Now showing items 1-20 of 74

    • Roof Rats: Pathogens and Parasites - for Pest Management Professionals and Environmental Health Professionals

      Gouge, Dawn H.; Rivadeneira, Paula; Li, Shujuan (Lucy) (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2018-11)
      The roof rat (Figures 1 & 4 Rattus rattus), also known as the black rat, ship rat, or house rat, is an Old World rodent species originating in southeast Asia. Although it is not native to North America, roof rats are established in most coastal and southern states in the continental United States (U.S.), Hawaii, and small populations exist in Alaska. Information covering the identification, ecology, and signs of roof rats are covered in a separate publication by the same authors as the publication titled "Roof Rats: Identification, Ecology, and Signs." Roof rats pose a significant health and safety hazard as they are implicated in the transmission of a number of diseases to humans and domesticated animals. These diseases include leptospirosis, salmonellosis (food contamination), rat-bite fever, murine typhus, plague, toxoplasmosis, and trichinosis.
    • Calculations for a Grid-Connected Solar Energy System

      Franklin, Ed (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2019-06)
      Whether you live on a farm or ranch, in an urban area, or somewhere in between, it is likely you and your family rely on electricity. Most of us receive our electrical power from a local utility. A growing trend has been to generate our own electrical power. Solar energy systems have grown in popularity are available for residential, agricultural, and commercial applications.
    • Communicating Research Results to Stakeholders: What Scientists Can Learn from Cooperative Extension

      McLain, Jean E.; Rock, Channah M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2018-07)
      A key task faced by all members of the water research community is to communicate the results of their research to stakeholder groups. Effective communication involves a range of tactics depending on the audience’s cultural background, level of understanding, and interest (financial, political, or other) in the research topic. Opportunities to communicate scientific results are also varied, ranging from peer-reviewed publications and presentations at scientific conferences, to conversations with community groups, to meetings with elected officials. Successful scientific communication involves gauging exactly what the audience needs to know and how to effectively deliver this information, either verbally or in writing. And yet, though early career water research professionals may leave their undergraduate or graduate studies well-versed in planning and conducting scientific study, upon graduation, their skill in communicating scientific results to stakeholders is often limited to peer-reviewed publications.
    • The Brown Dog Tick and Epidemic Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Arizona and Northwestern Mexico

      Walker, Kathleen; Yaglom, Hayley; Gouge, Dawn H.; Brophy, Maureen; Casal, Mariana; Ortiz Encinas, Veronica (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2018-05)
      The brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has a worldwide distribution and is found throughout the United States (US) and Mexico. This tick is driving epidemics of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in Arizona and northwest Mexico. As the name suggests, the tick mainly takes blood meals from dogs, but it will also feed on humans and other mammals, and can carry serious disease causing pathogens. In the early 2000’s it was found to transmit Rickettsia rickettsii, (a gram-negative, intracellular, coccobacillus bacterium) that causes RMSF in Arizona. This was the first time this tick species has been associated with the disease in the US (Demma et al. 2005). Similar outbreaks occurred at the same time in Sonora and more recently in Baja California (Alvarez- Hernandez et al. 2017).
    • E. coli Prevention and Control in Fresh Produce from Farm-to-Fork

      Rivadeneira, Paula; Rock, Channah; McLain, Jean; Brassill, Natalie; Dery, Jessica; Urzua, Rebecca (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2018-05)
      Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a common bacterium found naturally in the digestive systems of warm blooded animals and soil and is not normally harmful. However, certain types of E. coli produce toxins, called Shiga Toxins, that are harmful. These Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, also called STEC, are significant foodborne pathogens that cause illness in approximately 265,000 people in the United States each year (Scallan, 2011). There are numerous steps along the farm-to fork continuum where growers, harvesters, shippers, and processors implement prevention and control methods to minimize risk from foodborne pathogens, with the goal of ensuring that only the safest fresh produce reaches consumers’ tables. Some of these measures are taken to comply with recent federal guidelines under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), which began to be implemented by the fresh produce industry in January 2018 (FDA 2017) Table 1., but for Arizona growers, the FSMA regulations are not burdensome. Since 2007, growers of fresh produce in our state have been voluntarily following equally strict, and even more specific, guidelines developed by the Arizona Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement (LGMA) as enforced by the Arizona Department of Agriculture (https://www.arizonaleafygreens.org). You may ask, “If guidelines are so strict and if growers are so cautious, why do people still get sick from outbreaks of E. coli and other foodborne pathogens?” This paper will provide a roadmap of how fresh produce travels from farm to fork, identifying potential routes of contamination. We also describe the preventative controls that are implemented by the fresh produce industry at each stop to reduce the potential for microbial contamination, and how consumers can take simple steps to maintain safe foods eaten in their homes or in restaurants.
    • Mosquito and Tick Repellents

      Gouge, Dawn H.; Li, Shujuan (Lucy); Nair, Shakunthala (Shaku); Walker, Kathleen; Bibbs, Christopher (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2018-03)
      Personal repellents (often referred to as “bug sprays”) are substances applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces to repel or discourage insects and other arthropods, such as ticks, from feeding on humans. Repellents help people avoid bites from mosquitoes, ticks, and other biting arthropods that may transmit disease-causing pathogens, and allow them to engage freely in outdoor activities.
    • Solar Photovoltaic (PV) System Components

      Franklin, Ed (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2018-05)
      Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are made up of different components. Each component has a specific role. The type of component in the system depends on the type of system and the purpose. For example, a simple PV-direct system is composed of a solar module or array (two or moremodules wired together) and the load (energy-using device) it powers. The most common loads are submersible waterpumps, and ventilation fans. A solar energy system produces direct current (DC). This is electricity which travels in one direction. The loads in a simple PV system also operate on direct current (DC). A stand-alone system with energy storage (a battery) will have more components than a PV-direct system. This fact sheet will present the different solar PV system components and describe their use in the different types of solar PV systems.
    • Arizona Well Owner's Guide to Water Supply, 2nd Edition

      Artiola, Janick F.; Uhlman, Kristine; Hix, Gary (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-07)
      This Well Owner’s Guide to Water Supply was written to assist you to learn more about a topic of the utmost importance—your drinking water. Gaining a better understanding about your well, its components and their maintenance, well upkeep, geology, and water quality, will ultimately empower you, the well owner, to be able to better maintain and monitor your well and your water supply.
    • Stand Alone Photovoltaic (PV) Systems: A Description & Function of System Components

      Franklin, Ed (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2022-01)
      Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems provide electrical energy from the sun. The simplest systems match a solar PV cell or module to a direct current (DC) load such as a water pump or a ventilation fan. These electrical loads operate when the sun is shining. To operate an electrical load such as a direct current (DC) light during evening hours requires an energy storage device such as a battery. A flashlight is an example of a direct current (DC) load (lamp) operating on batteries. The lamp will shine if the batteries produce a charge. When the batteries lose their energy, the lamp begins to fade and will eventually cease to shine. A solar cell connected to the batteries of the flashlight could re-charge the batteries during daylight, so energy is once again provided to the lamp. For the circuit to operate, the size of the cell must match the size of the battery. Larger electrical systems with voltages higher than 1.5-volt batteries require a component to regulate the flow of electric current from the PV module to the battery and monitor the state of charge (SOC) of the battery and protect the battery from being drained by the electrical load. Examples of solar PV circuits with batteries include solar-charged calculators, wrist watches, flashlights, and lanterns. Our garden pathway lights are solar-powered as well as wall-mounted outdoor spotlights. They are simpler to install because they are not wired to our house circuits and are gaining popularity with homeowners. This publication is intended to guide homeowners with an interest in stand-alone solar PV systems.
    • Repelentes de Mosquitos y Garrapatas

      Nair, Shakunthala; Gouge, Dawn H.; Li, Shujuan; Walker, Kathleen; Andrade-Sanchez, Pedro (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2021-10)
      Concise information about using personal repellents for protection against common biting pests and safety tips, in an easy-to-read trifold format with pictures.
    • Personal Repellents

      Nair, Shakunthala; Gouge, Dawn H.; Li, Shujuan; Walker, Kathleen; Andrade-Sanchez, Pedro (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2021-10)
      Concise information about using personal repellents for protection against common biting pests and safety tips, in an easy-to-read trifold format with pictures.
    • Garrapatas marrones del perro y las enferemedades por rickettsias en la población

      Li, Shujuan; Gouge, Dawn H.; Brophy, Maureen; Nair, Shaku; Walker, Kathleen; Andrade-Sanchez, Pedro (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2021-10)
    • Brown Dog Ticks and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

      Li, Shujuan; Gouge, Dawn H.; Brophy, Maureen; Nair, Shaku; Walker, Kathleen; Andrade-Sanchez, Pedro (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2021-07)
    • Use of Personal Repellents for Protection Against Mosquitoes and Ticks

      Nair, Shakunthala; Gouge, Dawn H.; Li, Shujuan; Walker, Kathleen (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2021-04)
    • Brown Dog Ticks

      Li, Shujuan; Gouge, Dawn H.; Nair, Shaku; Walker, Kathleen; Brophy, Maureen (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2021-10)
    • A Guide For Operating Shared Water Wells In Arizona

      Hix, Gary; Artiola, Janick F. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2020-02)
      Shared water wells serving two or more households are the sole source of water for many rural homes in Arizona. There are, however, very few rules, regulations or laws to permit, use, and manage shared wells. Most homeowners on shared wells are not fully aware that they are solely responsible for management and safety of their drinking water supply. There is very little literature available on the proper management of shared wells. This publication is intended to be a basic guide for homeowners and managers of these systems.
    • Federal Appeals Handbook: Guidance for Appealing Grazing Decisions

      Daltrey, Ashley; Sullivan, Bethany; Brandau, Bill; Ruyle, George (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2019-10)
      This handbook is meant to guide ranchers who are navigating the appeal procedures in either the Forest Service (USFS), housed in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), or the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), housed in the Department of the Interior (DOI). It does not substitute for an attorney, but it does provide a comprehensive view of the appeals process, as well as helpful practice tips. The handbook is divided into two sections: 1) a general overview of USFS and BLM administrative appeals with practice tips, and 2) a detailed breakdown of the step-by-step procedures in reference to the applicable regulations. This handbook is meant to be used wherever disputes arise where grazing permits are held or applied for on federal land. The processes discussed here also will apply when a federal agency takes an official action implemented through an official decision, such as a change in permitted livestock numbers. Natural Resource Use and Management Clinic, April 2019.
    • Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS): What Consumers Need to Know

      Dery, Jessica L.; Gerrity, Daniel; Rock, Channah M. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2019-04)
      What are PFAS? Perfluoralkyl and Polyflouroalkyl Substances, also known as ‘PFAS’, are a group of stable, man-made chemical compounds that have been used worldwide since the 1940s for industrial applications and consumer products. They repel water, oil, grease, and heat and are therefore commonly used to make waterproof and protective coatings, including non-stick cookware and stain resistant carpeting. The PFAS class covers a wide range of compounds, including Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid (PFOS) as well as newer GenX chemicals which are currently being used in the place of PFOS and PFOA since being phased out by U.S. manufacturing. A defining feature of PFAS is its strong chemical structure due to bonds between arbon (C) and fluorine (F) atoms (Figure 1). These bonds represent some of the strongest bonds in chemistry and therefore can remain for long periods in the environment, in wildlife, and also in people.
    • Arizona Agricultural Pesticide Applicator Training Manual for Certification and Continuing Education

      College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2018-08
      This manual reviews basic information on pests, pesticides, and safety. It is important to realize that pesticide application should be only a part of an overall integrated pest management (IPM) plan. Hopefully, this information will help you become a safe and conscientious certified applicator.
    • Types of Solar Photovoltaic Systems

      Franklin, Ed; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-08)
      Solar energy systems can help Arizona individuals, families, and businesses achieve energy conservation goals beyond the adoption of energy-efficient appliances, and LED bulbs. Which type of system is the best? Knowing which system to select is the first important question. This factsheet will focus on solar photovoltaic energy systems. The term photovoltaic refers to the conversion of light energy to electricity.