters between agents and their clients, and the supply and demand of goods, envisions as social, physical and symbolic products. In observing working practices through multiple interactions, the research sheds light how real estate agents shape access to the territory, inequalities and reproduction mechanisms.
    • Working mother: The birth of the subject in the novel

      Zwinger, Lynda; Thompson, Ruthe Marie, 1957- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      One of the primary objectives of the realist novel has been to imitate the linguistic processes that assert and maintain the idea of a coherent identity. In Working Mother: The Birth of the Subject in the Novel, I present a developmental view of the birth of the subject as articulated by some of the architects of the novel. In an examination of James and Henry Austen's Loiterer, Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice, Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, and Henry James' Washington Square, I locate and analyze narrative sites that mirror, presage, and/or encourage the production of readerly subjectivity across the body of a female or feminized figure, usually a mother. I employ a psychoanalytic and semiotic point of view to demonstrate the mother's role in narrative subject formation via the process of "suture." Margaret Homans, Christine Boheemen, and others have argued that the novel--and indeed all of Western culture--depends upon the repression of the mother. In Homan's useful formulation "the mother's absence is what makes possible and makes necessary the central projects of our culture." Active subjugation, incorporation, and disavowal of the maternal--ejecting the mother from the story, separating her from the protagonist, and from the reader--enable subjects to be produced in the novel form. Aggressivity as well as narcissism, disavowal as well as incorporation, help to jettison the originary feminine from the novel, leaving an absent space in which the subject can enunciate.

      Swisher, Linda; DEMETRAS, MARTHA JO-ANN.; Boone, Daniel R.; Matkin, Noel D.; Nicholson, Glen (The University of Arizona., 1986)
      Despite claims by some theorists to the contrary, investigators have shown that information about grammatical errors is available to young children learning language via the conversational responses of their parents. The present study described five categories of responses in the conversations of working mothers and fathers to their normally developing two-year-old sons, and investigated whether any of these responses were differentially related to well-formed vs. ill-formed child utterances. Subjects were six middle-class, monolingual (English) parent-child dyads. Parents worked full-time jobs and the children were enrolled in full-time daycare. Within a two week period, four 20-minute conversational samples were audio and video recorded for each dyad in the subjects' homes during freeplay activities of the subjects' choice. Results indicated that the pattern of responses for these six parents was very similar to that reported for other parent-child dyads. The most frequent type of response for all parents was one that continued the conversation without either repeating or clarifying the child's previous utterance. The least frequent type of response was one that explicitly corrected portions of the child's utterance. Of all responses, repetitions--both clarifying and nonclarifying--appeared to be the type of response most differentially related to well-formed and ill-formed child utterances. Exact repetitions were more likely to follow well-formed utterances, while the remaining repetitions were more likely to follow ill-formed utterances. This pattern of differential responses was similar for all six dyads. Very few differences regarding the style or pattern of interaction were noted for fathers and mothers. Implications were drawn regarding the nature of linguistic input that is available to two-year-old children learning language.
    • Working the system: A study of the negotiation of eligibility in an intercollegiate athletics program

      Snow, David A.; Yancik, Angela Marie; Snow, David A.; Smith-Lovin, Lynn; Morrill, Calvin (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      This dissertation examines the processes and strategies by which individuals attempt to maintain status orders in the negotiated interactions of everyday life. My research, drawing upon eighteen months of ethnographic fieldwork, describes the general social process of status maintenance as a collective endeavor, using intercollegiate athletics as a case to examine this phenomenon. In particular, I focus on how athletes and their advocates are engaged in negotiating the status of athletic eligibility, a focal problem of many "big-time" athletic programs in colleges and universities. Existing approaches to the sociology of sport do not adequately account for the academic performances of student-athletes and the strategies employed by them and their support personnel to maintain their eligibility, glossing over variations among the different categories of actors involved, the ongoing interactions between them, and the role that interaction plays in determining the direction and character of student-athletes' academic experiences. The core of the dissertation is organized around the negotiations for eligibility by three different sets of actors: academic counselors, tutors, and the student athletes themselves. Counselors act as agents of the organizational system designed to support eligibility in the university, often acting as liaisons between the athletics department and the larger university community. Tutors, also agents of the organizational support system, negotiate daily with athletes over the amount of academic assistance to be given. Student athletes vary in their formal and informal statuses and develop sub-groups along social-interactional lines that serve as sources of personal identity and solidarity. The extent to which they distance themselves or embrace their role-based social identities as students in the university impacts the strategies they employ in negotiations of eligibility. My findings include typologies of the strategies of athletes and their advocates regarding eligibility as well as correlations of those strategies with athletes' attitudes towards school, educational goals, and socioeconomic and family backgrounds. Based on these findings, I present theoretical extensions for status processes, the negotiated order perspective, and the sociology of emotions.
    • Working Together: Government Contractors Building Democracy Abroad

      Galaskiewicz, Joseph; Neal, Rachael S.; Milward, H. Brinton; Ragin, Charles; Schwartzman, Kathleen (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      Although the United States has hired private contractors to execute government-funded work since its inception, these contractors have become increasingly more common since the 1980s. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has been no exception; the number of for- and non-profit contractors designing and implementing international foreign aid projects has proliferated. The complicated relationships among USAID, nonprofit, and for-profit contractors raise important questions about the factors that influence 1) which types of organizations receive contracts, and 2) which characteristics increase the likelihood that contractors will form inter-organizational partnerships via their work on USAID's contracts. This dissertation explores both by examining 232 contractors that implemented USAID's democracy-building projects abroad 1999-2004. First, logistic regressions were used to assess the influence of nonprofit organizations' political affiliations on their ability to obtain USAID's contracts. The results of these analyses suggest that that in certain years, nonprofit organizations with prominent, politically connected board members were more successful than others in obtaining USAID contracts. In other time periods, the composition of nonprofits' boards had no significant impact on organizational success in acquiring contracts.Second, this dissertation evaluates whether inter-organizational familiarity influences the likelihood of contractors partnering on USAID-funded contracts. The results of logistic regressions indicate that inter-organizational familiarity from past partnerships has increased the chance that organizations partner in certain time periods. These findings stress the role of organizational learning in their decisions to partner, as well as the impact of government programs designed to diversify the pool of available contractors. This research considers the ways that changing political environments influence the availability of resources for contracting organizations with particular characteristics. Moreover, it underscores the need to assess the contracting system in order to ensure that those chosen to implement government-funded work are as capable, innovative, and accountable for their work as possible.
    • Working women in thirteenth-century Paris.

      Archer, Janice Marie.; Bernstein, Alan E.; Rebel, Hermann; Williams, Jane (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      This thesis examines the role of women in the Parisian economy in the late thirteenth century. The Livre des metiers of Etienne Boileau offers normative provisions regarding societal structures that permitted but restricted the participation of women, while the tax rolls commonly known as the roles de la taille de Philippe le Bel furnish numbers which show their actual participation. While these sources are well known, they have not heretofore been rigorously examined. Conclusions about women based on them have been amorphous. Married women are nearly invisible in these records, but unmarried women and widows headed 13.6% of Parisian workshops. Women monopolized the Parisian silk industry. About one-third of Parisian women in the late thirteenth century worked in jobs traditionally considered "women's work," including the preparation of food and clothing, peddling food on the street, and providing personal services. The other two-thirds did nearly every kind of work that men did. A "putting out" system was well in place in Paris at this time. Women classified as chambrieres or ouvrieres worked at home, spinning and weaving raw materials provided by an entrepreneur and selling back to the entrepreneur the finished product. Working at home allowed a woman to combine household duties with production for the marketplace. Girls usually learned a trade by working alongside their parents. Formal apprenticeships were less common for girls than for boys. While women could and did participate in nearly every trade, their numbers were concentrated in the lowest-paid metiers. The few women who practiced trades dominated by men were much more successful financially.
    • Workplace Disruptions Impact on Financial Reporting Quality

      Choudhary, Preeti; Sigler, Jake; Schatzberg, Jeff; Sunder, Jayanthi (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      This study provides evidence that workplace disruptions impact financial reporting quality. I use the novel setting of company headquarter relocation to study workplace disruptions. I find that workplace disruptions are negatively associated with financial reporting quality. Additionally, I find limited evidence that external auditors with more expertise and auditor selection (a closer office within the same audit firm) can partially mitigate the negative effects of workplace disruptions on financial reporting quality. Both mitigating effects are present in companies that relocate headquarters by a distance of 100 kilometers or greater. This study is relevant to financial reporting research, given the increasing frequency of workplace disruptions.
    • Works for Solo piano and chamber ensemble with piano of Paul Schoenfield

      Sloan, Ronald (The University of Arizona., 1980)
      Paul Schoenfield is currently composer in residence at the University of Toledo. He is a composer of music for virtually all media, but has a special affinity for music of his own instrument, the piano. His works have been performed in concerts throughout the United State and Europe, broadcast on network television, and heard on recordings. As is often the case with today's serious composers, his abilities are channeled into musical areas besides composition. He has had a distinguished performing career, appearing as soloist with orchestras throughout the United States and in solo and chamber recitals throughout the United States and Europe. He has won numerous major competitions including the Leonard Bernstein Competition, National Young Artist's Award, and the Southwest Pianist's Foundation Competition. As a university professor he has taught a variety of courses encompassing the spectrum of music curriculum: composition, piano, music literature, analysis, counterpoint, chamber music, and music education.
    • World Englishes and the Teaching of English as an International Language: Indonesian Teachers’ Perspectives and Professional Development Experiences

      Short, Kathy; Juwariyah, Siti; Kayi-Aydar, Hayriye; Reinhardt, Jonathon; Matsuda, Aya (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      This study examined teachers’ perspectives and professional development experiences about the teaching of English as an International language (TEIL) in relation to World Englishes (WE) at junior high school levels in Indonesia. Considering the growth of the number of English speakers around the world, it has been argued that WE-based TEIL is more realistic and relevant (Kachru & Nelson, 2006; Kirkpatrick, 2007; Matsuda, 2002, 2018). Accordingly, efforts have been done to challenge the standard English hegemony such as through teacher education programs. However, previous research focused primarily on pre-service teachers through teacher preparation programs at higher education levels. There were limited studies investigating in-service teachers’ professional development experiences, especially in relation to World Englishes and at junior high school levels in Indonesia. Meanwhile, professional development has been deemed important for in-service teachers as the content in pre-service education is usually limited and there are educational as well as pedagogical changes that in-service teachers need to constantly respond over time (Richards & Farrell, 2005). Considering how relevant and significant WE-based TEIL is, it is also crucial to update in-service teachers with such knowledge. Hence, this study was aimed at exploring and understanding teachers’ views on WE-based TEIL including their professional development experiences and use of social media in its implementation at Indonesian junior high schools. A mixed methods research design, in which both quantitative and qualitative data were collected in two phases of study (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2017), was used to answer three research questions: 1) What are teachers’ perspectives on incorporating World Englishes into the teaching of English as an international language at the junior high school level in Indonesia?, 2) How have teachers used social media as potential resources to incorporate World Englishes into the teaching of English as an international language at the junior high school level in Indonesia?, and 3) How have teachers experienced professional development in relation to English teaching in general and the incorporation of World Englishes in particular? 64 teachers joining a local English teacher forum participated in the online survey in the first phase, and 6 focal teachers were selected for the second phase, in which observations, focus group discussion, and interviews were used to collect the data. The quantitative data from the survey were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The qualitative data from the survey, observations, focus group discussion, and interviews were triangulated and coded to identify themes and patterns in the data. The findings show that English language teaching at Indonesian junior high school levels was quite complex. While teachers acknowledged the importance of WE-based TEIL, they did not find it urgent to prioritize because they did not feel knowledgeable enough about WE and also because they were facing other problems as English teachers. In addition, even though teachers benefitted from using social media especially in locating WE materials, they could not really maximize it due to the insufficient institutional and technological support. Furthermore, the professional development that they have experienced has never focused on World Englishes. In fact, teachers’ professional development experiences did not address some of their problems and challenges in English teaching in general. Hence, the findings of this study generate some pedagogical implications and suggestions for future research in hopes to improve teacher professional development experiences about English teaching in general and in relation to WE in particular as well as to understand the issues in a broader scope in Indonesian contexts.
    • A World of Cures: Magic and Medicine in Colonial Yucatán

      Gosner, Kevin M.; Kashanipour, Ryan Amir; Few, Martha; Barickman, Bert J.; Gosner, Kevin M. (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      The Yucatán, sixteenth-century Spaniards declared, was tierra enferma (infirmed land) as the destruction of diseases regularly consumed the region. Spaniards, Mayas, Africans, and people of mixed ancestry all fell victim to the cycles of disaster. The shared experiences of disease provided a context for deep lived connections for all. This dissertation examines the beliefs, practices, and relationships related to sickness and healing in the Yucatán from the late-sixteenth century to the late-eighteenth century. At the core of this project are questions about the production and circulation of medical knowledge. How, for instance, did ideas of the natural and supernatural world migrate between supposedly distinct social groups? Why did magical remedies related to the social body whither while unorthodox practices related to the physical body thrive? And how did healing breakdown colonial barriers of ethnicity and status? By exploring matters related to the body, sickness, and healing, this project unveils the complex everyday interactions of a society constantly threatened by disaster. The practices of healing represented the everyday modes of cooperation that operated in direct contrast to the idealized structures of colonial life. Dealing with the intimate relations of healing positions, this work bridges the distinct sub disciplines of cultural and intellectual history. Revealed here are the fundamental limitations of socially-constructed notions of distinction and authority, such as colonial visions of calidad (color), clase (class), and costumbre (culture). The interwoven ideas of status, race, and culture reinforced colonial divisions that tied directly into institutions of exploitation, such as the systems of slavery, tribute, and religious instruction. Nevertheless, my analysis illustrates that on the day-to-day level inhabitants of the Yucatán frequently drew deep connections that cut across idealized divides. Instead of being separated by race, they were united in healing the ills of the colonial experience. And in this manner, the people of the Yucatán created a system of healing that empowered the subjugated, particularly the enslaved and colonized. As such, this project moves from a basic assumption of the commonality of disease to explore the social and intellectual ties of everyday experience in the early-modern Spanish Atlantic World.