Now showing items 2026-2045 of 20306

    • Building Bridges Between Households And School Through Parent Involvement: A Qualitative Approach

      Arenas, Alberto; Peterson, Melissa; Arenas, Alberto; Bennett, Jeffrey; Reyes, Iliana; Taylor, John (The University of Arizona., 2008)
      This study investigated the actual and potential role that cultural resources embedded in Latino households are incorporated into parental participation in schooling practices. By examining various aspects of parental involvement that exist at a particular school site in the Southwest United States - including the various manifestations of the involvement, the enabling and sustaining factors for parental participation - and the challenges and possibilities for improvement of parental participation, this study aimed to provide a framework for how to authentically engage the participation of Latino parents within the school setting.A qualitative approach was selected as the primary methodological perspective, which included ethnographic interviewing based on Funds of Knowledge research (Moll, 2004) and action research as a participant observer being utilized for data collection. Observations of parent activity at the school were conducted over a three-month period at a school setting called "parent room", which served as a meeting place for parent volunteers to work, socialize, and attend classes. Twelve parents were interviewed to determine the kinds of skills parent volunteers employ through parental involvement at the school and whether or not these skills can be categorized as Funds of Knowledge. Six staff members were interviewed to establish a history of parental involvement at the school as well as to establish an understanding of the role of the parent room.The researcher presents results on parent involvement in a school setting that includes a space specific to the needs and work of parent volunteers. The parent room scenario, which has previously not been included in parent involvement research in schools, is determined to be a valuable and viable possibility for schools wishing to increase parental involvement by immigrant and minority parents or those parents who are generally uncomfortable in the traditional classroom setting. The framework and results advance our understanding of the complexities of parent involvement in school and provide a foundation for incorporating families' Funds of Knowledge into the function and organization of schools.
    • Building bridges: Case studies in literacy and deafness

      Anders, Patty; Antia, Shirin; Bowen, Sandra Kay (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      Reading is an area that has concerned educators who work with students who are deaf or hard of hearing for many years. Studies from the 1960s to the present have concluded that students who are deaf read at lower levels than their hearing counterparts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reading strategies used by students who are deaf, as they comprehend the written text. This study focuses on the strengths of individual students who are deaf, as they realize their potential as efficient readers and writers of a language they cannot hear. Qualitative case study research design initiated and guided this investigation. Through observations, interviews, and miscue analysis, I investigated two students' reading strategies. I was interested in the students' perspectives of their reading strategies, reading strengths, and thoughts about the reading process. Using constant comparative method of reading, organizing, and coding the data, an understanding of the students' reading strategies developed. A significant implication from this study is that students who are deaf use similar reading strategies as students with normal hearing in each of the three reading comprehension categories, predicting, sampling, and confirming. However, findings also and translation of the text from English to ASL, to assist their comprehension. Further research into each of these areas is warranted.
    • Building Economic Efficiency into Multicast Content Delivery Networks

      Zhang, Beichuan; Khare, Varun; Hartman, John; Moon, Bongki; Gniady, Chris; Zhang, Beichuan (The University of Arizona., 2011)
      Internet-scale dissemination of streaming contents (e.g. live sport games) is most successfully being provided by Multicast Content Delivery Networks (Multicast CDN). Multicast CDN is composed of dedicated servers placed strategically over the Internet, which forward content from origin site to end users. Multicast CDN delivers huge amount of data traffic, and therefore its major operational cost is the ISP cost for network access. Existing Multicast CDNs route user requests to most suitable server based on application performance, such as network delay, server throughput, Internet path congestion etc., without taking into account the potentially high ISP cost it may incur. Multicast CDNs need to control their ISP cost to remain commercially competitive since ISP cost is the most indicative factor affecting the pricing of their services. In this work, we present novel Multicast CDN Request Routing algorithms that minimize ISP cost while still maintaining good network performance for users. Multicast CDN Request Routing algorithms control majority of traffic assigned to servers and therefore directly impacts the ISP cost. ISP cost and user network performances are orthogonal metrics of performance and in order to balance the trade-off between them we introduce overall delay as a constraint to the Multicast CDN Request Routing algorithm. Multicast CDNs are business customers of ISPs and therefore can independently choose to reduce their bills by considering the ways in which ISPs charge. We have designed Request Routing algorithms that exploit the economy of scale in ISP charging function in assigning users to servers. We have developed Request Routing algorithms that exploit the nature of Percentile-based charging used by ISPs to compute the charging volume for traffic generated at server sites. Multicast CDN can cooperate with ISPs to reduce the operational cost of both the parties. Multicast CDN controls how traffic is redirected on the overlay, and that can conflict with how underlying ISPs want the traffic to be forwarded. We have developed Request Routing algorithms that assign users to servers that are available over cheaper IP routes. This reduces the transmission costs for ISPs and these savings can be transferred onto Multicast CDN.
    • Building fuzzy front-end decision support systems for new product information in global telecommunication markets: A measure theoretical approach

      Ram, Sudha; Liginlal, Divakaran (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      In today's highly competitive business environment, innovation and new product introduction are recognized as the sustaining forces of corporate success. The early phases of new product development, collectively known as the 'front-end', are crucial to the success of new products. Building a fuzzy front-end decision support system, balancing the needs for analytical soundness and model robustness while incorporating decision-maker's subjectivity and adaptability to different business situations, is a challenging task. A process model and a structural model focusing on the different forms of uncertainties involved in new product introduction in a global telecommunication market are presented in this dissertation. Fuzzy measure theory and fuzzy set theory are used to build a quantitative model of the executive decision-process at the front-end. Solutions to the problem of exponential complexity in defining fuzzy measures are also proposed. The notion of constrained fiizzy integrals demonstrates how the fuzzy measure-theoretical model integrates resource allocation in the presence of project interactions. Forging links between business strategies and expert evaluations of critical success factors is attempted through fuzzy rule-based techniques in the framework of the proposed model. Interviews with new product managers of several American business firms have confirmed the need for building an intelligent front-end decision support system for new product development. The outline of a fuzzy systems development methodology and the design of a proof-of-concept prototype serve as significant contributions of this research work toward this end. In the context of executive decision making, a usability inspection of the prototype is carried out and results are discussed. A computational analysis, based upon methods of tactical systems simulation, measures the rank order consistency of the fuzzy measure theoretical approach in comparison with two competing fuzzy multiple attribute decision models under structural variations of the underlying models. The results demonstrate that (1) the modeling of the fuzzy numbers representing the linguistic variables, (2) the selection of the granularity of the linguistic scales, and (3) the selection of the model dimensions significantly affect the quality of the decisions suggested by the decision aid. A comprehensive plan for future validation of the decision aid is also presented.
    • Building industries: Collective action problems and institutional solutions in the development of the United States aviation industry, 1903-1938

      Powell, Walter W.; McFadden, Thomas William (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      The following research seeks to understand the effects of competition and regulation on the development of new industries. Specifically, the issue of whether or not laissez faire markets best promote industry growth and good economic performance is investigated. This work challenges prevailing neoclassical economic assumptions regarding the efficacy of competition and unfettered markets. Drawing on lines of research in economic sociology, institutional analysis, and organizational theory, I examine how public and private regulatory agencies, including states and associations, are used by firms to facilitate cooperation and organize economic activity. Contrary to prevailing neoclassical economic assumptions, I find that regulatory institutions are not necessarily a means of denying competitors access to markets, inflating prices, and gouging consumers, but rather a means by which economic actors overcome problems of collective action. Unfettered competition, I find, thwarts the growth and development of new industries that rely upon inputs that possess "collective goods properties", specifically, technical knowledge and a legitimate reputation. This research is historical and comparative. I study the development of America's aviation industry over the period 1903--1938. This period marks the birth of the industry through its rise to early maturity. Competitive pressures to control key technologies and develop appropriate standards for the use of aircraft created problems of collective action that undermined the fledgling industry's ability to establish viable markets for its goods and services. Industry members found they were unable to manage their proprietary activities through unfettered markets and private firms and, thus, turned to more cooperative arrangements to govern their economic affairs. Producers formed an association to pool their patented technology, solve free-rider problems, pursue uniform regulatory measures for the operation of aircraft, and conduct a national campaign to make the public "airminded". Not until these institutional arrangements were established did America's aviation industry move beyond its nascent stage of development and begin to experience good economic performance.
    • Building New Tools for Measuring and Analyzing Dopaminergic Signaling Using Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry

      Heien, Michael L.; Siegenthaler, James; Saavedra, S Scott; Aspinwall, Craig A.; Monti, Oliver LA (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      To better understand the brain and how it communicates, we need to build tools that can quantify neurochemical signaling. By understanding brain function, new treatments can be developed for neurodegenerative diseases and disorders. In addition, by gaining insight into the inner workings of the brain, we can answer fundamental questions regarding learning, memory, and behavior. In this dissertation, several new tools for neurotransmitter measurement and analysis will be discussed. A new method, alternating current-coupled voltammetry has been developed, making in vivo neurotransmitter measurements safe for the subject, and moving fast-scan cyclic-voltammetry (FSCV) towards FDA compliance. A measurement and software platform was developed that expands the capabilities of FSCV, and fast-scan controlled-adsorption voltammetry (FSCAV). This new system not only allows for FSCV and FSCAV measurements to occur simultaneously, allowing for the measurement of both tonic and phasic signaling but also expands the instrumentation to allow for more individually addressable electrodes for neurotransmitter measurement. The system can also measure multiple neurotransmitters with different waveforms on discrete electrodes which previously was limited. Data analysis for FSCV was also expanded by the application of machine learning in automated neurotransmitter identification. We built classification and regression models to interpret and quantify unknown raw voltammetric data without input from the operator. Lastly, commonly used carbon-fibers in microelectrodes were studied to determine the structure-function relationship between the chemical properties of each, for application selection. Together these new tools are an important advancement in neuroanalytical instrumentation by enabling multi-region analysis, and automated identification of chemical species.
    • Building on a borrowed past: History, place, and identity in Pipestone, Minnesota

      Garcia, Juan R.; Southwick, Sally Jo (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      This dissertation focuses on Pipestone, Minnesota, which provides an important example of the process of creating and localizing national identity. Founded in 1874, the town derived its name from the nearby pipestone quarries, a traditional excavation site for regional tribes. In the early nineteenth century George Catlin's artistic representations made the area famous and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poetic interpretations of tribal mythology offered a romantic Indian past that appealed to industrializing America. This study proposes that the town's founders accepted the popular perceptions of the quarries' significance to the tribes--particularly the symbol of the "peacepipe" and its source in sacred ground--and actively employed related tribal imagery to create local identity and to promote the town on state and national levels. Emphasis on the quarries as unique and central to America's Indian heritage helped Pipestone attract railroad lines, a federal Indian boarding school in the 1890s, and a national monument in the 1930s to protect the quarries and to attract tourists. This dissertation traces the development of Pipestone from Catlin's early influential images of the quarries and tribes to the first productions of the town's annual "Song of Hiawatha" pageant in the 1940s and 1950s. Since the town's inception its residents continuously adapted their conceptions of the quarries' Indian heritage in order to generate a usable past. This study analyzes the ways in which they used tribal and landscape imagery to encourage town growth, investment, tourism, and the legitimizing presence of the federal government, making Pipestone a nationally-known place and a self-professed "real American" town. Archival sources examined include local and regional newspapers, memoirs, town business, state, and railroad promotional literature, federal institutional documents, state histories, and publications by the county historical society. These sources provide evidence of how the town's residents produced and maintained Pipestone's image and how this local process illustrates Americans' search for historical identity.
    • The building principal and the professional knowledge of student teachers.

      Grant, Robert T.; Olson, Pennie Mack.; Sacken, Donal M.; Doyle, Walter (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      Current research on student teaching indicates a need to go beyond student teacher beliefs and expectations and relationships with supervisors to investigate the contexts and contents of student teacher socialization. This study used an interpretive paradigm to examine the influence of the principal on the knowledge about being a teacher that a student teacher acquired. Interviews with 24 student teachers across their student teaching semester were subjected to content analysis procedures in order to identify what student teachers reported about the professional and organizational facets of teaching which occur outside of classrooms and the influence of the principal on the acquisition of that knowledge. Contrasts were drawn between student teachers working in buildings with principals who had been sensitized to their needs and student teachers working in buildings where no special effort was made to influence the student teaching experience. Data were reordered and reanalyzed on the basis of student teachers' reports of their relationships with the principal. Results indicated that the group of student teachers who reported the greatest amount of knowledge was that group which also reported the most positive involvement with the principal. If the principal was actively involved with the student teachers, the student teachers were more knowledgeable about the professional and organizational facets of teaching and the school as a workplace than those student teachers who were placed in schools in which the principals were not actively involved. Merely providing information about student teachers was not enough to change the behavior of the principals; principals must be actively committed to assisting student teachers make the transition from student to teacher.
    • Building Relationships: (1) Unifying Observations and Simulations to Measure Dark Matter Accretion & (2) Inclusivity-Driven Designs for General-Education Astronomy Courses

      Behroozi, Peter; O'Donnell, Christine Anne; Marrone, Daniel P.; Prather, Edward E.; Rozo, Eduardo; Bauer, Amanda (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      My dissertation is a combination of two separate projects: Part I: Unifying Observations and Simulations to Measure Dark Matter Accretion Under the current paradigm for galaxy formation, galaxies grow in the centers of halos composed of dark matter. As a dark matter halo accretes more material, the halo’s gravitational potential well deepens, funneling gas into the central galaxy and potentially leading to galaxy growth. However, models of these processes predict very different correlations between dark matter accretion and galaxy star formation due to feedback processes such as winds from supernovae and supermassive black holes. By combining theoretical simulations with archival observational data, we present observational constraints on dark matter accretion in isolated Milky Way-mass galaxies. Our new techniques rely on the fact that the deepening of the halo’s gravitational potential will also have a strong and predictable impact the orbits of satellite galaxies, and so we can infer accretion rates from the observed distributions of satellite galaxies. Our results show that dark matter accretion and star formation in Milky Way-mass galaxies in the recent Universe ($z \sim 0$) are not positively correlated, thus favoring models that predict strong feedback suppresses fresh gas accretion, and so star formation in these galaxies is instead fueled by recycled gas. Future observational surveys and improvements to theoretical models will enhance our analysis by providing a larger sample of galaxies from which to measure these correlations, as well as providing opportunities to constrain correlations between dark matter accretion and other galaxy properties, such as metallicity and presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Part II: Inclusivity-Driven Designs for General-Education Astronomy Courses General-education college astronomy courses offer instructors a unique audience and a unique challenge. For many students, such a course may be their first time encountering a standalone astronomy class, yet it is also likely one of the last science courses they will take. Thus, in a single semester, the primary goals of a general-education course include both imparting knowledge about the Universe and giving students some familiarity with science. In traditional course environments, students can compartmentalize information into separate "life files" and "course files" rather than integrating information into a coherent framework. Our project aims to transcend the boundary between those categories. Our strategy is to create an inclusive course that encourages and respects diverse points of view and empowers students to build connections between the course content and their personal lives and identities. Based on results from implementing these techniques in a general-education introductory cosmology course taught at the University of Arizona in Spring 2019, we present a set of guiding principles that can inform future course designs.
    • Building Servicescape Culture: Examining Social Order, Spatial Change, and Consumer Experience

      Wallendorf, Melanie; Godfrey, David Matthew; Schau, Hope J.; Bean, Jonathan; Abramson, Corey M. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Many mixed-use retail areas feature publicly-accessible spaces that facilitate community-oriented activities, such as craft fairs and concerts, alongside more conventional market-oriented activities, such as shopping and dining. Mixed-use development is growing rapidly by blending residential, commercial, and community uses and facilities within pedestrian-friendly sites. However, marketing theory and practice do not yet offer the conceptual or practical tools needed to understand how consumers and service providers interact in these emerging spaces. This dissertation examines the complex processes of spatial and social interaction that unfold over time in mixed-use retail centers. It does so at multiple levels. The first chapter examines how both consumers and service providers shape the social order that guides action within a mixed-use space. The second chapter studies how consumers experience the varied and heterogeneous blend of activities occurring within a mixed-use retail environment. The third chapter proposes a spatial analysis of the ways that farmers’ markets, which frequently serve to anchor mixed-use developments by facilitating both community- and market-oriented activities, shape urban social and economic change over time. Results demonstrate the ways that service providers and consumers use physical spaces to manage conflicts and shape patterns of activity over time. In a mixed-use retail environment, service providers and consumers utilize the physical environment to stabilize a social order that favors their own activities. However, any resulting order must still allow for multiple and often conflicting activities in order to maintain a perception of authentic participation. This perception masks underlying power relations and inequalities that structure the mixed-use environment. Achieving and maintaining this perception involves a delicate balance, in which social and economic power is deployed at the risk of alienating the creative, community-oriented people and activities that can distinguish a mixed-use retail space from its competitors. Results also show that, in mixed-use environments, consumers draw upon multiple cultural logics to understand how to act and how to interpret experiences. Co-present, heterogeneous activities can complement or conflict with each other, depending on ways that consumers employ cultural and material resources to construct their experiences. The final chapter builds a conceptual model and proposes an empirical examination of the ways that consumption sites shape urban change over multiple decades and across urban areas. It contributes to gentrification theory and to marketing and consumer research by studying the influence of farmers’ markets on multiple factors shown to influence gentrification. Taken together, the three chapters of this dissertation foreground the role of space and place in sociocultural consumer research and contribute theory that can guide future spatial research in marketing and consumer behavior.
    • Building solidarity: The process for metropolitan ChineseMuslims, 1912-1949

      Hedtke, Charles H.; Green, Sandra Aili (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      In the midst of revolution as the Qing Dynasty faded into the twentieth century, metropolitan Chinese Muslim leaders took initiatives in their communities, which shaped change. As a result, a process was set in motion, one that effected the identity of urban Chinese Muslims in more ways than one--within the new political scene nationally, internationally, and in regards to other Muslims in China. The process stimulated a self-awareness among Chinese Muslim urban populations, which promoted new perceptions of their identity as Hui. The process also triggered a debate among Chinese Muslim intellectuals in which ideas of minzu-ness, ethnicity, and religiosity were argued. The process fostered a sense of solidarity among the urban Muslim communities. Chinese Muslim activities paralleled those of other Chinese. Chinese Muslims took part in the New Culture Movement, many joined the army. At the same time they focused attention on improving their communities. This dissertation examines the activities of urban Chinese Muslims: the creation of study groups and associations; the revamping of Muslim schools; and the publishing of books and periodicals. The dissertation is a look at strategies used in adapting to change. The goal has been to illustrate that the Chinese Muslims accepted change, even welcomed it, but in so doing altered perceptions of themselves and their religion. The metropolitan Chinese Muslims got swept up in the enthusiasm of the early republican era. Many influential members of the community endorsed the Nationalists' revolution and the new republic. Chinese Muslim urbanites welcomed modernization and nationalism, seeing them as vehicles that would facilitate their efforts, and protect them. Chinese Muslim motives were nationalistic, as Chinese they wanted a strong China. Their motives were also parochial. They wanted a strong local community, and they actively set out to improve conditions. By strengthening their communities they could insure the survival of Chinese Muslim culture, just as a strong China would insure the survival of Chinese culture.
    • Building Technical Facility in Tuba and Euphonium Players through the Tuba-Euphonium Quartet

      Tropman, Matthew; McLean, Michael G.; Tropman, Matthew; Reid, Edward; Paiewonsky, Moises (The University of Arizona., 2016)
      In current tuba and euphonium writing there is considerable gap in technical difficulty between tuba-euphonium quartet literature and wind band literature for the secondary and collegiate musician. As the tuba and euphonium profession becomes ever more challenging, there is a great need to establish a curriculum for building technical facility. The importance of chamber music as a pedagogical tool is well documented and has been shown to develop technique, musicianship, and many other skills. There are a number of researchers whose work demonstrates the numerous benefits of including chamber music to students' education. However, because of the lack of small ensembles for tuba and euphonium players there is a need to utilize the tuba-euphonium quartet. This study provides a brief history of the tuba-euphonium quartet to give context to one of music's newer chamber groups. Selected works for both wind band and tuba-euphonium quartet are graded with a rubric to assign an appropriate difficulty level. An analysis of the selected works gives educators examples of how to take advantage of each work's unique technical aspects. Included in the appendices are grading breakdowns of fifty wind band compositions and forty-three tuba-euphonium quartet works.
    • Bullies, fights and guns: Self-control theory as an explanation for juvenile use of intimidation and violence

      England, Paula; Nofziger, Stacey Diane (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      Examinations of juvenile violence have largely been limited in both the scope of behaviors studied and the variety of theories used to explain these actions. This study addresses these issues by applying a test of Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) general theory of crime to an examination of a wide range of violent and intimidating acts. Specifically, the effects of self-control and opportunity on bullying, righting and weapon related behaviors are tested. This analysis finds that greater self-control, as measured by a combination of attitudinal and behavioral items, significantly decreases all forms of intimidation and violence examined. Similarly, greater opportunity, operationalized as a combination of parental supervision, participation in unstructured activities, and peer deviance, increases each form of behavior. In addition, each model provides support for the theoretically based hypothesis that greater self-control decreases opportunity. Therefore, this study provides a great deal of support for self-control theory.
    • Bullying Among Adolescents in Secondary Schools in Trinidad & Tobago

      Sulkowski, Michael; Bauman, Sheri; Jones, Marlon Byron; Yoon, Jina; Greenberg, Jeff (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      There is a dearth of existing research on the phenomenon of bullying among children in Trinidad and Tobago and the Caribbean region. This study used a cross-sectional design and convenience sampling to examine the frequency of various types of bullying (verbal, physical, relational, homophobic) among 489 adolescents (11-16 years of age) in seven secondary schools in Trinidad and Tobago. It was hypothesized that Trinidad and Tobago adolescents experienced more bullying than the global average (as so defined by the Global Bullying Database), and that verbal bullying was more prevalent than physical aggression. It was also hypothesized that participants would demonstrate low compassionate empathy for bully victims, that female participants would report more relational victimization than males, and that there would be a significant relationship between peer victimization, anxiety, and depression. Findings revealed that bullying rates in Trinidad and Tobago were lower than the global average, but within the expected range for the Caribbean region. Participants reported significantly more verbal bullying than physical bullying, with boys experiencing more homophobic teasing than girls. Girls reported significantly more relational victimization than boys. Low compassionate empathy attitudes towards victims of bullying were more prevalent, with a majority of participants sharing the belief that victims needed to learn to stand up for themselves. This study also found a strong relationship between bullying, anxiety, and depression, with male and female participants being at similar risk for poor mental health outcomes.
    • BUNYAVIRUS PERSISTENCE IN AEDES ALBOPICTUS CELL CULTURES.

      FLORKIEWICZ, ROBERT ZIGMOND.; Hall, Jennifer; Mendelson, Neil; Bourque, Dn; McReynolds, Larry (The University of Arizona., 1982)
      Some viruses which infect plants, animals and man are transmitted by an intermediary arthropod vector. The viruses for which this is true are termed arboviruses (Arthropod-borne-viruses). In many instances the virus delivered to the new host results in the establishment of a disease state and/or the death of the infected host. In all instances, however, the arthropod (invertebrate) vector is apparently unaffected by the virus it is carrying. One family of viruses which are transmitted to their vertebrate host via an arthropod vector is the virus family Bunyaviridae, in this dissertation specifically the viruses Inkoo and Uukuneimi are described. The characteristics of Inkoo and Uukuneimi growth in both vertebrate baby hamster kidney (BHK-21, WI2) and invertebrate Aedes albopictus (mosquito) cell cultures has been examined. Vertebrate cells supported, to a high titer, the growth of both Inkoo and Uukuneimi virus while Aedes albopictus cell cultures supported high titer growth of Inkoo but not Uukuneimi. In both cases, however, the vertebrate cells were killed as a cosequence of infection where as, the invertebrate infection did not result in cell death or in detectable cytopathic effect. The invertebrate cells infected with either Inkoo or Uukuneimi continue to grow and also continue to express virus specific (actinomycin D resistent) RNA synthesis. The virus infected invertebrate cells are characterized as being persistently infected because of their resistence to homologous virus superinfection and by detectable virus specific RNA synthesis. Virus released from the Inkoo persistently infected cells displays a heterogeneous plaque morphology as well as temperature sensitive virus plaque mutants. Virus particles released from the Inkoo persistently infected Aedes albopictus cells are considered defective interfering-like. The RNA profile both intracellularly and of released virus particles from the persistently infected cell cultures is different from that observed during vertebrate cell culture infections. Cell death resulted from infection of BHK-21 WI2 cells with virus from Inkoo persistently infected Aedes albopictus cell cultures. The virus plaque morphology and RNA profile is similar to standard virus infection of BHK-21 WI2 cells. The experiments with tissue culture virus-cell systems aids in understanding the natural transmission of arboviruses between the vertebrate-invertebrate portions of the arbovirus natural life-cycle.
    • The burden and the beast: An oracle of apocalyptic reform in early sixteenth-century Salzburg

      Oberman, Heiko A.; Milway, Michael Dean, 1957- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      This study investigates the relationship between apocalypticism, criticism of the church and ecclesiastical reform at the beginning of the sixteenth century. It focuses on Berthold Purstinger (1465-1543), bishop of Chiemsee (reg. 1508-1526), and forms a commentary on his apocalyptic treatise Onus ecclesiae (1519, 1524, 1531), about a demon-infested world in perilous times. Apocalypticism was more than a theological doctrine about the end of the world. It was a terrifying reality, the vestiges of which appeared in monstrous births, blood-red comets and horrific fires. Historians are only beginning to recognize the significance of apocalyptic thinking in late-medieval and early-modern Europe. This study challenges the assumption that apocalypticism grew deepest on the margins of society among radical sectarians. Purstinger was a conservative theologian and a respected bishop, at home in the heart of the church yet convinced of his place in the last days. Secondly, it shows that Purstinger's idea of reform was different from its late-medieval antecedents. He did not think of reform as the dawning of a "new era" before the end of time, nor as the healthy transformation of Christendom "in head and members." For Purstinger, reform and apocalypse were one an the same. He awaited the return of Christ, who, at the end of time, would reform the militant church as the triumphant church. Thirdly, this dissertation argues that anticlericalism in Purstinger's apocalyptic world was a preparation for reform, not only, as hitherto conceived, a manifestation of discontent that sparked reform efforts in reaction. Purstinger criticized the world because Christ was coming to judge it, and because God directed the faithful during the last days to criticize the abysmal lapse. The watchword admonition on the title-page of Onus ecclesiae is the bellicose statement from Ezekiel: "Go make war ... and start at my sanctuary" (Ezek. 9:5). That is to say, on the eve of the apocalypse, anticlericalism fed in part on God's injunction to the forerunners of Christ. Their criticism was a prelude to judgment--to the reformatio Christi.
    • Burn as soon as read: Love and negotiation in the correspondence of Isabel Mantz and John Dice Johnson.

      Mahoney, Deirdre Marie; Miller, Thomas; Warnock, Tilly; Nolte Temple, Judy (The University of Arizona., 1995)
      The love letters written by Isabel Mantz and her intended mate shortly before the outbreak of the Civil War help construct an emerging field of the local histories of "ordinary" women in rhetoric. Personal forms of discourse such as the letters written by Isabel Mantz represent alternative rhetorics, texts which privilege the personal, the private, the fragmented, and the autobiographical. Love letters, specifically, represent a rhetorical mode that has remained virtually ignored to date. The correspondence composed by Isabel Mantz allows today's audience entrance into a particular historical moment in which a young woman revealed her expectations and desires as she maneuvered within the institutions of mid-nineteenth-century courtship rituals, literacy practices, educational opportunities, and dominant female health-practice ideology. The ways in which Isabel Mantz used the love letter to negotiate a relationship in its infancy, to create a sustaining relationship in print, and ultimately, in the final stages of the courtship, to textualize her identity through her own writing process are examined in full detail. This study suggests that women have effectively used language as a heuristic for situating themselves in both the private and public spheres of the period as they have simultaneously used their written discourse as a heuristic for inventing and expressing themselves.
    • The bush is sweet: Identity and desire among the WoDaaBe in Niger

      Park, Thomas K.; Loftsdóttir, Kristín, 1968- (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      The dissertation focuses on the WoDaaBe Fulani in Niger, seeking to understand identity in a global context, analyzing streams of power and desire that have characterized the life of the WoDaaBe. The first part of the dissertation discusses expressions of WoDaaBe identities and desires in the contemporary world, as well as identifying the present situation of the WoDaaBe as one of great marginality. The WoDaaBe ethnic identity is created through processes of exclusion and inclusion within social and natural environments. The WoDaaBe perceive themselves as both separated from and a part of nature, depending on the context in which their identification is placed. They maintain strong boundaries from other ethnic groups in Niger, through specific visual markers of identity and by identifying WoDaaBe-ness as attached to certain moral qualifies that are combined with various social practices. The ideas of herding and control of one's feelings and desires remain key symbols in WoDaaBe social and ethnic identity. Many young WoDaaBe work in cities because they lack animals for basic subsistence in the bush, thus negotiating their identity in these new circumstances. The second part of the dissertation traces the history of WoDaaBe involvement in an interconnected world, showing that WoDaaBe have been connected to State and global processes for a long time. Various factors have led to an expansion of cultivated land, pushing herding communities further north and reducing available grazing land. While the WoDaaBe are becoming increasingly marginalized within the national economy of Niger, they have become popular in the West as symbols of the "native." Similarities can be observed between the dominant development ideology's conception of the typical herder and of the popular imagination of the WoDaaBe, characterizing them as unproductive, traditional and simple. The WoDaaBe representation is placed in a broad historical context of images of the Other, demonstrating that the encounters between WoDaaBe and Westerners take place within fields of unequal power relations.
    • Business as usual: Factors influencing collection development and management of business information resources in borderlands public libraries

      Seavey, Charles; Alexander, Gwendolyn (The University of Arizona., 2001)
      The purpose of this research is to define grounded theoretical models about factors that influence collection development and collection management of business information resources in public libraries. The study is based on data collected from a multi-site case study of public libraries along the U.S.-Mexico border where there is a critical need for information on starting and expanding small businesses. A framework of structuration theory and cultural hegemony theory informs an analysis of the data. This paper relates to the relevant literature and sets forth implications for research, practice, and further discussion. The three main categories identified from coding the data are library location, modes of production and distribution of business information resources, and the degree of external stakeholder pressure on library business collections. Three model statements defined and supported by the data are: (1) the attributes of funding, librarian qualifications, access to information and communication technologies, size and qualities of the business community, and client expectations that influence business collection development are related to library location in metropolitan or rural areas; (2) new practices in the production of content, formats, and modes of distribution of business materials are more problematic for small libraries due to limited information and communication technology (ICT) devices and insufficient professional training; and (3) external influences and initiatives, such as federal, state, and foundation programs, have more of an impact on business collection development in small libraries than in large libraries. The various properties of these factors are discussed with a focus on how daily routine, tacit awareness, and expectations draw on structural rules and resources to produce and reproduce, or change, library systems and their business collections. The consequences of location in metropolitan or rural areas are identified, and mitigating strategies are suggested. External influences and new modes of production and distribution of business information are implicated in supporting the cultural hegemony of globalization by encouraging the introduction and use of ICTs in public libraries; however, use of ICTs to expand the business collection is dependent upon librarian interest and abilities as well as competing demands for scarce resources.
    • BUSINESS MODELING SYSTEMS: COMPARING LEARNING PERFORMANCE AND IDENTIFYING LEARNING COMPLEXITIES

      SEARS, JAY ALLEN (The University of Arizona., 1982)
      Information system professionals need methods to systematically obtain data about interactive computer systems from the users' perspective. This research was concerned with business modeling systems and measuring the performance of subjects learning fundamental operations of the system through training and actual "hands-on" use. The objective was to develop a methodology to measure and evaluate two specific systems: IFPS and VISICALC; to compare subjects' performance in building simple financial projection models and in using the models to answer questions; and to identify learning difficulties associated with the systems. Subjects were business school students with no previous business modeling system experience. Formal measurement was made of the time taken to complete three planning tasks through use of the system. The model user was also the model builder. Performance in decision making was not investigated. Informal observations were made about difficulties the subjects encountered when learning the system. Subjects received two hours of classroom instruction and approximately one hour of "hands-on" training with a specific system. Then under controlled laboratory conditions, they individually demonstrated their ability to use the system. The type and frequency of errors made was also recorded. Subjects were required to use the system until they had completed all tasks correctly. Subjects using IFPS completed tasks in a shorter time than those using the positional system VISICALC. The research methodology was successful in providing feedback for training and design modifications, and also provided for a successful comparison of differences in learning performance when analyzing the effects of previous experience and type of system. Results showed a wide range of performance by subjects, even though they had similar backgrounds. Results suggest that a keyword system is easier to learn for novice users who are learning the fundamental operations of a business modeling system.