• Rangeland Herbivores Learn to Forage in a World Where the Only Constant is Change

      Howery, Larry D.; Provenza, Frederick D.; Burritt, Beth; Natural Resources & the Environment, School of (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2010-07)
      When we go to the grocery store it is a fairly easy task to select and purchase nutritious meals. A readily available, predictable food supply is conveniently organized and displayed in the aisles. The nutritional composition of most foods is clearly labeled so you can immediately know what nutrients (and perhaps, toxins) you will be consuming. In contrast, rangeland animals live in a world where nutrients and toxins are constantly changing across space and time. For example, there may be 10s to 100s of plant species growing on a single acre, and each plant can differ widely in the kinds and amounts of nutrients and toxins it offers to free-ranging herbivores. Even at the level of the individual plant, plant parts vary in their concentration of nutrients and toxins; leaves, stems, and flowers, all differ in the kinds and amounts of nutrients and toxins they contain. Nutrient and toxin content of the same plant species can also vary depending on where it grows (in the sun vs. shade, on a wet vs. dry site, on a fertile vs. infertile site, etc.). Mother Nature can also drastically alter foraging environments as a result of natural disasters like floods, fires, or droughts. Wild animals may find themselves in unfamiliar environments during their natural migration patterns. Range and wildlife management practices can also place wild and domestic herbivores in unfamiliar environments via relocation and reintroduction programs or via grazing management practices. Despite all these challenges, rangeland herbivores are remarkably adept at selecting plants that meet their nutritional needs while largely avoiding plants that do not. The fact that animals preferentially select plant species that are more nutritious than what is available, on average, is strong evidence that animals are able to somehow detect nutrient and toxin levels in plants as they change across space and time. In this paper, we examine recent important discoveries that underscore the importance of learning as a critical mechanism which allows rangeland herbivores to survive in a world where the only constant is change (Provenza, 2003; www.behave.net).
    • Feeding Management for Show Lambs

      Sprinkle, Jim; Animal Sciences (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2009-08)
      As a general rule, lambs are not purchased until they are at least 8 weeks old and exceed 40lbs. in weight. The lamb should gain an average of .5 to .8 lbs. a day. This publication discusses how to feed a show lamb according to its nutrient needs.
    • Feeding Management for Show Steers

      Sprinkle, Jim; Animal Sciences (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2009-08)
      Large frame steers weigh from 1200 to 1400 pounds at finish weight, while medium frame steers are only around 700 pounds. This publication discusses how to select and feed a steer in order to get it to its' desired weight.
    • The Hopi Reservation Quick Facts

      Tuttle, Sabrina; Livingston, Matt; Agricultural Education (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2008-10)
      This fact sheet briefly describes the socioeconomic and cultural aspects of the Hopi reservation.
    • Process of Conducting Research on the Hualapai Reservation, Arizona

      Tuttle, Sabrina; Crowley, Terry; Agricultural Education (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2008-10)
      This fact sheet briefly describes research protocol on the Hualapai reservation.
    • The Hualapai Reservation and Extension Programs

      Tuttle, Sabrina; Long, Jonathan; Crowley, Terry; Agricultural Education (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2008-10)
      This fact sheet explores the socioeconomic and cultural aspects of the Hualapai reservation, and includes the extension program methods which work well on the reservation as well as collaborators who work with extension.
    • Process of Conducting Research on the Colorado River Indian Tribes (C.R.I.T.) Reservation, Arizona

      Tuttle, Sabrina; Masters, Linda; Agricultural Education (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2008-10)
      This fact sheet briefly describes the research protocol of the Colorado River Indian Tribes reservation.
    • Process of Conducting Research on the Navajo Nation

      Tuttle, Sabrina; Moore, Gerald; Benally, Jeannie; Agricultural Education (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2008-10)
      This fact sheet describes research and research protocol with audiences on the Navajo reservation.
    • Research in Indian Country

      Tuttle, Sabrina; Adolf, Melvina; Agricultural Education (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2008-10)
      This fact sheet describes research and research protocol with audiences on Indian reservations.
    • The Hopi Reservation and Extension Programs

      Tuttle, Sabrina; Livingston, Matt; Benally, Jeannie; Agricultural Education (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2008-10)
      This fact sheet describes the socioeconomic and cultural aspects of the Hopi reservation, as well as the history of extension and effective extension programs and collaborations conducted on this reservation.
    • The Navajo Nation Quick Facts

      Tuttle, Sabrina; Moore, Gerald; Benally, Jeannie; Agricultural Education (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2008-10)
      This fact sheet briefly describes the socioeconomic and cultural aspects of the Navajo reservation.
    • Process of Conducting Research on the Hopi Reservation, Arizona

      Tuttle, Sabrina; Livingston, Matt; Agricultural Education (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2008-10)
      This fact sheet briefly describes the research protocol of the Hopi reservation.
    • The San Carlos Apache Reservation and Extension Programs

      Tuttle, Sabrina; Agricultural Education (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2008-10)
      This fact sheet describes the socioeconomic and cultural aspects of the San Carlos Apache reservation, as well as the history of extension and effective extension programs and collaborations conducted on this reservation.
    • The San Carlos Apache Reservation Quick Facts

      Tuttle, Sabrina; Agricultural Education (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2008-10)
      This fact sheet briefly describes the socioeconomic and cultural aspects of the San Carlos Apache reservation.
    • The Colorado River Indian Tribes (C.R.I.T.) Reservation and Extension Programs

      Tuttle, Sabrina; Masters, Linda; Agricultural Education (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2008-10)
      This fact sheet describes the socioeconomic and cultural aspects of the CRIT reservation, as well as the history of extension and effective extension programs and collaborations conducted on this reservation.
    • The Hualapai Reservation Quick Facts

      Tuttle, Sabrina; Crowley, Terry; Agricultural Education (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2008-10)
      This fact sheet briefly describes the socioeconomic and cultural aspects of the Hualapai reservation.
    • Conducting Research Projects on the San Carlos Apache Reservation, Arizona

      Tuttle, Sabrina; Agricultural Education (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2008-10)
      This fact sheet briefly describes the research protocol of the San Carlos Apache Tribe reservation.
    • The Navajo Nation and Extension Programs

      Tuttle, Sabrina; Moore, Gerald; Benally, Jeannie; Agricultural Education (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2008-10)
      This fact sheet describes describes the socioeconomic and cultural aspects of the Navajo reservation, as well as the history of extension and effective extension programs and collaborations conducted on this reservation.
    • The Colorado River Indian Tribes (C.R.I.T.) Reservation Quick Facts

      Tuttle, Sabrina; Masters, Linda; Agricultural Education (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2008-10)
      This fact sheet briefly describes the socioeconomic and cultural aspects of the Colorado River Indian Tribes reservation.
    • Being Prepared for Show Livestock Injuries and Illnesses

      Didier, Elizabeth; Animal Sciences (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2005-10)
      Illness or injury to a show animal may be preventable by following a few guidelines. Providing a clean and safe environment and properly feeding, watering, and vaccinating animals will help to reduce the risks of experiencing illnesses and injuries. Owners should also learn how to identify signs of health problems, such as sudden changes in behavior or appearance, and prepare a first aid kit for use in the event of an emergency. Also, being familiar with emergency treatment guidelines will help owners protect themselves, prevent further injury to the animal, and properly administer care to the animal if appropriate.