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    • An Analysis and Performance Guide of Chinese Representative Viola Works by Qingwu Guan, Nian Liu, and Bright Sheng

      Gebrian, Molly; Dong, Xiaochen; Kantor, Timothy; Traut, Don (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      This document delves into five Chinese representative viola pieces: The Sound of the Mongolian Grassland (Caoyuan Zhige 草原之歌) by Qingwu Guan , First Suite for Solo Viola by Nian Liu, and Three Chinese Love Songs, Angel Fire Duo, and The Stream Flows by Bright Sheng. These works contain numerous uniquely Chinese musical elements including pitch collections, folk song melodies, viola performance techniques. By incorporating such Chinese elements and folk melodies into their compositions, these composers have bridged cultural gaps between China and Western countries, thereby instilling a deeper appreciation of Chinese musical heritage on a global scale. Their shared contributions to the incorporation of Chinese compositional elements into viola music has helped to foster the development of Chinese viola repertoire.
    • Exploring Indigeneity in English Language Teaching Through Turi Aisa Ya With Indigenous Miskitu Teachers of English

      Nicholas, Sheilah E.; Mejia Mayorga, Jaime Fabricio; Tardy, Christine M.; Combs, Mary Carol (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      This dissertation explored the aspect of Indigeneity as a significant consideration in English Language Teaching (ELT); and thus makes a critical contribution to the literature in ELT/TESOL and applied linguistics. This body of knowledge benefits from privileging Indigenous ways and Indigenous knowledge in research practices, making explicit understandings on language use and language teaching and learning from Indigenous knowledge systems, Indigenous and postcolonial sites, and incorporating ethical approaches to research that empower all parties involved (Norton and Tohey, 2011; Pennycook & Makoni, 2020; Sterling & De Costa, 2018). As such, this dissertation was informed by Indigenous and decolonizing research methodologies that contribute to decoloniality and the advancement of Indigenous knowledge in academia. The exploration of the aspect of Indigeneity in ELT was conducted by investigating the stories and experiences of two Indigenous Miskitu teachers of English from Honduras. Additionally, the exploration includes a prologue in which the principal researcher narrates the awareness of his Indigeneity as Indigenous Chorotega in storying his life history. Consequently, I define Indigeneity as a quality of being Indigenous encompassing: as embracing Indigenous worldviews, paradigms, and ways of being, doing, knowing, and thinking (Garroutte, 2006; Huaman, 2022; Peltier, 2021); as the self-identification as Indigenous; as the awareness and interest on one’s spirituality and well-being; as the use in, interest on, and passion for one’s Indigenous language and culture (Huaman, 2022; Peltier, 2021); as the connection to Indigenous people by blood, kinship, or ancestry (Garroutte, 2006; Simpson, 2011) as well as to one’s Indigenous land, place, and community (Absolon, 2011; Sarivaara et al., 2013). The study investigated the stories and experiences of two Indigenous Miskitu teachers of English as former students of an ELT program in Honduras and current teachers of English in the public education system of Honduras. It sheds light in understanding how the Indigeneity of these Indigenous Miskitu teachers of English intersected with their preparation and professionalization as English language teachers and how their Indigeneity informs and impacts their teaching praxis. The study used turi aisa ya, an Indigenous Miskitu methodology, for data collection (Smith, 2012). Turi aisa ya is a space for sharing and the exchange of information and experiences; it requires sitting down and listening with humbleness and intention—listening to hear. Turi aisa ya is also a social activity in which participants engage in laughing, thinking together, crying, worrying, and coming up with solutions. It is imagining, experiencing vicariously, and feeling. In a similar manner to sharing circles (Lavallée, 2009), turi aisa ya is an approach “used to capture people’s experiences [and is] comparable to focus groups in qualitative research” (p. 28). In addition to turi aisa ya, the participants engaged in storywork as we were storying our intersecting lived experiences as a way of making and gaining insights from our life stories (Archibald, 2008). Engaging in turi aisa ya and storywork created the space for dialoguing about their beliefs on education merging traditional Miskitu worldviews with English language learning, English language teaching, and their lived experiences teaching in the Honduran public education system as Indigenous Miskitu teachers of English. Findings shows that the Indigeneity of the Indigenous Miskitu teachers of English, who were co-researchers on this study, was important and influential in their becoming teachers of English. First, their Indigeneity is understood as anchored in intergenerational relations as well as family and community relations, thus informed their desires to become teachers of English. Secondly, their awareness and consciousness towards the English language informed their becoming as teachers of English. Such awareness and consciousness served as a reminder on why pursuing a bachelor’s degree in ELT was relevant to them. Third, their personal traits of hard-work, resolution, commitment, and determination, aspects of their Indigeneity, intersected with their becoming as teachers of English. Said personal traits ensured that both Zoila and Wesley negotiated and navigated newer spaces and situations as they moved to new locations to pursue higher education and invested themselves in mastering English as their third language --a language that for them served community-oriented, professional, and academic purposes. Moreover, the dialogues held during the turi aisa ya sessions helped identify the ways in which their Indigeneity manifests in their teaching praxis. Their Indigeneity is manifested in their teaching praxis as reciprocity in the classroom, through the centering of well-being through a pedagogy of kindness and care, via culturally responsive teaching, and in the use of storytelling as a pedagogical tool. While these are some of the ways in which their Indigeneity is manifested in their teaching praxis, they are not the only ones considering that, as Zoila stated, “[their] Indigeneity is present in everything [they] do” (Zoila, Turi aisa ya session # 4 with Zoila. Jan, 13, 2023). Furthermore, the curricular innovations to the ELT teacher education program in Honduras, that emerge from their stories and experiences, include: (a) a class to learn about Indigenous Miskitu ways, (b) English language [pre-service] teachers learning about the linguistic diversity of Honduras, (c) representation in faculty and instructors, (d) additional preparation for students in the ELT program to teach in the public education system of Honduras, (e) formal academic and educational spaces to learn about the current state of Indigenous communities in Honduras, and (f) training students in the ELT program under the paradigm of Teaching English as a Global Language from an Indigenous relational paradigm. Key conclusions and implications for ELT teacher education in Honduras and beyond are: a) English should be taught as an additional language, b) multilingualism is as an aspect of our identities as we might be trilingual individuals (users of three languages or users of two languages and heritage speakers of an Indigenous language), and c) the ways teachers of English are educated should be innovated by a new paradigm that is encompassing of multilingual education and the fact that English is a global language. Noteworthy to identify are the limitations that impacted this study. These include a lack of Indigenous knowledge in the fields of ELT/TESOL and applied linguistics, the realities exacerbated by COVID-19 even post-pandemic, and the small number of Indigenous Miskitu teachers of English. The possibilities for future research suggest that this study could be replicated with the collaboration of more Indigenous Miskitu teachers of English as well as other teachers of English who belong to other ‘ethnic’ communities such as the Garifuna and Islanders. Also, further research could instigate other critical dialogues to gain insights into the multilingual realities of all these individuals. Furthermore, this study could be replicated to learn how other Indigenous teachers of English throughout the world teach this language as informed by their Indigeneity. Lastly, further research that builds from this dissertation could investigate how the teaching of languages such as English could look like if informed by an Indigenous relational paradigm. Keywords: Indigeneity, Indigenous Knowledge, Miskitu, Honduras, English Language Teaching, TESOL, Applied Linguistics, Global Englishes, teacher education.
    • Clinician Education: Optimizing Music Choices for Ketamine-Assisted Psychotherapy

      Velo, Jamie R.; Chenette, Christie Iliana; Young, Janay R.; Edmund, Sara J.; Reed, James R. (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Purpose:The purpose of this quality improvement project was to increase clinician knowledge regarding evidence-based music selections for ketamine-assisted psychotherapy at a local clinic. Background: Ketamine is used to treat a variety of mental health issues. Set and setting have been identified as important variables that support the tolerability and efficacy of ketamine. Music is one key variable that clinicians can utilize to optimize the therapeutic experience; however, not every provider is knowledgeable regarding how to best do this. Methods: This quality improvement project was delivered as an educational presentation for clinicians at Tucson Counseling Associates. The presentation was created based on published literature and evidence provided as a multi-media PowerPoint lecture including examples of appropriate music choices and a case study. Data was collected through a pre- and post-survey questionnaire, which was used to assess baseline knowledge and knowledge gained after the lecture. The surveys utilized a five-item Likert scale and short-answer format questions. A number was assigned to each Likert scale rating (strongly disagree = 1, disagree = 2, neutral = 3, agree = 4, strongly agree = 5) and thenumber of responses for each item on the scale was factored in. Free text responses were reviewed for major themes. 12 Results:Participant perception of current clinic practices indicated that clinicians agreed that music was intentionally selected at Tucson Counseling Associates with an average Likert-scale score of 4.43. Clinicians agreed that they understood why certain music is used for patients. The post-survey results indicated a statistically significant improvement in knowledge gain compared to the pre-survey results. Participants strongly agreed that they learned valuable information during the presentation and that they intend to use the information in their future practice. The free-response questions indicated six unique ways in which participants intend to use this new information in their clinical practice and provided insights on how to improve the intervention moving forward. Conclusions: Results suggest the efficacy of an interactive multi-media PowerPoint lecture with an incorporated case study in increasing clinician understanding and confidence in choosing appropriate music choices for KAP sessions to help optimize the patient experience.
    • The Cahuilla Research Agenda Model: Using Indigenous Methods and Cahuilla Traditional Knowledge in Research

      Trosper, Ronald L.; Lewis, Larea Mae; Reader, Tristan; Ferguson, T.J.; Tatum, Melissa L. (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Years of settler colonialism, annihilation, and assimilation caused our tribal communities to lose precious traditional knowledge in cultural traditions and our relationships to land. The relationships between people and land are significant because we create physical and cultural identities based on our life experiences while living on the landscape. We create realities that explain our presence and we make meaning of our surrounding environments. As a culture, we pass the knowledge down to our future generations, so they know where they come from and how to give respect and thanks to our Ancestors and our Creators. In return, our Ancestors give us the gifts of life. To disturb our relationship with the land is to disturb our culture and our identity. In efforts to preserve culture, researchers throughout time have documented traditional knowledge in Cahuilla language, history, traditions, and stories. Oral stories, language and traditions have also been recorded by Cahuilla Elders in books, phonographic records, and tapes. Although Cahuilla cultural studies continues with the use of these sources, it is not common practice for researchers to engage with Cahuilla communities to help with the research. Their research also does not fully accomplish the goal of directly reconnecting us to our culture or our relationships to our traditional land. In this research, I engage with my community to change the narrative and bring forth their voice in helping us reach those goals. I apply Indigenous methodologies which are methods of research that are guided by traditional knowledge systems and worldviews. Applying these methods changes the course in how knowledge is shared between the researcher and the community and how we reach researcher and community goals. Furthermore, using these methods requires us to create a research framework that includes tribal ethics, tribal sovereignty, and worldview. In this research, we explore Indigenous research methods and engage with the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indian tribe to create a research agenda model that can be used in further research studies on their culture. As an example, we explore how the Cahuilla Research Agenda model is used by applying its research methods to an ongoing research project that studies the traditional use of plants, the Cahuilla Plant Database Project. Our goal is to reconnect the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians to their traditional homelands and revitalize cultural ways of life by doing research by, with, and for the community.
    • Moving Beyond the Decolonization Framework: Indigenous Research, Collaboration, and Decision-Making in Mi’kma’ki

      Trosper, Ronald L.; Starks, Rachel Rose; Gonzales, Patrisia; Begay, Jr, Manley A.; Tatum, Melissa (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      This dissertation is divided into three parts. Part I addresses the researchquestion, literature review, and methodologies. Part II is a treatment of original research that took place at Membertou Mi’kmaq Band between 2010 and 2013. The community centered research model is described in detail, which is followed by new analysis of data that was collected during that community-centered research. Part III discusses the context of Mi’kmaq Nation action over the last several decades. This action is influenced by the experience of Donald Marshall, Jr. in two major legal cases: 1) Marshall’s wrongful conviction and incarceration for murder, and then exoneration; and 2) Marshall’s arrest for violating provincial fishing laws, leading to a landmark decision on Mi’kmaw land, hunting and fishing, and commerce rights. Both these cases, along with evolving standards for Aboriginal rights, consultation, and accommodation, and changing institutional arrangements at Mi’kmaq led to the collaborative governance regime, the Made in Nova Scotia Process.
    • Voices of Mexican Army Wives

      Beezley, William; Marquez Sandoval, Maria Concepcion; Mooney, Jadwiga Pieper; Senseney, John R. (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Voices of Mexican Amy Wives is a study about the inner world of the army, a traditionally secluded institution with a primordial role in the history of Mexico. It focuses on a group usually absent in army studies, seeking to contribute to understanding their roles, behavior, and influence. It presents written and oral testimonies of army wives chronologically from the first years of the Revolution, 1910-1924, the Social Revolution 1925- 1950s, and the Contemporary times 1960s-2016. Studying them over three periods allows readers to see changes and continuities while providing a better understanding of the institution that they are part of, showing that army wives are not passive and invisible companions and contribute significantly to the institution and their country.
    • Examining the Influence of Racial Self-Identity on Black Adolescents’ Psychological Well-Being: A Mixed-Methods Study Across Counties in Arizona and Florida

      Perfect, Michelle; Myers Saltzgaver, Taylor-Kristen; Frye, Sarah; Ijagbemi, Bayo (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      This study used a mixed methods research design to capture the broad notions of racial identity and psychological stressors’ impact on well-being in African American youth across various counties in the states of Arizona and Florida. Several forms of psychological stressors that directly impact the natural development of self, such as external racism, internal racism, poverty, and violence, have been studied extensively within the African American (AA) community (APA, 2016; Morsey & Rothstein, 2019; Williams, 2018). Current interventions provide some relief, yet Black youth still undergo high rates of victimization, criminalization, and mental health concerns. Thus, finding many solutions to mitigate the impact of more extensive systemic policies and frameworks that uphold inequality is imperative. Increasing the use of Black Personality Theory to conceptualize Black identity in youth has been shown to lead to positive outcomes such as well-being and self-esteem (Constantine et al., 2005; Thomas et al., 2003). After exploration, evidence to support a significant difference in racial identity and psychological stressors between states was not found. However, Black adolescents in Florida reported higher levels of life satisfaction than those in Arizona. Additionally, the predictive ability of African Diasporic frameworks of identity development did contribute significantly to well-being across differing counties in both Arizona and Florida. Furthermore, trends of a solidified conceptualization of Blackness’ positive impact on well-being despite immense racial stressors were confirmed.
    • Walking to Reduce Stress & Burnout in Behavioral Healthcare Workers

      Gallagher, Shawn P.; Posey, Jared; Edmund, Sara J.; Young, Janay (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Purpose: This quality improvement project educated the providers at Urgent Psychiatric Center in Phoenix on using walking as an effective intervention to reduce stress and mitigate burnout in the bigger picture of health. Background: Work stress can have detrimental physical and emotional impacts, harming one's physical and mental well-being. Mental health affects how we feel, think, and act. Being exposed to stress long-term can lead to the phenomenon known as burnout. Burnout is becoming more common and may impact patient safety, treatment quality, and patient access to care. Providers who are burned out are more likely to quit their jobs, leading to endangering patient safety and care quality. Walking is a simple, accessible, and effective tool many behavioral healthcare providers can use to reduce job-related stress. Method: The quality improvement project utilized the Model for Improvement and PSDA cycle. Participants were recruited via email to attend a live in-service educating them on stress, burnout, and walking intervention to help reduce both. Participants completed a pretest and posttest survey to measure their knowledge of stress and burnout symptoms and the benefit of the walking intervention in reducing both. Results: A total of 40 BHPs received the invitation to participate via email. In the end, 16 BHPs received the disclosure statement and the Stress/Burnout/Walking PowerPoint presentation. Six BHPs completed the pretest and posttest surveys, PSS surveys, and walking logs. Improvement was found in the BHPs willingness to participate in a walking intervention to reduce stress. After collecting the PSS survey and walking logs, the BHPs perceived stress levels were reduced after walking. Conclusion: This DNP project was a valuable learning process for the student in designing, implementing a project, and analyzing the results. Future projects could be further explored using this project as a template.
    • Enhancing the Plant Virus Surveillance Toolbox

      Brown, Judith; Keith, Cory; Beilstein, Mark; Mosher, Rebecca; Hurwitz, Bonnie; Baltrus, David (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Plant viruses are economically important pathogens of crops. Viruses exhibit extreme adaptive potential due to their quick mutation rates, extensive recombination, and horizontal gene transfer. This can lead to emergence of new viruses into our cropping systems, or the shifting of viral populations to overcome resistance bred into crops. Because of this, surveillance programs have been established to continually monitor the cropping systems for new viruses as they emerge and populations as the adapt to resistance plant genetics. In this work, three chapters detail two different surveillance methods. First, an established method for linking causality of virus infection to disease symptoms was used to characterize symptoms of an emergent Theobroma cacao infecting badnavirus (Family: Caulimoviridae), Cacao swollen shoot virus Ghana M virus. Second, a bioinformatics pipeline was written to handle target enrichment high throughput sequencing data for an endemic complex of begomoviruses (Family: Geminiviridae) infecting Gossypium spp in Southeast Asia, Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD). The pipeline, Virus Community Assembly Tool (ViCAT) was validated on simulated mock communities, spiked mock communities consisting of known concentrations of clones, and three plant samples harboring mixed infections of begomoviruses. Lastly, the ViCAT pipeline was used to characterize community differences of the CLCuD begomoviruses in differentially susceptible/resistant cotton lines. Together the chapters attempt to expand on the current tools in the plant virus surveillance toolbox.
    • Methods for Design, Metrology, and Alignment of Scalable Large Optical Systems

      Kim, Daewook; Berkson, Joel; Bender, Chad; Angel, J Roger P. (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Optics has been for 400 years one of the most impactful fields of science; starting with medicine and astronomy. Optical engineering challenges differ greatly across applications. Large optical systems are exponentially more costly and complex, especially when made in quantities of one. The future of astronomy demands more photons and higher resolution, thus even larger collecting area. Scalability is needed in order to keeps costs low while still producing these large collecting areas to meet demand. This dissertation explores methods for advancing concepts that enable large optical systems to become scalable. In Chapter 1, we discuss the problem of large optical systems: why they are needed, why that need is difficult to meet, and what concepts need to be implemented in order to solve some of those needs. The following chapters cover design, metrology, and alignment for large optical systems, with scalability in mind. The first work discusses optical design for the Large Fiber Array Spectroscopic Telescope (LFAST) in Chapter 2. At 30" diameter, this telescope is designed to be replicated thousands of times. Next, we discuss a novel metrology method to support efficient manufacturing of radio antenna panels in Chapter 3. Finally, we discuss using the same metrology method to form an accurate dish by rapidly align radio antenna panels in Chapter 4.
    • Investigating the Impact of Learner-Centered and Co-designed Sex and Relationship Curriculum by College Students

      Smith, Eric; Bermudez, Amanda Faye; Cimetta, Adriana; Burross, Heidi; Castek, Jill (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      The current dissertation sought to address gaps found in learner-led, co-construction around materials for sexual health education by investigating participants’ project development and gathering both quantitative and qualitative data around the experience of designing and researching the SRE curriculum. This is necessary to pursue since young adults have shared a need for expanded materials beyond comprehensive sex education and are heavily impacted by poor or missing education. A mixed-methods design was implemented via survey responses (N = 38), curriculum creation (n = 6), and interview (n = 1) data. Analyses of the curriculum creation data included thematic and multimodal techniques. Findings indicated five main areas of interest: participants’ diverse sources of sexual health information, knowledge gaps and strengths in sexual health topics, dissonance between learning preferences and implemented curriculum techniques, thematic priorities in curriculum creation, and multimodal approaches and design philosophies used by learners. In conclusion, this research serves as a foundational step, providing support for ongoing iterations of work in the field of SRE. The aim is to contribute to a continuous discourse that is essential for the well-being and quality of life within our community, among our students, and for ourselves. Keywords: sex and relationship education, learner-led, co-construction, multimodal, collaborative, sex education
    • A Socio-Ecological Understanding of Ecosystem Services and Their Benefits to Livelihoods: Insights from Semi-Arid West Africa and Southern Arizona

      Snyder, Katherine; Roudaut, Marie-Blanche; Meadow, Alison; Breshears, David; Crimmins, Michael (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Land degradation, the result of both climate change and other anthropogenic factors, is a complex environmental problem of serious concern in arid and semi-arid regions of the globe. Land degradation reduces land productivity and leads to losses of ecosystem services which threatens the long-term ecological and economic resilience and adaptive capacity of the ecosystem and the populations who depend on it. This issue is particularly acute in semi-arid regions where land constitutes the most important socio-economic and cultural resource for rural populations. Thus, managing the land in a sustainable manner is critical to people’s livelihood. Sustainable land management practices offer a range of techniques to reverse land degradation and enable land users to maximize the economic and social benefits from the land while maintaining the ecological functions of the land resources. In this dissertation I examine 1) the causal links between the ecosystem services provided by agroforestry and their contribution to livelihood resilience in semi-arid regions of West Africa; 2) the factors influencing smallholder farmers’ decision-making regarding the adoption of sustainable land management practices in northern Ghana to understand the complexities of farmers’ decision making and identify the barriers and constraints they face; 3) the steps necessary to build an on-the-ground network of stakeholders that can fulfill the functions of an early warning system to identify climate-induced tipping points to the socio-economic and ecological system them depend on. Through the lens of the co-production of ecosystem services, this dissertation contributes to our understanding of the multidimensionality of livelihoods of rural communities in semi-arid regions of West African and Arizona and highlights the need for more engaged modes of research to build networks of societal partners to respond to tipping points through early warnings and identifies knowledge gaps that require future research.
    • Swept Impinging Oblique Shock Boundary Layer Interactions

      Little, Jesse; Padmanabhan, Sathyan; Craig, Alex; Hanquist, Kyle; Threadgill, James (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      The focus of this dissertation is on understanding the underlying physics of swept impinging oblique shock boundary layer interactions (SBLIs) induced by shock generators with varying sweep angles ($\psi$). Experiments were conducted at the University of Arizona's In-draft Supersonic Wind Tunnel (ISWT) operating at Mach 2.28, with a fully turbulent incoming boundary layer. The study employed oil flow visualization, mean pressure measurements, and high-bandwidth pressure transducers to examine both the mean and unsteady features of these interactions. The findings reveal the presence of large-scale separation in all cases and conical similarity (3D SBLI) at higher sweep angles. Mean pressure rise near the onset of separation for all $\psi$ angles is independent of span, agreeing with free-interaction theory. However, mean pressures at reattachment for higher sweep angles exhibit mild spanwise dependence, suggesting the overall mean flow topology of the interactions is conical. To verify the conical topology and identify key 3D SBLI structural features such as strong cross-flow and open separation, numerical simulations using compressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach were performed. This comprehensive investigation provides valuable insights into the complex mean flow associated with swept impinging oblique SBLIs. In order to understand the fundamental flow similarity in swept shock boundary layer interactions, numerical studies looking at both laminar and turbulent SBLIs are performed. The hypothesis is that conical similarity (3D open separation) is due to an inviscid shock detachment, while cylindrical similarity (2D closed separation) results in cases of an attached shock. Both the laminar and turbulent SBLIs in this study are induced by swept impinging shocks and swept compression ramps. While in the laminar case, mean flow features show that all cases below the detachment limit still display conical behavior, turbulent simulations show cylindrical interactions are possible for weakly separated flows. The latter case is also consistent with experiments. The results suggest that inviscid detachment is not the only mechanism behind the flow similarity and the dynamics of open separation itself could dictate the mean scaling of the interaction. The present study also discusses open questions about whether the cylindrical observations in swept interactions are influenced by the limited aspect ratio in typical university-scale wind tunnels. Finally, unsteady pressure measurements beneath the separation shock foot show clear low-frequency unsteadiness, orders of magnitude below that of the incoming boundary layer. An increase in $\psi$ leads to a corresponding increase in the frequency of the separation shock motion. A specific analysis of the $\psi = 30.0^\circ$ configuration showed that the shock foot frequencies remain unaffected spanwise, despite changes in the local interaction length. Along the separation and reattachment line, locally accelerating convective structures in the cross-flow direction are observed. These structures are also coherent in the same low-frequency band as the separation shock motion and their local wavelength increases along the span. A minimal influence of the incoming turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations on the low-frequency unsteadiness of the separation shock is observed. Instead, significant coherence is noted in low frequencies at the reattachment line. Phase analysis indicates that the reattachment line leads the separation shock motion, suggesting a downstream unsteadiness mechanism. Additionally, cross-correlation analysis in the low-frequency band identifies an upstream propagating pressure disturbance from the reattachment line influencing the separation shock motion
    • A Summative Evaluation of a Remote Medication Titration Program for Patients with Heart Failure

      Wung, Shu-Fen; Millan, Aileen; Rosenfeld, Anne G.; Maningo Salinas, Marie Jay (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Purpose: This DNP program evaluation aimed to provide a quantitative retrospective analysis of the outcomes and impacts of a remote heart failure (HF) guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) titration program implemented at the Mayo Clinic in Arizona.Background: Heart failure (HF), whether chronic or progressive, increases mortality, morbidity, healthcare consumption, and costs. Despite significant diagnostic and therapeutic advancements, long-term heart failure management remains a challenge. Based on available research, it is possible to conclude that remote titration of guideline-directed medical therapy for heart failure leads to higher usage and optimization of said medications. Until now, a thorough evaluation of the remote titration program for heart failure medical therapies has not been conducted at Mayo Clinic in Arizona. The primary objective of this summative program evaluation was to determine the effectiveness of the remote titration program in accomplishing its goals. Methods: A retrospective data analysis of the remote titration program was conducted between March and May of 2023. A report was generated within the electronic health records (EHR) identifying 605 qualifying patients. A two-ladder approach was used to reach a sample size of 200 patients. The sample size was assessed to ascertain the proportion of participants who achieved their personalized target dose. Additionally, the study investigated whether the completed protocols were finalized within 180 days and, if not, the duration required to titrate the heart failure medications. Lastly, the evaluation identified perceived barriers to optimizing heart failure therapies. Results: Data analysis revealed that 30% of participants successfully attained their personalized targeted dosages. In this cohort, 90% of patients, reached their individualized target doses within 180 days, with a mean duration of 102.3 days in the total sample size. Hypotension emerged as the primary impediment to patients achieving target doses of their individualized protocols. Conclusions: The study showed evidence that the remote nurse-led and protocol-driven heart failure guideline-directed medical therapy titration effort was effective. This intervention increased the prescription of GDMTs while improving left ventricular ejection fraction and decreasing natriuretic peptide levels in patients. The evaluation results give empirical support for the program’s basic principles and assumptions.
    • The Political Influence of Sense of National Belonging

      Klar, Samara; Gonzalez, Frank; Wang, Ianne Susan; Sanchez, Lisa (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Throughout this decade, America has experienced ongoing and inevitable waves of conversation surrounding issues related to racial justice and immigration. The goal of this dissertation is to discuss the potential political effects, particularly on issues that challenge the current social and racial system and hierarchy, of a sense of national belonging—a relatively understudied form of national attachment in the field of political science. It is argued that due to the boundary-maintaining nature of national belonging, it should be associated with negative views on issues that potentially challenge the current system. This dissertation comprises one observational study, one experimental study, and one qualitative study.In Chapter 1, a preliminary view of the potential effect of a sense of national belonging on shifting system-challenging issues is provided by analyzing data from the Collaborative Multiracial, Post-Election Survey (CMPS) 2016. It is found that, in general, a higher sense of belonging is associated with pro-current racial system attitudes, such as a decrease in support for Black Lives Matter and a decreased perception of the severity of racial discrimination. Additionally, this relationship holds true across racial groups. Chapter 2 attempts to identify the causal relationship between a sense of national belonging and the shaping of racial reform issue attitudes. A survey experiment was conducted on Connect via CloudResearch with 279 participants. Due to weak treatment effects, the experiment failed to demonstrate a causal effect of a sense of national belonging on issue attitudes. However, additional observational examinations yielded results similar to Chapter 1—indicating that a sense of national belonging is related to negative views on racial reform. Therefore, it can be concluded that national belonging is one of the factors that shape attitudes but may not be the most essential one. Finally, Chapter 3 delves into the meaning of national belonging among students from the University of Arizona, School of Government and Public Policy. Thirty-nine students shared their definitions of a sense of national belonging and identified obstacles to feeling a sense of belonging. The results reveal that the construction of national belonging is reciprocal, requiring mutual commitment from both the government and citizens. Additionally, identity conflict emerges as a primary obstacle to experiencing belonging, a challenge not limited to students from minority groups. 
    • Neural Network Reduction for Efficient Execution on Edge Devices

      Akoglu, Ali; Mixter, John Edward; Hariri, Salim; Tandon, Ravi (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      As the size of neural networks increase, the resources needed to support their execution also increase. This presents a barrier for creating neural networks that can be trained and executed within resource limited embedded systems. To reduce the resources needed to execute neural networks, weight reduction is often the first target. A network that has been significantly pruned can be executed on-chip, that is, in low SWaP hardware. But, this does not enable either training or pruning in embedded hardware which first requires a full-sized network to fit within the restricted resources. We introduce two methods of network reduction that allows neural networks to be grown and trained within edge devices, Artificial Neurogenesis and Synaptic Input Consolidation.
    • Patient Education to Increase Self-Blood Pressure Monitoring Understanding and Cardiac Awareness

      Flamm, Kristie L.; Ho, Lesley Carla; Kiser, Lisa H.; Chwa, Eric M. (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Purpose: The purpose of the DNP quality improvement (QI) project was to create an educational seminar to improve participant awareness of hypertension, mitigate hypertension risks, and encourage self-blood pressure monitoring (SBPM).Background: Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Hypertension is considered a critical risk factor for heart attack, stroke, and heart disease. An estimated 1.28 billion adults aged 30-79 are affected with hypertension. SBPM is one way to address poorly controlled hypertension. Methods: An educational seminar about hypertension and self-blood pressure monitoring was provided at a primary care site. A recruitment flyer and handouts were given to patients with hypertension to invite them to join the QI project. The 30-minute seminar included a PowerPoint presentation on the poor cardiovascular outcomes associated with hypertension and why and how to perform SBPM. A post-survey was used to evaluate participant’s increased understanding of hypertensive outcomes and SBPM. Results: There were eight participants on the seminar date. There was improved knowledge about hypertension and the risk of uncontrolled blood pressure. Participants strongly agreed that they better understood self-blood pressure monitoring. The post-survey also indicated that patients were satisfied with the seminar and intended to use SBPM at home. Conclusions: In this quality improvement (QI) project, an educational seminar about SBPM improved patients’ knowledge about the intervention and risk factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension. The responses from the project were positive and impacted participants’ intent to use SBPM.
    • A Program Evaluation of Ketamine Assisted Psychotherapy for Treatment-Resistant Depression

      Young, Janay; Willen, Selena Skye McLeod; Poedel, Robin; Velo, Jamie (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Purpose: This program evaluation analyzed the effects of a ketamine-assisted psychotherapy (KAP) program for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) at a private mental health practice located in Tucson, Arizona. This program evaluation sought to specifically assess its effect on its patients’ depressive symptoms, based on their pre- and post-treatment Patient HealthQuestionnaire (PHQ-9) scores. Background: TRD is an increasingly prevalent psychiatric condition that is typically characterized by a lack of remission in depressive symptoms after undergoing two or more treatments for depression. Ketamine has been used off-label as an alternative pharmacological treatment for depression and other psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Research on the use of ketamine for the treatment of psychiatric disorders shows effectiveness at reducing symptoms of depression as well as other mental health disorders. Methods: Since June 2021, TCA has implemented a KAP program and had 38 participants participate in it to date. The effects of TCA’s KAP program on these patients’ depressive symptoms were analyzed by evaluating their pre- and post-treatment PHQ-9 scores. Results: After conducting paired t-tests, a statistically significant change was observed in all patients as well as just those patients who were actively diagnosed with major depressive disorders (MDD) pre- and post-treatment PHQ-9 scores. Descriptive statistics also showed that most patients participated in an average of 6 KAP sessions during their time at TCA, and the patients who appeared to have the greatest change in PHQ-9 scores throughout treatment were those who presented with severe depression (per PHQ-9 rankings) at baseline. Conclusions: The program evaluation of the KAP program at TCA provides an opportunity to detail the construction of a psychiatric treatment modality that currently does not have a set parameter of guidelines regarding how one should be structured. With a topic such as KAP which has room to expand upon within the research, program evaluations can offer an evaluation for relevant stakeholders into the benefits of their program and provide others with an understanding of how the KAP program at TCA functions.
    • The Persistent Echoes of E.M. Forster’s a Passage to India: Post-Colonial Literature in the Wake of Colonial Trauma

      Lempert, Manya; Selisker, Scott; Kennedy, Jennifer Kerry; Lempert, Manya; Selisker, Scott; Melillo, John (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      This dissertation examines the function of echo in post-colonial novels. The impact of colonial traumas resulted in the formation of social and literary ripples, and as these ripples move outward, they dissipate or collide with one another, behaving as sound-waves. These sound-waves can then be captured in text as latent echoes, and re-sounded as authors respond to traumas and to one another. This work focuses on E.M. Forster’s A Passage to India as echoic and echoed, as a novel that is structured on mirroring and reverberation, as well as a work that continues to be echoed by other authors. Examining post-colonial works that echo and respond to A Passage to India, this work looks at the function of echo in novels such as Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children, Mulk Raj Anand’s Untouchable, G.V. Desani’s All About H. Hatterr, and Aravind Adiga’s The White Tiger. Looking to the works of Judith Greenberg, Cathy Caruth, John Hollander, and Michaela Bronstein in discussing echoes and trauma, this is an exploration of the novel’s role in echoing generational colonial trauma. Seeking to better understand the function of echo and what is happening in Indian English literature over time, as either a reinscribing loop, or a means of dissipation toward healing.
    • Synthesis and Evaluation of Glycosylated Oxytocin Analogues for Treating Pain and Substance Use Disorder

      Polt, Robin; Goodman, Hannah J.; Jewett, John; Streicher, John; Heien, M. Leandro (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Peptide drugs are a promising alternative to classical small molecule therapeutics with various applications, ranging from antibiotic resistant infection to prostate cancer. Despite their increased safety profile relative to most small molecule drugs, they are poor candidates based on the pharmacokinetic properties from their peptide nature. Several strategies have been proposed to overcome these limitations, among them glycosylation. Oxytocin, a pleotropic neurohormone conserved across species for 700 million years, is involved in a range of fundamental physiological processes, making it particularly appealing as a multifunctional therapeutic. Implemented clinically for over a century, its daily use continues, and its value is affirmed by its placement on the World Health Organization’s model list of essential medicines for treatment of postpartum hemorrhage. Despite this significance, broader pharmaceutic application remains hindered by its short half-life, minimal blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration, and receptor promiscuity. The inability to make oxytocin a widely useful therapeutic after more than a century of clinical implementation is exemplary of the promise and limitations of peptide drugs. We have applied common synthetic strategies for improving the “druggability” of peptide drugs (e.g., cyclization, glycosylation) to generate robust, BBB penetrant, receptor selective oxytocin analogues. Pulsed field gradient (PFG) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy has been used to optimize delivery of these candidates from glycolipid micelles. Insights into molecular mechanisms of drug delivery, including micellar incorporation, dissociation, and controlled release of glycopeptide drug candidates, are supported by molecular modeling. The aim was to develop a novel platform capable of application to other glycopeptide candidates to deliver on the therapeutic promise of glycopeptide drugs.