Now showing items 2086-2105 of 20421

    • CALIBRATION OF AN OPTICAL POWER SPECTRA MEASUREMENT DEVICE

      Cheatham, Patrick S. (The University of Arizona., 1976)
    • Calibration of psychological measures: An illustration of three quantitative methods

      Sechrest, Lee; McKnight, Patrick Everett, 1966- (The University of Arizona., 1997)
      The scores or metrics from psychological measures are rarely interpretable. Uninterpretable metrics result in poorly understood psychological research findings. In response to this problem, several methods are proposed that render metrics more meaningful. The methods employed are calibration procedures. Three calibration procedures are illustrated that prove to be extremely powerful in making the metrics of two related measures more understandable. Establishing the behavioral implications of the scores, computing just noticeable differences, and calibrating between measures are the three procedures described and illustrated. For the purposes of illustration, two measures of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are used in the calibration procedures. These two measures are often used interchangeably without regard to their relationship with one another. The three procedures and the results of each are discussed in detail.
    • Call versus continuous auctions: An experimental study of market organization.

      Smith, Vernon L.; Van Boening, Mark Virgil.; Cox, James C.; Oaxaca, Ronald L. (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      The results from 17 new experiments and 19 previously reported experiments are compared in an investigation of call and continuous auctions. The call auction used is the computerized PLATO sealed bid/offer (SBO), uniform price auction. The continuous auction used is the PLATO double auction (DA), a computerized version of the "open outcry" double auction. The SBO call auction has temporal consolidation of market orders and has limited information about trading activity. The continuous DA auction is characterized by sequential bilateral trades, and trading information (bids, offers, and prices) is publicly displayed. The paper first explores the effect of multiple crossings per trading period in the SBO call auction. Next, a comparison of SBO and DA is made, based on market experiments using flow supply and demand schedules. The institutional comparison is then extended to experimental asset markets. The results imply the following. First, multiple calls per period increase the efficiency of the SBO call auction, relative to one call per period, but they also induce greater misrepresentation of costs and values in the first crossing each period. Buyers and sellers also withhold units from the first crossing in a further attempt to gain strategic advantage. However, neither the withholding nor the misrepresentation appears to have any substantial influence on price. Second, the SBO auction with two calls per period is as efficient as the DA auction. In markets with a random competitive equilibrium (CE) each period, the SBO auction does a better job than DA at tracking the random CE price. Thus the SBO auction is equally as efficient as the DA, and has the further attributes of lower price volatility and greater privacy. Third, in laboratory asset markets, the SBO auction exhibits price bubbles similar to those observed in DA markets. Price dynamics in the two institutions are comparable, despite the stark differences in order flow and information dissemination.
    • THE CALL-RISK PROTECTION OF THE SEASONED ISSUE

      Joehnk, Michael D. (The University of Arizona., 1971)
    • The calpain system and postmortem tenderization in ovine meat from callipyge and normal phenotypes

      Marchello, John A.; Delgado, Eduardo Francisquine (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      In an attempt to further our understanding of the relationship between the calpain system and postmortem tenderization, three muscles [biceps femoris (BF), infraspinatus (IS), and longissimus (LD)] from normal (N = 6) and callipyge (N = 6) sheep were studied. Callipyge is a genetic phenomenon where carriers of the callipyge gene present a hypertrophy of pelvic and torso muscles, such that BF and LD are affected while IS is not. It has been observed characteristically that calpastatin and m-calpain activities are increased in muscles of animals affected by the callipyge phenotype. Soluble calpain and calpastatin, and myofibril-bound μ-calpain activities, and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) were determined at death, 1d, 3d and 10d postmortem. Sarcomere length was determined at 1d and 10d postmortem. Shear force of the longissimus muscle was determined at 1d, 3d and 10d postmortem. Western blots for calpastatin, μ-calpain, desmin, nebulin, titin, troponin-T and α-actinin were performed to follow the degradation pattern of those proteins. The calpastatin and m-calpain activities were more than two-fold greater in BF and LD muscles from callipyge than in the same muscles from normal animals. Calpastatin activities in infraspinatus muscle from normal animals were higher than in the other two muscles of this phenotype. Soluble μ-calpain activities were higher at death for normal phenotype in BF and IS muscles and it decreased rapidly during postmortem storage. However, the rate of this decrease in that activity was faster in normal than in callipyge phenotype. Myofibrils contained calcium dependent protease activity and this activity was inhibited by cysteine proteases inhibitors and by calpastatin to some degree. There was no difference in the myofibril-calcium dependent protease activity between phenotypes at any time postmortem, presenting lower activity at death. The magnitude of protein degradation and tenderization were assessed by MFI and shear force, respectively. Neither the MFI nor shear force changed appreciably during storage of the callipyge affected muscles. Calpastatin level seems to determine the rate of postmortem tenderization.
    • Calpains in skeletal muscle: Generation of an inhibitory overexpression system and analysis of degradation in simulated microgravity

      Antin, Parker B.; Grill, Mischala Ann (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      Muscle atrophy is a serious side effect seen with extended time in space. Proteolytic degradation of specific muscle proteins leads to smaller, weaker muscles that are structurally more susceptible to damage. Calpains are proteases that specifically degrade target proteins of the myofibril, and have been implicated in many types of muscle atrophy. Calpain activity is regulated by a combination of activation by calcium and inhibition by calpastatin, its endogenous inhibitor. This dissertation describes the generation of a skeletal muscle-specific, doxycycline (Dox) controlled, calpastatin over-expression system in transgenic mice to regulate calpain activity. A dual construct system, the transactivator line utilizes an optimized tet-on system and a modified muscle creatine kinase promoter to create muscle specific expression of a tet transactivator. The second transgenic line, consisting of a bi-directional promoter centered on a tet responder element controlling both a luciferase reporter gene and a tagged calpastatin, is transcriptionally silent until activated by a dox induced transactivator molecule. Compound hemizygous mice showed high level, Dox dependent, muscle-specific overexpression of luciferase and transgenic calpastatin, demonstrating the effectiveness and flexibility of the tet-on system to provide a tightly regulated overexpression system in adult skeletal muscle. Consistent overexpression of calpastatin was hard to maintain, however, and not all of the proposed experiments could be achieved. Additional studies compared the degradation of hindlimb suspended mouse muscle proteins (weightlessness model) to those of ground control muscle proteins briefly incubated in Ca²⁺ (to initiate calpain degradation). Four proteins known as targets for calpain degradation were selected for analysis. Degradation responses of myofibrillar proteins titin, nebulin, and troponin T in hindlimb suspension clearly mimicked that seen with the calcium incubations. The cytoskeletal calpain target protein, desmin, however did not respond the same to both treatments showing moderate degradation with calcium and no degradation with hindlimb suspension. These data suggest that myofibrillar calpain target proteins, but not necessarily cytoskeletal proteins, are rapidly targeted for degradation in hindlimb suspension in a manner similar to that induced by calcium, implicating calpain as a mediator of this degradation.
    • The Cambrian and Devonian carbonate rocks at Yampai Cliffs, Mohave County, Arizona

      Wood, William Hulbert, 1911- (The University of Arizona., 1955)
    • Campus activism: Studying change as it is being created Gender, the Internet, and organizational structure in a student anti-sweatshop group

      Slaughter, Sheila; Ginter, Mary Beth (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      In this case study of an Anti-Sweatshop Group, on the campus of a university in the southwest, I present findings related to gender, the Internet and organizational structure and discuss these in connection with the group's mission, behaviors, activities and perceptions. This is an exploratory, qualitative case study that spanned nine-months of ethnographic field work. Through interviews, participation and observation of group meetings throughout a nine-month period, and analysis of over 1000+ listserve emails from that same period of time, I explored the lived experiences of a campus activist group and learned how they perceived gender issues, Internet usage and organizational structure.
    • Campylobacter jejuni in gastroenteritis: Detection and mechanisms of intracellular survival

      Joens, Lynn A.; Day, William Alan, 1964- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      The fastidious bacterium Campylobacter jejuni has recently been identified as a leading cause of human bacillary enteritis. Delays in recognition of this important pathogen reflect inadequate isolation techniques, which cannot recover environmentally stressed viable but non-culturable forms. Therefore, a non-culture based detection systems for C. jejuni would be invaluable. Studies were undertaken to develop a PCR based detection assay for C. jejuni. Fingerprints enriched for repetitive C. jejuni chromosomal elements were generated using arbitrarily primed PCR. Dot blot screening of fingerprint products for specificity to C. jejuni identified a 496 bp product which hybridized with all C. jejuni isolates examined. No binding to other Campylobacter species or enteric genera screened was observed. The product was cloned, sequenced, and primers synthesized to three overlapping regions of the probe. A primer pair was identified which directs amplification of a 265 bp product from C. jejuni alone. Sensitivity studies demonstrated that the C. jejuni specific PCR generated product from as few as 100 lysed bacteria. The ability of C. jejuni to penetrate normally non-phagocytic host cells is believed to be a key virulence determinant. Kinetics of C. jejuni of intracellular survival have been described and indicate that the bacterium can persist and multiply within epithelial cells and macrophages in vitro. Studies by Pesci et al. demonstrate that super-oxide dismutase contributes to intra-epithelial cell survival, suggesting that bacterial factors which combat reactive oxygen species enable the organism to persist inside host cells. Experiments were conducted to determine the contribution of catalase to C. jejuni intracellular survival. The gene encoding catalase (katA) was cloned via functional complementation, sequenced, and isogenic katA mutant strains constructed. Kinetic studies of bacterial viability indicate that catalase provides resistance to hydrogen peroxide in vitro but does not have a role in intra-epithelial cell survival as growth curves for katA mutant and wild type strains generated from long term culture within HEp-2 cells are roughly identical. Catalase does however contribute to intra-macrophage survival as katA mutants were recovered from cultured peritoneal macrophages at significantly reduced numbers (p = 0.00246) relative to the wild type strain after 72 hr incubation with these cells.
    • CAN ISLAM AND DEMOCRACY COEXIST? A CROSS-NATIONAL ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC INSTITUTIONS IN THE MUSLIM WORLD

      Kurzer, Paulette; Achilov, Dilshod; Kurzer, Paulette; Zheng, Zhiping; Ragin, Charles; Hudson, Leila (The University of Arizona., 2010)
      This dissertation investigates the extent to which between Islam and democracy are compatible in the Muslim world. While some scholars have argued that Islam is inherently incompatible with democracy many have found, in contrast, that Islam has many resources to accommodate a successful democratic state. If Islam is compatible with democratic governance at a doctrinal level, why then are the majority of Muslim countries largely authoritarian? To address this question, I introduce a refinement on this discrepancy by focusing on the coexistence of emerging Islamic institutions with democratic transitions in 49 Muslim-majority states. Traditionally, Islam has been operationalized as a "dichotomous" variable based on demographics or an "attitudinal" measure based on survey responses. Both measures have failed to account for an inherent variation of Islam's role across the Muslim world. I developed a new index to assess the variation in Islam factor across Muslim countries: Islamic Institutionalization Index (III). This new index avoids the shortcomings of the current approaches to quantifying "Islam" and captures the range of variation in Islamic Institutions across 49 countries by allowing scholars to gauge the density and level of Islam in each country. With the index I designed, I rely on three different levels of analysis to examine under which circumstances Islam and democracy can coexist. More precisely, by looking into three categories of Islamic institutions (educational, political, and financial), I raise the following question: "To what extent and in what levels do Islamic Institutions support the coexistence between Islam and Democracy?"Analyzing 49 Muslim-majority states, I utilize mixed methodology by using Configurational Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (FS/QCA) and focused case study analysis. FS-QCA offers an innovative and robust approach to identify configurationally complex factors while discerning the emerging patterns displayed by medium size (N=49) cases. To further explain the complex interplay of conditions, I focus on two case studies in greater detail: Kazakhstan and Turkey. I find a strong empirical association between the density and scope of Islamic political, educational and financial institutions and the existence of democratic norms (civil and political liberties and democratic institutions). Findings further suggest that Islamic institutions can coexist with civil and political liberties when governments allow Islamic institutionalization to function in society with no stern political restrictions. Among the three categories of III, Islamic states with higher levels of Islamic political institutions manifest particularly higher levels of democracy. Conversely, states that ban the emergence of a range of Islamic institutions in politics, education, and interest-free banking exhibit low levels of freedom and stunted democratic institutions.
    • Can Purchases Make Us Happier? Perhaps, if We Tell Others about Them

      Brucks, Merrie; Bastos, Wilson; Levy, Sidney J.; Janakiraman, Narayan; Stone, Jeff; Mehl, Matthias (The University of Arizona., 2013)
      The question of what type of purchase (i.e., experiential vs. material) typically advances more happiness has been answered (Van Boven and Gilovich, 2003). This dissertation employed three different manipulation methods across six studies to investigate what underlies this effect. A consistent pattern of results demonstrated that verbal sharing (i.e., telling others) helps explain the superiority of experiential purchases in advancing happiness. Moreover, I found that people's greater inclination to share about their experiential (vs. material) purchases is driven by their expectation of being more highly regarded by their listeners. Taken together, these findings shed light on a behavioral (i.e., sharing) and psychological process (i.e., expected regard) that help us understand why experiences make people happier than do material objects.
    • Can Semantic Activation Affect Figure Assignment?

      Peterson, Mary A.; Mojica, Andrew Joseph; Peterson, Mary A.; Scalf, Paige; Ryan, Lee (The University of Arizona., 2014)
      Figure assignment entails competition between object properties on opposite sides of borders. The figure is perceived on the side of the border that wins the competition. Ample evidence indicates that configural familiarity is among the competing object properties. We investigated whether priming the semantics of a familiar object suggested along one side of a border can increase its likelihood of winning the competition. To prime the semantics, we presented brief masked exposures of object names before brief masked exposures of displays where a portion of a familiar object was suggested on one side of a central border separating two equal-area, black-and-white regions. Participants reported whether the figure lay on the left or right side of the central border and were unaware of the presence of the word prime. These experimental primes named either the Same Object (SO) or a Different Object (DO) as the familiar object suggested in the display. In the DO condition, the word named an object either in the Same Category (DO-SC) or a Different Category (DO-DC) as the familiar object suggested in the display, where superordinate category was defined as natural versus artificial objects. We also used non-words as control primes. We hypothesized that, if semantic activation influences figure assignment, participants in the SO and DO-SC conditions should be more likely than participants in the DO-DC condition to perceive the figure on the side where the familiar object lies following experimental primes than control primes. We did not observe differences between experimental and control prime in any condition. However, we did obtain a Prime Context Effect, in that participants were more likely to perceive the figure on the familiar side of the border in the SO and DO-SC conditions than in the DO-DC condition. The Prime Context Effect shows that participants discerned the relationship between the masked word prime and the semantics of the familiar object suggested in the display, and this led them to change their strategy on both experimental and control trials. We also found that behavior changed over the course of the experiment: Participants in the DO-DC condition perceived the figure on the familiar side of the border more often in the second half of the experiment, on both experimental and control trials. This pattern suggests that over the course of the experiment, they learned to rely more on information from the display than from the prime, perhaps by restricting their attention to the time when the figure-ground display appeared. Participants in the DO-SC condition perceived the figure on the familiar side of the border more often on experimental trials in the second half of the experiment, whereas their performance on control trials did not differ in the first and second half. We hypothesize that participants in the DO-SC condition learned to match the superordinate semantics of the experimental prime and the display, leading to semantic priming. Taken together, these results show that (1) participants can quickly learn the relationship between experimental primes and target displays and can change their strategy accordingly, and (2) semantic activation can affect figure assignment.
    • CAN TEXT-RELEVANT MOTOR ACTIVITY IMPROVE THE RECALL OF NATIVE AMERICAN CHILDREN? TESTING PREDICTIONS DERIVED FROM GLENBERG'S "INDEXICAL HYPOTHESIS"

      Levin, Joel R.; Marley, Scott C.; Levin, Joel R.; D'Agostino Jerry; Glisky, Elizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2005)
      The present study extends previous research on motoric activity and imagery production to the text processing of Native American learning-disabled students and third-grade regular-education students. Two experiments were developed to test predictions derived from Glenberg's (1997) "indexical hypothesis". Experiment 1 was performed with learning-disabled Native American students listening to narrative passages under one of three randomly assigned listening strategies: free-study, visual, and manipulate. Experiment 2 was performed with regular-education Native American third graders reading similar passages under one of three randomly assigned reading strategies: reread, observed manipulation, and manipulation. With the learning-disabled students, statistically significant improvements in memory for story events, locations, objects, and actions were observed on cued- and free-recall outcomes when toys representing story characters and settings were present during encoding. Facilitative strategy transfer was not apparent when the toys were removed. With the third-grade students, similar benefits were found when the toys were present. In addition, students who had access to the toys during a training period performed significantly better on cued- and free-recall measures relative to reread students when the toys were no longer present.
    • Can we level the playing field? The effects of ease of denial on psychological reactions to threat for people with high and low self-esteem

      Greenberg, Jeff L.; Schimel, Jeff (The University of Arizona., 2001)
      A good deal of research suggests that high self-esteem individuals cope with failure by engaging in self-serving biases that allow them to deny the negative implications of failure. If high self-esteem individuals cope successfully with failure through a process of denial, then making it easier for low self-esteem individuals to deny negative feedback might allow them to cope successfully with failure too. To test this notion, high and low self-esteem participants took a test of creativity and were given feedback that they were either creative or non-creative. Following this procedure, the ease of denial of the feedback was manipulated by telling the participants that the creativity test was either highly valid or invalid. Participants' evaluations of the test, positive and negative mood, and self-ratings on creativity were then assessed. It was expected that high self-esteem participants would generally make more self-serving evaluations of the test than low self-esteem individuals, and as a result, experience more pleasant affect and view themselves more positively on creativity than low self-esteem individuals following negative feedback. However, it was also expected that if the negative feedback was easy to deny, low self-esteem individuals would be just as self-serving as high self-esteem individuals in their evaluations of the test and experience a similar increase in positive mood, and rate themselves higher on creativity. The results did not support these predictions. Both high and low self-esteem individuals made self-serving evaluations of the test regardless of the ease of denial manipulation. Limitations of the current research and directions for future research are discussed.
    • A canal irrigation water allocation model.

      Slack, Donald C.; Larson, Dennis L.; Akhand, Md Nurul Alam.; Thompson, Gary D.; Wilson, Paul N.; Roth, Robert L. (The University of Arizona., 1992)
      A water allocation model was developed to assist with allocation of canal water to competing crop irrigation demands. Multi-period linear programming was utilized to optimally allocate water in both time and space to maximize benefits for an irrigated farm. Irrigation scheduling, crop response and canal water delivery models were used to support the water allocation decisions. The irrigation scheduling model supplied information on crop evapotranspiration and soil water storage. The crop response model predicted crop yield in response to the irrigation water applications. The canal delivery model checked the feasibility of supplying the allocation quantities through the control structures and turnouts. The allocation model was evaluated by tests of water allocation for the University of Arizona, Maricopa Agricultural Center demonstration farm. In crop scenarios which emphasized cotton production, the model recommended deficit irrigation for the barley, cotton, grapes and wheat fields during periods when the quantity of irrigation water demanded was greater than that supplied. Analysis of the effects of changes in water cost and crop returns showed the basis of the solution remained unchanged for a wide range of data. The basis was, however, found to be unstable with very limited water supplies. In addition to serving as a planning tool, the allocation model could be used as a real time management tool. It is believed to have broad applicability to other irrigation projects in other areas with characteristics similar to Arizona test conditions.
    • Cancer Capacity and Resources in Rural Arizona

      Calhoun, Elizabeth A.; Lent, Adrienne; Jacobs, Elizabeth T.; Barraza, Leila (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Background: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S. Rural urban cancer disparities exist nationally and in Arizona. Previous studies on the availability of rural cancer services are cancer-specific, limited to specific points along the cancer care continuum (e.g., screening, diagnosis, or treatment), or require updating to capture the current landscape as it relates to rural health. This study explored the following three aims: 1) Describe the availability of cancer capacity and services for breast, cervical, colorectal and lung cancer across the cancer care continuum in low populous counties in Arizona; 2) Evaluate the association between breast cancer capacity and resources with breast cancer incidence and mortality; and 3) Provide policy recommendations focused on increasing capacity and resources in low populous, rural counties in Arizona. Methods: For Aim 1, a cancer capacity and resources survey was developed and distributed to healthcare organizations operating outside of Arizona’s largest population centered counties, Maricopa and Pima. Numbers of healthcare providers were pulled from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Numbers of clinical sites and healthcare providers were converted to county-level per capita rates. Rural Urban Continuum (RUC) codes were used to designate county metropolitan status. County demographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau, income data from the US Bureau of Economic Analysis, and unemployment rates from the US Department of Labor were included. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the results. A student’s t-test was used to evaluate differences between rural and urban counties. For Aim 2, the Arizona Department of Health Services Cancer Registry provided county level cancer incidence and death rates from 2010 through 2016. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association between rural status and breast cancer capacity and services with breast cancer incidence and mortality rates. For Aim 3, current US federal and state level policies focused on increasing the rural workforce were reviewed. Results: Out of Arizona’s 15 counties, 13 were represented. Six were urban (RUC codes 1 – 3) and seven were rural (RUC codes 4 – 7). Urban counties had a larger average population (216,773) than rural counties (49,507) (p-value = 0.01). Rural counties had more per capita clinical sites (20.4) than urban counties (8.9) (p-value = 0.02). Rural counties had more per capita cervical cancer screening sites (18.9) than urban counties (7) (p-value = 0.02) and rural counties had more per capita colorectal cancer screening sites (15.7) than urban counties (2.5) (p-value = 0.02). Urban counties had more per capita gastroenterologists (2.2) than rural counties (0) (p-value = 0.02) and urban counties had more per capita pathologists (1.0) than rural counties (0) (p-value = <0.01). Rural counties had zero medical oncologists. Per capita, rural counties with RUC codes 4 and 6 had hematology and oncology physicians (0.3, 2.5) and radiologists (2.8, 6.0) but those with RUC code 7 had zero. Although not significantly different, rural counties with RUC code 6 had three times as many per capita registered nurses (306.7) than urban counties (90.8). Rural county status was associated with a decrease in breast cancer incidence (β = -20.1, 95% CI: -37.2, 3.1). There was no association between breast cancer incidence and county per capita sites providing breast cancer screening (β = -8.8, 95% CI: -23.9, 6.9), diagnosis (β = -5.2, 95% CI: -22.2, 11.7), treatment (β = -6.5, 95% CI: -23.2, 10.2), and all three services (β = -8.0, 95% CI: -23.9, 7.9) or county per capita primary care physicians (β = 0.0, 95% CI: -0.54, 0.48), hematology oncology physicians (β = -0.9, 95% CI: -15.7, 13.8), medical oncology physicians (β = 35.2, 95% CI: -22.7, 93.0), OBGYN physicians (β = -0.5, 95% CI: -4.2, 3.2), radiologists (β = -0.2, 95% CI: -6.8, 6.4), and surgeons (β = 1.6, 95% CI: -3.1, 6.3). In the unadjusted model, rural RUC codes four (β = -24.1, 95% CI: -41.8, -6.4) and six (β = -32.6, 95% CI: -53.0, -12.2) were associated with breast cancer incidence. There was no association between breast cancer incidence and RUC code 7 (β = -1.8, 95% CI: -22.3, 18.6). In the model adjusted for race (percent of the county population that’s Hispanic) and Ethnicity (percent of the county population that’s American Indian and Alaska Native), RUC codes four (β = -19.0, 95% CI: -37.7, -0.4) and six (β = -32.6, 95% CI: -56.0, -7.9) were associated with breast cancer incidence. There was no association between breast cancer mortality and rural county status (β = -1.1, 95% CI: -7.7, 5.6), county per capita sites providing breast cancer screening (β = -0.2, 95% CI: -4.2, 3.8), diagnosis (β = 0.4, 95% CI: -3.8, 4.6), treatment (β = 0.4, 95% CI: -3.9, 4.6), all three services (0.2, -3.9, 4.3) or county per capita primary care physicians (β = 0.0, 95% CI: -0.1, 0.0), hematology oncology physicians (β = -1.6, 95% CI: -5.3, 2.1), medical oncology physicians (β = -0.9, 95% CI: -17.2, 15.3), OBGYN physicians (β = -0.6, 95% CI: -1.5, 0.3), radiologists (β = -0.7, 95% CI: -2.4, 1.0), and surgeons (β = -0.1, 95% CI: -1.4, 1.2). Conclusions: While rural counties may have more physical infrastructure, they lack specialists integral to providing cancer services. Non-physician clinical providers may be more prevalent in rural areas and represent opportunities for improving cancer care. Compared to urban counties, rural county status was associated with lower breast cancer incidence rates but not associated with breast cancer death. The number of sites delivering breast cancer services and physicians were not associated with breast cancer incidence or mortality at the county level. Other factors may contribute to rural urban differences in breast cancer incidence. Federal and state level policies have been effective in increasing the rural healthcare workforce. However, opportunities for improving rural cancer care through policies and programs exist. Improved data collection and availability from state level workforce data and the FDA mammography database can help improve cancer capacity research. Increased exposure to rural locations during residency, transformation of GME payment, and expansion of loan repayment and scholarship programs may help increase the number of specialists delivering cancer care in rural Arizona and nationally. Increased training opportunities and the scope of work expansions for non-physician clinicians and advanced practice providers may help improve the delivery of cancer prevention and treatment services in rural areas that lack specialist physicians. Future research should explore these factors as well as the association between cancer capacity and resources at a more local level since Arizona counties can be a heterogeneous unit of observation.
    • Cancer Patient Perceptions of Nurse Abandonment at End of Life

      Shea, Kimberly; Walker, Suzanne; Crist, Janice; Reed, Pamela (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore cancer patient perceptions of oncology nurse abandonment near end of life (EOL). Background: The EOL period represents a challenging time for cancer patients as they face significant physical and emotional losses, including the loss of their oncology healthcare team during EOL handoffs in care. The loss of the physician-patient relationship, as well as alterations in this relationship, has led to cancer patient perceptions of physician abandonment. Feelings of abandonment can have negative implications for quality EOL cancer care, such as serving as a deterrent to enrollment in palliative care programs, potentially inhibiting advanced care planning discussions, and causing shock and distress. There has been no known research exploring cancer patient perceptions of nurse abandonment near EOL. Theory: Bowlby’s attachment theory and Peplau’s theory of interpersonal relations in nursing provide a foundation for this research. A new tentative model for understanding the complex oncology nurse-patient relationships near EOL is also proposed. Methods: Qualitative descriptive methodology was employed with data collection consisting of semi-structured interviews and written field notes. A total of nine participants with advanced cancer were enrolled in and completed the study. Data analysis occurred through qualitative content analysis. Results: The overarching theme woven throughout the narratives was “Good Communication Fosters Nurse-Patient Relationships.” Three additional themes emerged from this main theme: 1) “Valuing the Professional Relationship;” 2) “Embracing the Personal Relationship;” and 3) “An Unimaginable Termination” Patients with advanced cancer near EOL experienced feelings of safety, security, and comfort from the professional and personal aspects of their relationships with their oncology nurses. They did not perceive being abandoned by their oncology nurses, nor did they anticipate being abandoned in the future. Discussion: Perceptions of abandonment near EOL may be mitigated through good communication techniques that are representative of patient-centered communication. Fostering strong nurse-patient relationships by promoting professional closeness as well as feelings of personal closeness through mutual sharing should be considered. Strategies for remaining connected with patients even after face-to-face visits have ceased should also be incorporated into the nursing care of patients with advanced cancer.
    • Cancer screening among urban American Indian women

      Giuliano, Anna; Risendal, Betsy Corsino, 1962- (The University of Arizona., 1998)
      Existing information about cancer among American Indians, although limited, suggests that incidence and mortality rates are increasing. Cancer is now the second leading cause of death among American Indian women. American Indians also have the poorest cancer survival of any group in the US. Improving the early detection of cancer is key to reducing mortality and improving survival. This study assessed screening rates and behaviors for breast and cervical cancer, two of the main causes of cancer death in American Indian women. The health beliefs and practices of urban American Indian women, a group which comprises half of this special population, were the focus of this cross-sectional random household survey. Our results are similar to the results of other studies which indicate that breast and cervical cancer screening rates in American Indian women are below both national estimates and goals set forth by the Public Health Service for the Year 2000. The prevalence of recent mammogram among urban southwestern American Indian women surveyed (35.7%) was less than half that of the US population, and only 49.5% indicated they had received a Pap smear in the last year in accordance with current guidelines for this high-risk population. Rate of physician referral for several cancer risk reduction programs also did not meet recommended levels. Improving health care access and knowledge and awareness of cancer screening are other potential ways of increasing screening participation, and more research is needed to promote the link between lifestyle habits and long-term health promotion in urban southwestern American Indian women.
    • Cancer survivorship: The other side. The lived experience of partners of long-term breast cancer survivors

      Glittenberg-Kropp, JoAnn; Pelusi, Jody Louise (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      As the number of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer continues to rise, so does the population of long-term breast cancer survivors. Many factors influence the overall outcome of their experience, one of which is the support from their partners. Much has been written on the issues of women with breast cancer, but what is lacking in the literature are the voices of their partners during the long-term survival phase of the disease. The purpose of this study was to conduct a phenomenological study to (1) describe the essential structure of the experience of being a partner of a long-term breast cancer survivor, and (2) compare theme patterns of the partners of long-term breast cancer survivors with those of long-term breast cancer survivors. The sample consisted of seven participants with the average age of 55 years. Time together as partners averaged 25.2 years. The average time since the cancer diagnosis was 9.5 years. The research method consisted of open-ended audiotaped interviews. Colaizzi's eight-step method of analysis was utilized. Ten theme categories were identified from the data: the invisible enemies--cancer and uncertainty, a sense of duty, constant vigilance, from dreams to reality, turning my eyes away but not my heart, paying the price, don't worry--be happy, who are we now, rebuilding our home, and the everlasting journey. From these theme categories, the essential structure was identified. In searching for the meaning of the journey, the partner is influenced by several factors: their own as well as the patient's coping skills and quality of life, as well as the patient's overall response to cancer treatment. Partners experience many of the same issues as the patient, but their response to and the ability to travel along this cancer journey is based on their role as a partner and their sense of duty to the patient. The partner's goal is to bring structure and stability to the uncertainty of cancer and to find meaning for oneself and the patient during this experience.
    • Cannabinoid Receptor 2: A Novel Multi-Targeted Approach in the Treatment of Breast Cancer and Related Skeletal Metastasis

      Vanderah, Todd W.; Hanlon, Katherine Emily; Mantyh, Patrick W.; Price, Theodore J.; Cress, Anne; Nelson, Mark; Vanderah, Todd W. (The University of Arizona., 2012)
      Breast cancer, which in advanced stages often leads to bone metastasis, is the most frequent malignant tumor and the second deadliest form of cancer among women in the U.S. Skeletal metastasis is associated with imbalanced bone remodeling and eventual bone fracture that contributes to incapacitating pain and loss of mobility. Bone cancer pain remains a significant health problem due to the limited repertoire of analgesics available to treat this pain without negatively influencing the quality of life and "bone health" of the patient. Bone cancer results in a marked influx of pro- and anti- inflammatory hematological cells into the medullary cavity resulting in activation of nociceptors that express cytokine and chemokine receptors. Thus, blockade of these factors may result in a significant attenuation in bone cancer pain. The sustained release of cytokines by both primary tumor cells and invading leukocytes into the tumor microenvironment shapes the immune response to tumor invasion and ultimately mediates the shift in immune balance to the predominantly immunosuppressive state seen with late stage disease. Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), found on immune cells but not neuronal cells, has been shown to inhibit the release of cytokines from leukocytes; this inhibition plays an important role in CB2 agonist's ability to inhibit pain without producing the CNS side effects commonly associated with CB1. Cannabinoids have also been demonstrated in a number of cancer models to modulate the tumor microenvironment via effects specific to the tumor cells as well as regulation of invading leukocytes. Here, we show that the CB2 specific agonist JWH-015 mediates inflammatory factors in vitro and in vivo in the femoral intramedullary cavity in a murine model of bone cancer while simultaneously attenuating breast cancer induced bone pain and promoting overall health of the bone microenvironment. Further, we demonstrate JWH-015's ability to positively modify the systemic balance of regulatory to effector lymphocytes as well as modulate the suppressive function of regulatory T lymphocytes. We also show that JWH-015 attenuates breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro in a concentration dependent manner. Finally, utilizing a murine in vivo bioluminescence model, we demonstrate that JWH-015 treatment not only attenuates primary tumor growth, but also rate of metastasis. Taken together, these data establish CB2 as an innovative therapeutic target across multiple stages of breast cancer.