Arizona Cooperative Extension is an outreach arm of The University of Arizona and the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS). The repository collection includes current and historical Extension publications on these topics: Animal Systems; Consumer Education; Farm Management and Safety; Food Safety, Nutrition and Health; Gardening/Home Horticulture; Insects and Pest Management; Marketing and Retailing; Natural Resources and Environment; Plant Diseases; Plant Production/Crops; Water; and Youth and Family. Current publications are also available from the Cooperative Extension Publications website.


Contact College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Publications at pubs@cals.arizona.edu.

Recent Submissions

  • Arizona Specialty Honeys

    Lesenne, Anne (College of Agriculture, Life & Environmental Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2023-05)
    Beekeepers in Arizona are lucky to live in a state where the growing season is long and there is something in bloom almost all year long. Many beekeepers choose to have one apiary location and harvest ‘wildflower’ honey once a year ($2.18 per pound)i. Other beekeepers choose to move their hives according to what is blooming and harvest specialty monofloral honeys ($12 to $18 per pound) from each nectar flow. With a little planning and cooperation with landowners or farmers, they can produce much more honey per hive as well as charge more per pound for their honey produced. To get truly monofloral honey the hive must be placed where there is an abundance of one floral resource, and not much else. Bees tend to focus on the type of nectar that is most abundant and easily available, so they cooperate with this type of management. Honeybees will fly up to 3 miles to find nectar and pollen, but they love efficiency, so placing them in the middle of, or at the edge of a large crop will ensure the best results. Pollination by bees can increase fruit set and quality as well as seed set by up to 70% in some crops! Best pollination occurs when there is at least one robust hive per acre.
  • Delicious and Nutritious: Meals for Families with Toddlers

    Wyatt, Melissa A.; Florian, Traci L. Armstrong (College of Agriculture, Life & Environmental Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2022-01)
    Providing healthy family meals your toddler approves of may seem nearly impossible to do. Oftentimes, it seems like toddlers go through phases of not wanting to eat what is prepared for the family. Furthermore, it seems like healthy eating can take too much time to prepare. These challenges can make busy parents feel overwhelmed and desperate for a solution. This publication is intended to help parents find ways to include healthy, age-appropriate options that are a part of regular family meals.
  • Keeping Food Safe at Home

    Cooper, Margarethe A.; Li, Shujuan (Lucy); Rock, Channah M. (College of Agriculture, Life & Environmental Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2023-06)
    We answer your questions about how to make sure the food you and your family prepare at home is safe.
  • Monofloral Honeys

    Lesenne, Anne (College of Agriculture, Life & Environmental Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2023-05)
    According to the National Honey Board, most of the $920 million of honey purchased last year in the U.S. was from a grocery store in a 12 oz. plastic bottle.ⅰ This honey is usually processed (not raw) Wildflower, Clover or a blend of honeys to achieve a consistent light amber color and mild flavor. Most people don’t know that there are over 300 different plants that honey can be produced from here in the United States. Since each plant is different, the nectar they produce is also different, and will produce a honey with a unique flavor profile. These honey flavors can be categorized according to the sensations they trigger in our taste buds: Sweet, Spicy, Sour, Bitter, Savory. Since taste is closely related to our sense of smell, flavors of honey will also remind us of other tastes and smells we’ve experienced.
  • Pecans Move to the West and Their Health Benefits

    Dixon-Kleibe, Ashley L.; Sherman, Joshua (College of Agriculture, Life & Environmental Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2022-03)
    Human consumption of pecans and their nutritional components that provide physical health benefits have gained more interest and increased research in recent years. The nutritional components that lend themselves to health benefit through human consumption develop within the pecan kernel and are ultimately determined by proper management of growth, development, and cultivation of the individual pecan trees. Arizona ranks 4th in the United States in total pecan yield produced, and 2nd in total yield produced per acre. This publication is one of a multi-publication series, covering an introduction of pecans to Arizona, and an overview of the nutrition the pecan provides to the human body.
  • Resources to Improve Food Safety in Tribal Communities

    Li, Shujuan (Lucy); Cooper, Margarethe A.; Rock, Channah M.; Teegerstrom, Trent (College of Agriculture, Life & Environmental Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2023-06)
    Federal, state, and university resources that you may access to learn more about food safety, produce safety rules, and good agricultural practices. We also include resources that are specifically for tribal communities.
  • Steps To Becoming a Certified School Garden

    Robbins, Natalie; McDonald, Daniel; Rivadeneira, Paula; Parlin, Jennifer (College of Agriculture, Life & Environmental Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2023-10)
    School gardens provide great teaching opportunities, while also encouraging healthy lifestyle choices. With sustainable school gardens growing more popular statewide, interest in serving garden grown produce in the school cafeteria is increasing. This article will help schools navigate the system for certifying their school garden and follow Standard Operating Procedures currently recommended.
  • Tasting Honey

    Lesenne, Anne (College of Agriculture, Life & Environmental Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2023-05)
    Most people don’t realize how many different flavors of honey exist so they probably haven’t given any thought about how to taste them and pick their favorites. Taste is how we describe what happens on our tongues and Flavor is much more about what happens in our noses.
  • The Impact of Diabetes in Arizona

    Wilson, Hope; Valente, Eleza; da Silva, Vanessa (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2019-01)
    One in 10 adults in Arizona have type 2 diabetes (T2), 1 in 3 adults have prediabetes, and most (90%) don’t know they have this disease. T2 is a costly disease and reducing the risk of T2 involves coordinated efforts to encourage healthier lifestyles. The National Diabetes Prevention Program is an initiative by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) shown to reduce the risk of developing T2 by half. This evidence-based education program promotes modest weight loss, healthy eating, and physical activity.
  • El Agua y la Hidratación para Su Niño

    Whitmer, Evelyn B. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2018-12)
    Beber suficiente liquido es importante para que su hijo se mantenga saludable: mantiene normal la temperatura del cuerpo, ayuda a generar sudor para refrescar la piel, previene el estrenimiento.
  • Water and Hydration for Your Child

    Whitmer, Evelyn B. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2018-12)
    Getting enough water (fluid) is important to keeping your child healthy: helps to keep body temperature at the normal level, helps provide enough fluid to sweat to keep you cool, helps to keep bowels moving, prevents constipation.
  • Annual Economic Contributions of The University of Arizona, Department of Nutritional Sciences — Cooperative Extension Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program — Education Spending

    Bickel, Ashley K.; Duval, Dari; Farrell, Vanessa A.; Houtkooper, Linda; Vautour, Jeffrey; Misner, Scottie (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2018-09)
    This report summarizes the total annual economic contributions of the UA SNAP-Ed program spending, including multiplier effects, to the Arizona economy for fiscal years 2013-2016. Although presented together in this study, results provide a snapshot of economic activity in a given year and are therefore not cumulative over time. Updates to this study will occur annually, as data become available.
  • E. coli Prevention and Control in Fresh Produce from Farm-to-Fork

    Rivadeneira, Paula; Rock, Channah; McLain, Jean; Brassill, Natalie; Dery, Jessica; Urzua, Rebecca (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2018-05)
    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a common bacterium found naturally in the digestive systems of warm blooded animals and soil and is not normally harmful. However, certain types of E. coli produce toxins, called Shiga Toxins, that are harmful. These Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, also called STEC, are significant foodborne pathogens that cause illness in approximately 265,000 people in the United States each year (Scallan, 2011). There are numerous steps along the farm-to fork continuum where growers, harvesters, shippers, and processors implement prevention and control methods to minimize risk from foodborne pathogens, with the goal of ensuring that only the safest fresh produce reaches consumers’ tables. Some of these measures are taken to comply with recent federal guidelines under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), which began to be implemented by the fresh produce industry in January 2018 (FDA 2017) Table 1., but for Arizona growers, the FSMA regulations are not burdensome. Since 2007, growers of fresh produce in our state have been voluntarily following equally strict, and even more specific, guidelines developed by the Arizona Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement (LGMA) as enforced by the Arizona Department of Agriculture (https://www.arizonaleafygreens.org). You may ask, “If guidelines are so strict and if growers are so cautious, why do people still get sick from outbreaks of E. coli and other foodborne pathogens?” This paper will provide a roadmap of how fresh produce travels from farm to fork, identifying potential routes of contamination. We also describe the preventative controls that are implemented by the fresh produce industry at each stop to reduce the potential for microbial contamination, and how consumers can take simple steps to maintain safe foods eaten in their homes or in restaurants.
  • E. coli, Water Quality, Food Safety, and Human Health

    Rock, Channah; McLain, Jean; Rivadeneira, Paula; Brassill, Natalie; Dery, Jessica (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2018-04)
    Escherichia coli, better known as E. coli, is a type of fecal coliform bacteria commonly found in the intestines of animals and humans (Figure 1). This bacterium lives and grows naturally in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals, but if the wrong type of E. coli gets into the wrong place in the body, such as the kidneys or blood, it can lead to severe illness, with symptoms including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and fever – possibly leading to hospitalization (U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services 2018). It is difficult to control E.coli bacteria because they are carried within all of us, and they are so small they cannot be seen by the naked eye without a microscope (Ingerson and Reid 2011). These bacteria are shed in feces and people become infected when they unknowingly consume food or water contaminated with E. coli; hence the way E. coli is spread is termed the “fecal-oral” route of transmission.
  • Mosquito and Tick Repellents

    Gouge, Dawn H.; Li, Shujuan (Lucy); Nair, Shakunthala (Shaku); Walker, Kathleen; Bibbs, Christopher (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2018-03)
    Personal repellents (often referred to as “bug sprays”) are substances applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces to repel or discourage insects and other arthropods, such as ticks, from feeding on humans. Repellents help people avoid bites from mosquitoes, ticks, and other biting arthropods that may transmit disease-causing pathogens, and allow them to engage freely in outdoor activities.
  • Physical Activity: Get Up and Move!

    Keeling, Heidi L.; Armstrong Florian, Traci L. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-11)
    Regular physical activity provides many valuable health benefits. Some of the advantages that regular exercise offers the mind and body include: Building and maintaining healthy bones and muscles. Reducing the risk and problems associated with depression and anxiety. Promoting better sleep quality. Helping maintain a healthy weight. Reducing the risk of many chronic diseases.
  • Small Scale Composting in the Low Desert of Arizona

    Murray Young, Kelly (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2014-06)
    This publication describes the benefits of composting and provides practical instructions on how to produce compost on a small scale in the low desert. Site and container selection and troubleshooting the compost pile are also covered.
  • Vitamin D for Healthy Bones

    Hoelscher Day, Sharon; Farrell, Vanessa A. (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-10)
    Vitamin D is a nutrient required for good bone health. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium and keep normal calcium levels in the blood. Children and adults need vitamin D to keep their bones strong and healthy. When people do not get enough vitamin D, they can lose bone and become at risk for breaking bones. This condition is called osteoporosis. Two other conditions, different from osteoporosis, caused by a severe shortage of vitamin D in the body can make bones very soft. These conditions are called osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children. Some research shows that not getting enough vitamin D may be linked to illnesses such as some cancers, diabetes, and heart disease.
  • Tips for Fruit and Vegetable Taste Tests in Early Care and Education Settings

    Wilson, Hope; Speirs, Katherine E.; Connell, Carly; Gallo, Isabella (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2021-12)
    Fruits and vegetables are an important part of a healthy diet. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that preschool-aged children (ages 3-5) should consume between 1 and 2 cups of vegetables and between 1 and 1.5 cups of fruits each day (U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services., 2020). Unfortunately, many young children do not consume the recommended amount of fruits or vegetables (Banfield et al., 2016; Ramsay et al., 2014). One way you, as an early care and education provider or teacher, can help children consume more fruits and vegetables is by providing a lot of opportunities for them to try fruits and vegetables. This will help them learn to like or love eating fruits and vegetables. Several studies suggest that this is an effective way to increase preschool children’s willingness to eat fruits and vegetables (Hodder et al., 2020; Nekitsing et al., 2018; Zeinstra et al., 2018). There are also studies that suggest that it might be necessary to offer a new fruit or vegetable as many as eight times before children.
  • Repelentes de Mosquitos y Garrapatas

    Nair, Shakunthala; Gouge, Dawn H.; Li, Shujuan; Walker, Kathleen; Andrade-Sanchez, Pedro (College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2021-10)
    Concise information about using personal repellents for protection against common biting pests and safety tips, in an easy-to-read trifold format with pictures.

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