• A Feasibility Study Assessing the Safety and Benefits of Seated Sun-Style Tai Chi among Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

      Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E.; Taylor, Emily; Loescher, Lois; Pace, Thaddeus; Hom, Sharon (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Background: An estimated 80% of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) do not meet daily physical activity recommendations. Low-impact physical activity that can be performed seated, such as Tai Chi, may be especially beneficial for individuals with MS having greater disability burden. Tai Chi is rooted in traditional Chinese medicine, and standing forms have been studied among individuals with MS. Methods: A quasi-experimental, single group pretest-posttest study was used to explore the effects of the Tai Chi intervention on personal (physical function, exercise self-efficacy, MS-related symptoms), behavioral (physical activity, exercise habits, exercise planning, exercise goal setting), and environmental factors (social support), using Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory as the theoretical framework. Results: This study enrolled 25 individuals with MS in seated Sun-Style Tai Chi classes for one hour, twice weekly, over 12 weeks. Study retention was 88%, class attendance was 75%, and study satisfaction was 86.4%. No serious adverse events occurred during the classes. MS-related symptoms were measured every four weeks over a 16-week period. While this Tai Chi intervention study was not powered to detect significant differences in personal, behavioral, or environmental factors, there were significant improvements at eight-weeks in depression (p=.006), 95% CI [-6.37, -1.07], and anxiety scores (p=.028), 95% CI [-5.16, -0.30], and significant improvements at 12-weeks in depression (p=.002), 95% CI [-6.47, -1.39] and exercise goals scores (p=0.015). Improvements in scores were non-significant for fatigue (p=.099), lower extremity function (p=.922), exercise self-efficacy (p=.295), subjective physical activity (p=.118), and sub scores of social support from family and friends including family participation (p=.516), family rewards (p=.210), and friend participation (p=.349). Pain intensity (p=0.849) and pain interference (p=0.882) scores increased at four weeks and trended down as the study progressed. Exercise planning (p=.116) and upper extremity function scores (p=.176) decreased at 12 weeks. Conclusion: This study filled an important gap in our knowledge of potential benefits of physical activity among individuals with MS by determining adherence, feasibility, and safety for future research assessing the use of sun-style seated Tai Chi among individuals with MS.
    • A Formalized Rounding Process for ICU Nurses at Yuma Regional Medical Center

      Ritter, Leslie; DeBoe, Joseph; Perez, Ramon Jose; Ramirez, Jane (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Purpose. The purpose of this QI project was to introduce and evaluate a standardized rounding process to an ICU care team. Background. Interdisciplinary rounding is a proven and essential part of communication between team members caring for the patient, yet standardized and effective processes are often lacking. Methodology. A formalized four step rounding process was employed for 15 days in the ICU. A rounding checklist was created combining the SSM Health St. Clare Hospital Rounding Checklist by Brown et al. (2020) and The Daily Goals Form by Pronovost et al. (2003). A pre-and post-study design survey was conducted to evaluate ICU care team satisfaction, willingness to adopt and the new rounding process. Results. A total of 15 participants completed both the pre- and post-surveys. There was a significant greater understanding of the patient’s daily goals, plan of care, and pertinent patient concerns using the new rounding process (p = 0.028, 0.048). The new rounding process significantly increased the fostering of communication between members of the ICU care team (p = 0.14). There was no significant increase in satisfaction with the new rounding process, with the time allotted to provide patient information during the new rounding process, or the willingness to adopt the new process. Conclusion. Although there was no significant increase in willingness to adopt the new process, the consensus that standardized format was beneficial in providing accurate information for the benefit of the patient and the rest of the team provided impetus for continued efforts in establishing a more formalized rounding process in the ICU.
    • A Framework for Automatic Dynamic Constraint Verification in Cyber Physical System Modeling Languages

      Sprinkle, Jonathan M.; Bunting, Matt Robert; Tharp, Hal S.; Lysecky, Roman (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Design of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) involves overlapping the domains of control theory, network communication, and computational algorithms. Involving multiple domains within the same design greatly increases the system complexity. Furthermore, the physical nature of CPSs generally involves important safety constraints where constraint violations can be catastrophic. The design of CPSs benefits from focusing on the construction of abstracted, high-level models in a DomainSpecific Modeling Language (DSML). A Domain-Specific Modeling Environment (DSME) may aid in the design of such complex systems by enforcing structural design constraints during the construction of models. Models built using a DSME may also use compilers or interpreters to produce real working, low-level artifacts that represent the high-level design. Though each model in a DSME may abide by a formal specification, the behavior of a design may violate dynamic constraints if deployed. Engineers are tasked to ensure that models behave safely by implementing their expert knowledge after using appropriate verification tools. Constraint violations may be eliminated by a modification of the model based on verification feedback, known as Dynamic Constraint Feedback (DCF). Mending such constraint violations is a task generally performed by the model designer. Such a process could potentially be automated through the capture of well-known design practices. The challenging task when automating model correction then becomes in the design of a DSML. A designer of a DSML may have a clear understanding of how to design the syntax and semantics for their domain, but there are no formal methods for implementing verification tools for automatic model correction. Such a framework could greatly aid in the selection of available verification tools, implement well-established design methods, and model dynamic constraints. Presented is the Dynamic Constraint Feedback Metamodeling Language (DCFML), a new metamodel to implement DCF upfront in DSML design. This particular solution provides a concrete solution to the abstraction of the various components of DCF, and then appends them to the DSML design process provided by a DSME.
    • A Framework of Detection, Counting, Classification, and Advanced Processing Techniques for Objects in Multi-Resolution Imagery

      Hariri, Salim; Gao, Xin; Akoglu, Ali; Djordjevic, Ivan B. (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      Detecting, counting, and classifying objects represent the most primary and challenging tasks in the field of computer vision. In the signal, image, and video processing domain, it is crucial to improve detection performance and apply evaluation metrics when evaluating algorithms and post-processing schemes. In this Ph.D. Dissertation, we have conducted research studies on single-class vehicle detection, counting, and classification, as well as multi-class object detection, classification, and recognition using aerial datasets of variable resolutions. For single-class vehicle detection and classification, major contributions are categorized in three manifolds: i) adapted a variety of object detection and segmentation algorithms and five existing post-processing schemes, quantified and compared their performance to analyze their advantages and shortcomings via two sets of evaluation metrics; ii) derived three post-processing schemes on object detection and classification using low-resolution wide-area aerial datasets, conducted quantitative analysis based on two sets of classical metrics and some enhanced measures; iii) applied the multi-stage learning based methods for large-scale datasets where the test images are of variable resolutions and oriented for different topics. For multi-class object detection, classification, and recognition, we have conducted research studies in the following aspects: i) performed multi-class detection on small objects by designing optimal post-processing module; ii) applied two-stage learning and updated learning schemes for aerial objects; and iii) supplemented machine learning based quantitative results and ablation study on some related research topics. Experimental results have proved the validity and efficiency in these scenarios: a) improved average F-score to be more than 0.8 and achieved average reduction of 83.8% in false positives for five object detection and segmentation methods; b) applied FC-DenseNet-103 model for two-stage machine learning in the online vehicle detection in aerial imagery (VEDAI) dataset, where an average of 0.855 for initial object detection accuracy was achieved via Google Colab Pro using adjusted learning rates and some other optimized parameters for both training and validation; optimal post-processing results were achieved by the proposed MTAP scheme (0.891 on object detection accuracy and 82.8% on mean average precision (mAP)), which may progressively improve the performance of multi-class object detection and classification; and c) achieved relatively better performance for vehicle license plate recognition (VLPR) when comparing to a few classical approaches.
    • A Hexachordal and Rhetorical Analysis of Heinrich Schütz's 'Sieben Worte Jesu Christi Am Kreuz' (SWV 478)

      Chamberlain, Bruce B.; Brobeck, John T.; Wininger, Thomas Dwight; Mugmon, Matthew (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Heinrich Schütz (1585–1672) is considered a transitional figure between the Renaissance and Baroque. Because of this, his music is pluralistic and incorporates elements from both epochs. This paper focuses on two of these elements: his use of musico-rhetorical figures and his hexachordal harmonic approach in his work 'Die Sieben Worte Jesu Christi Am Kreuz,' SWV 478. Musico-rhetorical devices were widely in use in southern Germany and northern Italy during Schütz’s lifetime. The purpose of these devices was to persuade the listener through musical gestures tied to ancient oratory. These gestures are enhanced through harmonic language — in this instance the hexachord system. When combined, these two distinct types of analysis yield a more comprehensive understanding of his dramatic setting of the Seven Last Words of Christ. This comprehensive reading is beneficial for performers who wish to present a dramatic performance of the composition.
    • A Hierarchical Decision-Making Framework in the Network Environment with Social Learning and Forgetting

      Son, Young-Jun; Lee, Seunghan; Liu, Jian; Krokhmal, Pavlo; Fan, Neng (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Modeling and analysis of human behaviors in social networks are essential in fields such as online business, marketing, and finance. However, the establishment of a generalized decision-making framework for human behavior is challenging due to different decision structures among individuals. This research proposes a new hierarchical human decision-making framework based on the evolution of preferences on alternatives over time. To this end, a well-known cognitive psychological model, Decision Field Theory (DFT) which is one of dynamic human decision-making models based on the evolution of preferences on the options over time, is utilized and extended to represent human forgetting and learning procedures with the properties of memory loss experience and influences under social interactions. The equilibrium status of social networks within this framework is derived as an explicit formula under the independent and identically distributed (IID) conditions on weight values, which facilitates the identification of limiting expected and covariance matrices for preference values. The extension establishes a hierarchical human behavior model in social networks by incorporating the dynamics of top-down and bottom-up information flows, which enables the better understanding of different behaviors in social networks such as innovation diffusion and opinion formation. The validity of the proposed model is demonstrated via agent-based simulation under various scenarios. In particular, simulation is used to analyze the impact of network structures (e.g., random, small-world, ring-lattice, and scale-free) as well as the significance of inherent society characteristics (e.g., conservative, neutral, and progressive) on the equilibrium states. The findings confirm that the diffusion process within the proposed model propagates fastest in the random network and slowest in the ring-lattice network. It is also shown that interaction among people affects the agent’s decision within the proposed models and intensifies the embedded society characteristics, which helps to analyze irregular behaviors such as information cascades in social networks. Two major applications of the proposed models in this dissertation are 1) disaster management with social sensing and 2) real-time border surveillance. The simulation results reveal that the proposed models allow for better disaster management strategies in natural disasters by increasing the efficiency of prepositioning supplies and by enhancing the effectiveness of disaster relief efforts. Moreover, physics-based simulation developed in the Unity3D engine has a potential to increase the modeling accuracy of a border surveillance system by enhancing the estimation of drug-traffickers’ behaviors with real-time environmental information, which will, in turn, help establish an effective control system in border areas.
    • A Highly Modular Router Microarchitecture for Networks-on-Chip

      Roveda, Janet; Wu, Wo-Tak; Powers, Linda; Lysecky, Roman (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Advances in semiconductor process technology in the past several decades have brought about an abundance of transistors that can be fabricated on a single silicon die. Microprocessor designers have been integrating more and more processing cores on-chip by taking advantage of such abundance. Network-on-Chip (NoC) has become a popular choice for connecting a large number of processing cores in chip multiprocessor designs. NoC provides many advantages over the traditional bus-based approach in terms of bandwidth, scalability, latency, etc. The central part of an NoC is the router. In a conventional NoC design, most of the router area is occupied by the buffers and the crossbar switch. Not surprisingly, these two components also consume the majority of the router’s power. Most of NoC research has been based on the conventional router microarchitecture in the areas of routing algorithm, resource allocation/arbitration, buffer design, etc. There has not been much work done on drastic router microarchitecture redesign. In this dissertation, a novel router microarchitecture design is proposed, which we call Omega, that treats the router itself as a small network of a ring topology. Omega is highly modular and much simpler than the conventional design. It does not use a large crossbar switch as in the conventional design; packet switching is done with simple muxes. Furthermore, the network packet latency is greatly reduced. Simulation and circuit synthesis show that the Omega microarchitecture can reduce latency, area and power by 53%, 34% and 27%, respectively, compared to the conventional design. The Omega microarchitecture design also provides opportunities to implement features that do not exist or are difficult to be realized in the conventional design. To demonstrate this, we implement a new feature on the Omega router to merge packets together in the buffer. The merged packets traverse the network together as long as their routes to destinations do not diverge. This greatly improves the buffer and link utilization. As a result, the effective network capacity can be substantially increased. This dissertation presents one of the first efforts on the new microarchitecture for router considering packet merging. Additional characterizations can be done to better understand its potentials for various applications, and perhaps its shortcomings, in future work to push performance even further.
    • A Holistic Picture of the Relations Between Dietary Intake with Physical and Behavioral Health in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

      Perfect, Michelle M.; Beardmore, Megan; Erbacher, Monica; Yoon, Jina (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Both physical and mental health concerns are becoming increasingly prominent among youth with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM). Nutrition has been identified as an element that influences these non-diabetes related outcomes, but the role of specific food groups and nutrients have not been elucidated in the T1DM population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the relations between dietary intake, physical health, and teacher-reported socialemotional functioning in children with T1DM. Canonical correlation analysis demonstrated a statistically significant multivariate shared relationship between these variable sets, and suggested that youth in this sample who had lower glycemic load, consumed more sugar, dairy, meat/poultry/fish, but less legumes, fruit, and saturated fat, were associated with less Externalizing Problems and higher BMI. Additionally, multiple regression analysis implicated diet in uniquely accounting for a modest amount of variance in physical and emotional health while controlling for gender, race, age, socioeconomic status, duration of T1DM, and glycemic control. These findings call for the need to emphasize diet in T1DM management, not only for healthful eating in maintaining glycemic control, but also to reduce the physical and mental health morbidities for which individuals with T1DM are most at-risk. Moreover, physical and behavioral health services in the schools should be considered in supporting the social-emotional well-being of these students. Given the novelty of the present study, directions for future research are also discussed, which include more exhaustive assessment of physical health parameters, multi-rater psychosocial functioning, and comprehensive dietary intake patterns, as well as dietary RCTs that utilize whole, nutrient-rich foods to investigate physical and behavioral outcomes.
    • "A House Dedicated to God": Social Welfare and the General Hospital in Reformation Geneva, 1535-1564

      Lotz-Heumann, Ute E.; Plummer, Marjorie E.; Howard, Kristen Coan; Karant-Nunn, Susan C.; Milliman, Paul R. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      This dissertation examines the provision of social welfare in sixteenth-century Geneva, focusing on the Hôpital Général (General Hospital), a new institution created by official decree of the Genevan magistrates six months prior to the unanimous adoption of the Reformation in the city. I examine the General Hospital as a “household dedicated to God” in its first decades of operation, a “household” in which a board of hospital directors functioned as patresfamilias in providing care to the impoverished and institutionalized poor from the cradle to the grave. I argue that through their work at the General Hospital and its auxiliary hospitals (the travelers’ and plague hospitals), the hospital directors provided care and discipline to poor Genevans, and occasionally outsiders, in order to preserve the city’s resources, promote the Reformation agenda, and protect their Christian community. I focus on the sources created by the General Hospital itself to understand who the hospital directors believed to constitute the “worthy poor”: native Genevans who engaged in work to “earn their life” (gagner sa vie) and who demonstrated both orthodoxy and orthopraxy according to the new Protestant religion. In their attempts to separate the worthy from the unworthy poor, the hospital directors engaged in social discipline, revealing that in Reformation Geneva social welfare and social discipline were intimately connected. My research demonstrates that the hospital directors used the carrot of alms and the stick of discipline in their attempts to alleviate poverty in the city. What emerges is a more nuanced picture of life in sixteenth-century Geneva, especially for the impoverished.
    • A Hybrid Wavefront Sensor for Wide-range Adaptive Optics

      Hart, Michael; Kim, Daewook; Guthery, Charlotte Elena; Males, Jared; Douglas, Ewan (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      For centuries telescopes have been used to achieve an understanding of the universe and our place among it. As astronomical goals continue to push into infinite space for knowledge of the unknown, the instruments and mechanics must adapt to image farther and dimmer objects than ever before. To collect this information modern telescopes must grapple with the fundamental limitation imposed by the atmosphere. While more costly projects have begun to explore the option of launching smaller telescopes into space, the requirements for ground-based telescopes motivate an exponential increase in size and complexity. Larger apertures increase the sensitivity of detection, but the full resolution capabilities cannot be exploited without correcting the large and unpredictable aberrations imposed by the atmosphere. Adaptive optics seek to minimize these effects by applying an equal and opposite shape of the wavefront for correction. Wavefront sensors image incoming light such that phase aberrations are visible in the intensity field. The technique of this varies widely with application, but all wavefront sensors strive for high sensitivity, linearity, and accuracy over a large dynamic range. The proposed hybrid wavefront sensor builds from the well-established designs of the Shack-Hartmann and pyramid wavefront sensor, combining the ideal properties of both. Extensive simulations show that measurements from the hybrid wavefront sensor match the sensitivity of a pyramid wavefront sensor and the dynamic range of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Two reconstruction methods estimate separate wavefront shapes corresponding to a highly sensitive or robust mode. These results provide a full understanding of the effect photon noise and initial aberration strength have on the hybrid wavefront sensor response. An adaptive optics testbench evaluates the hybrid wavefront sensor prototype, built primarily with commercially available optics. Single mode estimation tests show the linear response of both reconstruction methods. The initial results show high sensitivity when determining the mechanical non-linearity of the testbench deformable mirror. These laboratory tests support the simulated theory to show the hybrid wavefront sensor is adept at producing highly accurate wavefront estimations regardless of initial aberration strength. This advantage makes this sensor ideal for adaptive optics applications which require highly accurate corrections even in the presence of an unstable aberration source.
    • A Journey of the Eastern Imagination on the Harp: An Analysis of Alexina Louie’s From the Eastern Gate

      Gott, Michelle; Xu, Xiaodi; Alejo, Philip H.; Patterson, R T. (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      From the Eastern Gate is the sole work for solo harp by Chinese Canadian composer Alexina Louie. The purpose of my research is to provide several perspectives about Alexina Louie’s From the Eastern Gate to help future performers understand the work. To help readers get an overview of the composer Alexina Louie and the premier harpist Erica Goodman, this document will introduce brief biographies of them in Chapter I. Then, the compositional background of this work will be discussed in Chapter II. Considering the great Asian influence in Louie’s work, performance of the work can be informed by an understanding of the Chinese traditional instrument, guqin; forms of Japanese poetry, haiku and waka; a traditional form of Chinese literati painting called wenrenhua; and the philosophy of yin and yang in Chapter III. Chapters IV and V provide an original analysis of the solo work as well as performance and interpretive suggestions based on my research with Erica Goodman and the composer.
    • A Level Set Approach to Shape Dynamics of Vesicles

      Wolgemuth, Charles; Zhang, Tiankui; Wolgemuth, Charles; Manne, Srinivas; Stafford, Charles A.; Milsom, John A.; Zhang-Molina, Calvin (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Cell membranes are crucial to the life of cells and vesicles are important model systems for cell membranes. In this thesis, we aim to understand shape transformation of vesicles with theoretical tools from differential geometry and numerical techniques within the framework of the level set method. Shape dynamics of vesicles has been investigated for many years since Helfrich proposed the famous quadratic curvature energy to explain shape of red blood cells in the 1970s. The Helfrich Hamiltonian ignores lateral inhomogeneity of the vesicle and higher order curvature energy terms. Therefore most researches taking the Helfrich model for granted ignores tangential dynamics and elastic forces for higher order terms. Recently, a more general Hamiltonian that includes all curvature scalars up to fourth order was proposed by Deserno. Our first job is to calculate all of the variations for this much more general Hamiltonian, which will prove useful for vesicle models beyond the Helfrich model. Inspired by the general Hamiltonian from Deserno, a general line energy is proposed in the thesis by the argument of symmetry. We then proceed to calculate all of the variations for the curvature scalar of curves. This yield very useful results for vesicles models with phase coexistence, open edges etc. Numerical simulations also dates back to Helfrich's first paper. There are two approaches to the numerical simulation of vesicles in three dimensional space. In the first approach, a connected mesh is used to represent the surface. There two major difficulties with this methodology. The first arises when topological changes such as pinching off and fusion happen, which is fairly common for real biomembranes. The mesh needs to be separated or sewn together which can be quite involved. The other difficulty lie in the computation of surface geometries such as curvature and surface Laplacian of curvatures. The accuracy of the computation of such kind depends heavily on the quality of the mesh which is hard to maintain during larger deformations The other approach represents the surface implicitly as the level sets of a higher dimensional function defined on a Eulerian grid. Notable examples are the phase field method and the level set method. The phase field method is a diffusive boundary method where the boundary is represented by a narrow band of grids. One of the drawback is that there are no straightforward techinques for converting arbitrary surface integral of surface and curve curvature scalars into the phase field model. Complicated mathematical proofs are needed to establish the equivalent between the phase field model and the sharp interface models. The level set method is a sharp interface method and it is easy to represent geometries with the level set method. We therefore choose the level set method as the numerical framework for our simulation. One major problem of the level set is the requirement for reinitialization which introduces errors every time the level set function is restored. To maintain accuracy of the level set function, we developed a sixth order accurate scheme for the reinitialization equation, which can also be used to solve Hamiltonian-Jacobi equations with level set-defined boundary conditions. This scheme is also useful for other science and engineering problem with implicit surfaces. We developed a massively parallel three dimensional scheme for the simulation of single phase vesicles, biphasic vesicles. By utilizing the power of GPU and using an implicit scheme, we can simulate vesicle dynamics on a longer time scale and observe some new results. In particular, we investigated the effects of reduced volume, spontaneous curvature, osmotic pressure, constraints on the reduced area difference for the dynamics of single phase vesicles. Pinching of vesicles into multiple smaller ones are handled without a problem. Some experimental observations are successfully reproduced. For biphasic vesicles, we explored effects of line tension, reduced volume, spontaneous curvature for pinching off of bidomain vesicles. We also developed a scheme to enforce local area incompressibility and regularization of the auxiliary level set function representing phase boundaries. Phase coarsening with shape dynamics of vesicles, internal and outside budding of multidomain vesicles are simulated. As last, we developed a simple model for protein membrane interaction. The elastic force density between protein molecules and biomembranes is computed. We showed examples of protein density dynamics on a static curved surface when different models for bending moduli and spontaneous curvature area used. Examples of protein kinetics on dynamic single phase and biphasic vesicles are shown. We find that pinching of biphasic vesicles under effects of curvature sensing and curvature inducing molecules can happen near or away from the phase boundary by varying parameters of the model. We hope our result will help understand shaped dynamics of vesicles and how various physical conditions can influence this process.
    • A Liberatory Framework for Writing Program Administrators

      Troutman Robbins, Stephanie; Leon, Adele; Miller, Thomas P.; Shivers-McNair, Ann (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      This portfolio dissertation consists of three articles, presented as chapters, all falling under the project's theme of a liberatory writing program administration. Article one offers a theoretical framework based on liberatory pedagogies for WPAs to borrow in order to restructure their writing programs' curriculum, assessment practices, and staffing and training procedures to better align with diversity, equity, and inclusion initiatives. Article two presents six Hallmarks of Inclusion built from one community writing program's practices as principles for WPAs to follow and adapt in a liberatory restructuring of their writing program to become more diverse, equitable, and inclusive. Article three presents a published study about assigning low-stakes writing in business management master's classes, which offers WPAs a replicable method for enacting the liberatory practices of collaboration, reciprocity, and student success.
    • A Methodology to Design Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) for IoT/Networking Protocols

      Hariri, Salim; Satam, Pratik; Akoglu, Ali; Ditzler, Gregory (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Over the last few decades, the Internet has grown from a network that connected two research Universities to a juggernaut that encompasses the whole world with over 4.1 billion users as of July 2018, with a growth rate of 1052% from 2000-2018 [47]. Modern internet supports a wide variety of features and services like cloud computing and storage, social networking, content services, blogs and social interactions, Online banking and shopping, etc. Alongside the development of the internet, technologies relating to sensors [1,2,3,4], wireless communications [5,6,7], and mobile computing have seen an unprecedented growth [8,9,10], which has contributed to the development of a new paradigm: Internet of Things (IoT). The core concept of IoT involves forming connected devices that can be accessed ubiquitously from anywhere. These IoT devices have sensors and some processing and programming capabilities to support smart or Intelligent operations. Smart devices include wearables like smart watches, shoes, glasses, smart phones, smart refrigerators, smart cars, etc. This fast-paced growth of the internet and IoT infrastructures and services has introduce a challenging security problem due to the exponential growth in vulnerabilities and potential exploitations by cyber attackers. There is a dire need for an effective means to secure the cyber space against any type of threats that are known or unknown. This research presents a methodology to design Anomaly Behavior based Intrusion Detection Systems (AB-IDS) to secure networking and IoT protocols. An AB-IDS has a complete understanding of the semantics of the normal behavior of its target system, consequently allowing it to detect any malicious attacks on the system that forces it to operate abnormally. This approach of monitoring and accurately characterizing the normal behavior instead of looking for specific attack signatures (as done by signature-based IDS’ [15]) allows the AB-IDS to detect new and modified attacks. Since each protocol has its own specification, it is hard to develop one AB-IDS that is able to secure all the protocols. Instead, we adopt a more granular approach that involves developing multiple micro AB-IDS’ where each one is specialized in detecting anomalous behavior in its protocol, and the results from each of these micro AB-IDS’ are aggregated to present a wholistic picture of the current operational state of the complete system. Designing of these micro intrusion detection systems is a time-consuming task that requires an in depth understanding of the protocols. To aid this research approach, in this dissertation we develop a methodology to design the micro AB-IDS’ using machine learning models. The approach methodology involves following steps: 1. Threat modelling analysis; 2. Feature selection and protocol foot printing to characterize the behavior of the protocol; and 3. Use the protocol foot printing data structures to develop machine learning models that characterize accurately the normal behavior of the protocol to be protected by the micro AB-IDS. The threat modelling provides a formal approach to model the behavior of the protocol, identify potential attack vectors that target the protocols and develop mechanisms to protect protocol operations against these attack vectors. The feature selection step involves selection of correct features that helps characterize the behavior of the protocol. This step also involves designing and using different innovative data structures that help capture/represent the behavior of the protocol. In our research we concluded that Observation flows (OF) and n-grams are powerful data structures that can be used to characterize the behavior of the protocols. The last step involves developing machine learning models using the features obtained in Step 2 to differentiate the normal behavior of the machine learning model from the abnormal. We have evaluated our approach by designing micro intrusion detect systems to detect attacks on the Wi-Fi protocol, the DNS protocol and the HTML protocol. The experimental results show that the IDS’ designed using this approach have a very high accuracy with very low false positives and false negatives for new and modified attacks.
    • A Minimalist Model and Computational Toolkit for Code Switching

      Fong, Sandiway; Wong, Zechy; Harley, Heidi; Hammond, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Researchers have long noted the fact that multilingual speakers often engage in code switching: That is, they use mixes of multiple languages within single utterances or discourses. Many previous accounts of the phenomenon have treated the separate languages involved as distinct from one another, and there have been a number of code switching-specific principles and rules proposed that aim to "constrain the interactions of the two [grammatical] systems in mixture" (MacSwan 2000). The converse assumption — i.e., that there is a single set of grammatical principles governing both code-switched and monolingual utterances — has gained traction recently, and the Minimalist Program provides an appealing framework for exploring this kind of approach because it explicitly posits that the computational system for language is invariant across languages, with the lexicon being the sole locus of cross-linguistic variation. By examining the interaction between multiple lexicons and the competing demands that each places simultaneously upon a universal computational system, the Minimalist analysis presented in this work sheds light on the nature of the elements and operations involved in syntactic computations, even in single-language contexts. In particular, an investigation of English-Chinese code switching data from Singaporean speakers suggests that there is a wide range of potential interactions between lexical items from different languages within a single sentence, across both their underlying structures and surface forms. This provides general support for a realisational view of the derivational process (as in the Distributed Morphology framework) and motivates a fundamental distinction between the phenomena of code switching (whereby the features and forms of successive items come from different languages), calquing (whereby the features of an item come from one language, but its surface form has been translated into another), and borrowing (whereby the features and surface form of an item have their origin in one language, but the item has been adapted fully into the lexicon of another). In addition, this work also introduces the Code Switching Toolkit (CSTK), a computational modelling platform that implements a fundamental set of Minimalist principles while remaining extensible enough to accommodate internal differences between individual theories that come under the Minimalist umbrella. The CSTK allows researchers to model syntactic derivations, visualise the hierarchical structures that are built up along the way, see exactly when and why each of these derivations eventually crash or converge, and refine their accounts accordingly. This is not only useful for theoretical exploration, but also has potential utility in the generation of synthetic code-switched data for NLP and other machine learning applications.
    • A Mixed Methods Approach to Investigate Risk Perception of Developing Diabetes in Vietnamese Americans with Prediabetes

      McEwen, Marylyn M.; Loescher, Lois J.; Nguyen, Angelina Phuong-Uyen; Brewer, Barbara B. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Background: Vietnamese Americans (VnA) are at high risk of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). VnA are initially diagnosed at an earlier mean age and have higher T2DM prevalence compared to Non-Hispanic Whites, despite having lower mean body mass index. VnA may not perceive their risk of T2DM, which may affect their risk-reducing behaviors. There is a paucity of literature regarding the risk perception of developing T2DM in general and even more so for VnA, supporting the need for this study. Purpose: A fixed complementarity (QUAL+quant) mixed method design with a data transformation variant was used to comprehensively describe the perceived risk of developing T2DM among VnA adults with prediabetes. Methods: A non-random, multiple purposive sampling scheme was used to obtain a sample size of 10 VnA adults with prediabetes in the southwestern United States. Data collection techniques included individual, semi-structured interviews and quantitative questionnaires. Qualitative descriptive, quantitative descriptive, and data transformation techniques were used for data analyses. Findings: The two risk perception domains emerging from the qualitative data were risk factors and disease severity. The main risk factors of T2DM noted by participants were eating habits (including the cultural influences on eating habits), sedentary lifestyle, and family history of T2DM. The mean composite Risk Perception Survey for Developing Diabetes score was 2.15 (SD=0.31) with mean scores of 3.30 and 3.10, respectively for the personal control and worry subscales. The meta-inference concluded that most VnA in this sample have a low perceived T2DM risk with divergence noted only with one participant. Conclusions: VnA with prediabetes perceive they are at low risk for T2DM. Strategies to promote accurate risk perception for T2DM risk that is more congruent to actual risk may be needed to supplement T2DM prevention efforts. With high levels of perceived personal control and worry, this population that may be amenable to T2DM prevention interventions.
    • A Molecular Phylogenetic Assessment of the North American Lichen Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera; Erebidae; Arctiinae; Lithosiini) with Life History Observations and a Description of a New Species from Central Arizona

      Moore, Wendy; Palting, John Douglas; Nagle, Raymond B.; Walsh, James B.; Carriere, Yves; Schwalbe, Carol (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      The tribe Lithosiini (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) includes some 3600 described species worldwide, with probably another thousand or more awaiting description. As such, they represent one of the larger radiations among the ditrysian Lepidoptera. Yet the taxonomy of the group remains uncertain, their life histories largely unknown and at least 25% of their biodiversity undescribed. We inferred the phylogeny of North American lithosiines using molecular sequence data from three genes that have been show to phylogenetically informative in Lepidoptera: cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), ribosomal protein S5 (RPS5) and the large subunit 28S ribosomal DNA (28S). Results provide new insights as to how representatives of the 16 genera and 63 species that comprise the lithosiine fauna of the US are related. We also investigated a unique relationship that has evolved between ants and the caterpillars of lithosiines, the latter of which feed on lichens growing on rocks and tree trunks, habitats where ants are primary predators. Finally, we describe a new species of Hypoprepia, H. lampyroides, from the mountains of central Arizona. This is the fifth member of the genus Hypoprepia, all of which occur in the US.
    • A Multi-Tiered Approach to Addressing Air Quality Concerns on Hopi Lands

      O'Rourke, Mary Kay; Hadeed, Steve; Harris, Robin B.; Canales, Robert A.; Burgess, Jefferey L. (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      Introduction: Air pollution remains a significant public health hazard, resulting in over seven million deaths annually. Few studies within solid fuel (biomass, coal) burning communities simultaneously quantify indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and examine their association with acute health effects. The overall goal of this dissertation research is to assess the relationships between indoor air quality and respiratory health among members of the Hopi Tribe in Northern Arizona. Methods: Data were collected as part of the Hopi Environmental Health Project (HEHP). Indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM2.5 were measured for 24-hours at 76 randomly selected homes during the heating and non-heating seasons. Airway inflammation of participants was measured at the end of each 24-hour sampling period using fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Univariate and multivariate time-series imputation methods were evaluated to address problems with homes having consecutive periods of missing data for the real-time air monitors. Multivariable regression modeling examined associations among indoor PM2.5 levels, seasonal household, behavioral, and environmental factors and to assess the relationship between indoor PM2.5 and FeNO levels. Results: Univariate methods of Markov, random, and mean imputation were the best performing methods, yielding imputed 24-hour concentrations and minute-by-minute concentrations with the lowest errors across various levels of missingness. During the winter heating season, indoor PM2.5 levels were positively associated with housing type, heating fuel type, presence of pests, indoor relative humidity, and negatively associated with use of a climate control device and the number of interior doors. However, during the non-heating season, different behavioral and household characteristics were associated with indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Indoor smoking and/or burning incense, area of the surrounding environment, and outdoor PM2.5 were positively associated with indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Building size and height, and opening of doors and windows were negatively associated with indoor concentrations. During the heating season, indoor PM2.5 concentration and work location were negatively associated with FeNO. Indoor temperature and heart rate were positively associated (p≤0.05) with FeNO levels during the heating season. Univariable and multivariable regression showed an inverse relationship between indoor PM2.5 and FeNO levels. During the non-heating season indoor temperature, use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID’s), and respiratory symptoms were associated with greater FeNO measures. Conclusion: Imputation using univariate methods provided a reasonable solution to addressing missing data for short-term monitoring of air pollutants, especially in resource-limited areas. Within the households tested, we observed seasonal differences in household and behavioral factors associated with indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Homes that burned coal and/or wood, or a combination of coal and/or wood with electricity and/or natural gas had elevated indoor PM2.5 concentrations that exceeded both the EPA ambient standard (35 μg/m3) and the WHO indoor air guidelines (25 μg/m3). Environmental, personal, and physiological factors were associated with FeNO levels and these associations differed by season; however, indoor concentrations of PM2.5 were not associated with greater airway inflammation levels as anticipated.
    • A Multigenerational Investigation of Voice Onset Time in English-Hebrew Heritage Speakers

      Farwaneh, Samira; Jones, Kyle Stewart; Hudson, Leila; Azaz, Mahmoud; Ussishkin, Adam (The University of Arizona., 2020)
      This study investigates the speech acoustics of two generations of U.S. olim (immigrants) in Israel, first generation immigrants, whose first language (L1) is American English (AE), and their second-generation children, for whom English is a heritage language (HL), as well as L1 Modern Hebrew (MH) speakers. A specific HL accent has been demonstrated in the studies that have investigated the phenomenon, showing that heritage speakers have good control of phonetic/phonological contrasts between their two languages but demonstrate distinct patterns from both native speakers (NS) and second language (L2) learners (who both show L1 influence) (Godson 2004; Chang et al. 2009, 2011; Kupisch et al. 2014; Lein et al. 2016). The research focuses on issues of heritage language phonology and intergenerational multilingualism: What is the speech of HL speakers of AE in Israel like? How does this speech compare to the speech of their parents (their main source of input for AE)? How does MH, their L2 or primary language, respectively, affect their AE? These questions are investigated through a language questionnaire and a picture naming task targeting voice onset time (VOT) in the AE and MH stops /bdg ptk/, which differ in how phonological voicing/voicelessness is cued phonetically by VOT: AE voiced stops /bdg/ have short lag VOT (< 40 ms), while voiceless stops /ptk/ have long lag VOT (> 40 ms) (Lisker and Abramson 1964). In MH, voiced stops /bdg/ exhibit prevoicing (sometimes up to -100 ms or more), while /pt/ have short lag VOT (< 40 ms) and /k/ exhibits long lag VOT (often greater than 60 ms) (Laufer 1998). A total of 7 HS of AE; 10 American olim (immigrants; native speakers of AE); and 5 NS of MH participated in the experiment. Acoustic analysis demonstrates that HL speakers, echoing previous studies, have excellent control over phonetic and phonological contrasts in salient distinctions between their two languages, despite greater overall variability. VOT is within MH norms when speaking MH and within AE norms when speaking AE, results in line with Flege (1995)’s Speech Learning Model (SLM), which predicts that the younger the age of acquisition, the better phonetic discernment between the two languages will be, resulting in the formation of distinct phonetic categories for both languages. The American olim, rather than exhibiting purely L1 influence on the L2, show some L2 (MH) influence on the L1 (AE): Voiced stops, even in AE, tend to be produced as prevoiced, rather than short lag, a shift phenomenon that has been documented for other languages (Pavlenko 2000). This is especially apparent for /b/, but some speakers produce /dg/ with prevoicing as well. Language questionnaires taken by olim participants suggest that this L2 influence is the result of both extensive use of the L2 and cultural identification with their fellow Israeli Jews. NS of MH demonstrate typical L1 MH influence on their AE, but produce native-like AE values for voiceless stops /ptk/, likely because MH has long lag for /k/.
    • A Narrow Therapeutic Range: Public Health Role of Micronutrient Dietary Supplementation – Chronic Disease Prevention to Consumer Safety Risk

      Barraza, Leila; Degnan, William John, III; Jacobs, Elizabeth T.; Farland, Leslie V.; Klimentidis, Yann (The University of Arizona., 2021)
      BACKGROUND: Micronutrients are essential chemical compounds required in small quantities by humans and other living organisms for tissue growth and development, immune function, disease prevention, and optimal health. Dietary supplements have recognized benefits for certain populations, such as folic acid and iodine for pregnant or lactating women, vitamin D for the elderly and persons who lack adequate sun exposure, and vitamin B12 for vegans. However, there is insufficient scientific evidence to justify their use for reasons other than pregnancy, lactation, or deficiency. There are also safety risks associated with micronutrient supplementation ranging from potential interaction with prescription drugs to toxicity from excessive use. This benefit-risk trade-off is further complicated by the economic value generated by dietary supplement manufacturing and sales in the United States, which exceeded $46 Billion in 2020. OBJECTIVE: This dissertation examines the Janus-like quality of micronutrient dietary supplement use in three study manuscripts listed in the Appendix. They investigated three key research questions. Study 1: In the modified Sel/Cel Clinical Trial (“Modified Sel Trial”) conducted between 2001 and 2013, is the risk of colorectal adenoma recurrence in patients treated with selenium versus placebo meaningfully different when calculated on a per-protocol versus intention-to-treat basis? Study 2: For the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII) prospective cohort, was chromium, selenium, or zinc supplement intake associated with risk of incident endometriosis? Study 3: In the Quincy Biosciences v. Federal Trade Commission class action lawsuit settled in 2020, were Quincy Bioscience’s unplanned post hoc subgroup results for Prevagen®, a dietary supplement hereafter referred to as “Prevagen”, statistically significant versus placebo in a randomized clinical trial?