• Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Site Assessment

      Franklin, Ed; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-08)
      An important consideration when installing a solar photovoltaic (PV) array for residential, commercial, or agricultural operations is determining the suitability of the site. A roof-top location for a residential application may have fewer options due to limited space (roof size), type of roofing material (such as a sloped shingle, or a flat roof), the orientation (south, east, or west), and roof-mounted structures such as vent pipe, chimney, heating & cooling units. A location with open space may utilize a ground-mount system or pole-mount system.
    • Demystifying The Solar Module

      Franklin, Ed; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-08)
      The adoption of solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems to serve as an energy source for residential, commercial and agriculture applications is growing. Early use of solar PV energy as an alternative energy source to fossil fuels became popular in the 1970’s during the rise of the environmental movement. The cost of solar power in 1977 was $76.00 per watt. A combination of factors including public awareness, demand for solar, availability of product and service, and improving technology has dropped the cost per solar watt. In 2015, the cost of solar power was $0.613 per watt (Shahan, 2014). Energy rebates offered by local, state, and federal agencies has made the adoption of solar energy more affordable.
    • Planting Pole Cuttings in Riparian Ecosystems

      Schalau, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-08)
      Riparian ecosystems are found in the transition between aquatic and adjacent terrestrial ecosystems where unique vegetative communities can occur due to free water at or near the soil surface. A healthy, functional riparian plant community provides a rich environment for insects, mollusks, amphibians, reptiles, fishes, birds, and animals. In Arizona, many naturally occurring riparian ecosystems have been impacted, altered or removed by natural processes and land management activities. This publication provides information to assist residents, landowners, and agency personnel in successfully establishing pole plantings in riparian ecosystems of Arizona. Reviewed 10/2016, Originally published 2000.
    • Types of Solar Photovoltaic Systems

      Franklin, Ed; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-08)
      Solar energy systems can help Arizona individuals, families, and businesses achieve energy conservation goals beyond the adoption of energy-efficient appliances, and LED bulbs. Which type of system is the best? Knowing which system to select is the first important question. This factsheet will focus on solar photovoltaic energy systems. The term photovoltaic refers to the conversion of light energy to electricity.
    • Mounting Your Solar Photovoltaic (PV) System

      Franklin, Edward A.; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-08)
      A description of different methods used in mounting solar photovoltaic (PV) modules or arrays for the residential, commercial, or agricultural user.
    • Hand Tools Used for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

      Franklin, Edward; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-08)
      A description of the multiple hand tools commonly used to measure energy output of solar photovoltaic (PV) silicon-type modules. These tools include a digital multi-meter to measure voltage, a clamp-on ammeter to measure current, a pyranometer to measure solar irradience, an angle finder to measure module tilt angle, a non-contact thermometer to measure solar cell temperature, and a Solar Pathfinder to evaluate a potential site for shading issues.
    • DroughtView: Satellite-based Drought Monitoring and Assessment

      Weiss, Jeremy; Crimmins, Michael (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-05)
      Remotely sensed data are valuable for monitoring, assessing, and managing impacts to arid and semi-arid lands caused by drought or other changes in the natural environment. With this in mind, we collaborated with scientists and technologists to redevelop DroughtView, a web-based decision-support tool that combines satellite-derived measures of surface greenness with additional geospatial data so that users can visualize and evaluate vegetation dynamics across space and over time. To date, users of DroughtView have been local drought impact groups, ranchers, federal and state land management staff, environmental scientists, and plant geographers. Potential new applications may include helping to track wildland fire danger. Here, we present the functionality of DroughtView, including new capabilities to report drought impacts and share map information, as well as the data behind it.
    • Arizona Ranching Budgets 2016

      Teegerstrom, Trent; Tronstad, Russ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-03)
      The dependency of Arizona ranchers on federal lands has been well documented. Mayes and Archer (1982) estimated that public and state grazing lands outside of the Indian reservations account for 85% of the total grazing land in Arizona. The partnership between private ranchers, state lands, and the federal government comes with many complex factors that influence the cost of doing business both in terms of variable and fixed costs. Not only are the regulations, fees, and enforcement of regulations a challenge for managing mixed land ownership, but additional costs from vandalism, theft, and daily disruptions of operations add to the normal operating expenses (Ruyle et al., 2000). Ownership and maintenance of range improvements, such as wells, spring development, and dirt tanks, etc., is also complicated by the rangeland ownership mix. This study is designed to examine the cost of ranching for different geographic areas in Arizona and show how different production costs exist throughout the state.
    • Invasive Plants on Small Acreage Properties in Arizona

      McReynolds, Kim; Dolan, Cori (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-01)
      Invasive plants are plants that have been accidentally or intentionally introduced to an area outside their original range and become problematic in their new environment by interfering with native or desirable species. Landowners can help prevent the spread and assist in controlling these invasive plants. Revised 11/2016. Originally published 01/2010.
    • Using Repeat Color Photography as a Tool to Monitor Rangelands

      Howery, Larry D.; Sundt, Peter C. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-12)
      This article provides an introduction to repeat color photography and explains how it can be used as an important part of a comprehensive rangeland monitoring program. Reviewed 12/2014. Originally published 05/1998.
    • A Summary of Livestock Grazing Systems Used on Rangelands in the Western United States and Canada

      Howery, Larry D.; Sprinkle, James E.; Bowns, James E. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-12)
      The objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the major grazing systems that have been used on rangelands in the western U. S. and Canada, to summarize the conditions under which they may be applicable, and to highlight examples from the southwestern U. S. when relevant. Revised 12/2014. Originally published 09/2000.
    • Rangeland Management Before, During and After Drought

      Howery, Larry D.; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-12)
      Rangeland and livestock management in the southwestern U.S. presents many formidable challenges. Environmental regulations, cattle prices, and drought are just a few factors that contribute to the management challenges of the range-livestock industry. Among them, drought may be the least controllable or predictable variable. This publication discusses how to prepare for drought in southwestern U.S. Topics include principles of drought and range-livestock management, management before drought, management during drought and management after drought. Reviewed 12/2016 - Originally published 07/1999
    • How Do Domestic Herbivores Select Nutritious Diets on Rangelands?

      Howery, Larry D.; Provenza, Fred. D.; Ruyle, George B.; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-12)
      Animal learning has been shown to play a major role in the development of diet selection by domestic herbivores. Dr. Frederick Provenza and his associates at Utah State University have conducted a series of studies over the past 30 years to learn how physiological and behavioral mechanisms govern diet selection. In this paper, we synthesize several key diet selection concepts presented in 4 articles (i.e., Provenza et al. 1992; Provenza 1995, 1996, 1997). Reviewed 12/2014; originally published 05/1998.
    • Non-Native Invasive Plants of Arizona

      Howery, Larry D.; Northam, Ed; Meyer, Walt; Arnold, Jennifer; Carrillo, Emilio; Egen, Kristen; Hershdorfer, Mary (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-12)
      The noxious weed problem in the western United States has been described as, a biological forest fire racing beyond control because no one wants to be fire boss. Indeed, when small weed infestations are left unchecked, they can grow exponentially and spread across the land much like a slow-moving biological wildfire. However, land consumed by fire usually recovers and is often more productive than before the fire occurred. On the other hand, land consumed by noxious weeds may be irreversibly changed and never again reach its full biological potential. Reviewed 12/2016, First Edition Published 2001
    • Living with Wildfire: Homeowners’ Firewise Guide for Arizona (2016)

      Jones, Christopher K.; Dennet, Carrie; Garcia, Dolores (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-11)
      Jones, C., C. Dennett, and D. Garcia. 2016. Living with Wildfire: Homeowners’ Firewise Guide for Arizona (Revised). Multi-agency collaborative pamphlet. University of Arizona College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Publication #AZ1416-2016. Tucson, AZ. 24 pp.
    • Know Your Zoning

      Apel, Mark; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-10)
      Zoning is the mechanism by which government protects public health, safety and welfare in addition to minimizing impacts to neighboring properties. This fact sheet informs the reader on where to go to find out about the zoning of their rural property in Arizona and what limitations and opportunities their zoning calls for. Revised 9/2016; Originally published 1/2011
    • Principles of Obtaining and Interpreting Utilization Data on Rangelands

      Ruyle, George B.; Smith, Lamar; Maynard, Jim; Barker, Steve; Stewart, Dave; Meyer, Walt; Couloudon, Bill; Williams, Stephen; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-10)
      A primary expression of stocking levels on rangeland vegetation is utilization defined as the proportion or degree of current years forage production that is consumed or destroyed by animals (including insects). Utilization may refer either to a single plant species, a group of species, or the vegetation as a whole. Utilization is an important factor in influencing changes in the soil, water, animal, and vegetation resources. The impact of a specific intensity of use on a plant species is highly variable depending on past and present use, period of use, duration of use, inter-specific competition, weather, availability of soil moisture for regrowth, and how these factors interact. Utilization data can be used as a guideline for moving livestock within an allotment with due consideration to season, weather conditions and the availability of forage and water in pastures scheduled for use during the same grazing season. In combination with actual use and climatic data, utilization measurements on key areas and utilization pattern mapping are useful for estimating proper stocking levels under current management. Utilization studies are helpful in identifying key and problem areas, and in identifying range improvements needed to improve livestock distribution. Reviewed 10/2016. Originally published 5/2007.
    • An easy to use system for determining range cattle body condition

      Tolleson, Douglas R.; Schafer, David W.; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-10)
      determining body condition for effective cattle management
    • An Easy to Use System for Developing a Drought Management Contingency Plan

      Tolleson, Douglas R.; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-10)
      an easy to use framework to help develop a contingency plan for drought
    • Easements

      Dolan, Cori; Apel, Mark; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-10)
      Easements are the right to use the land of another for a special purpose. Unlike a lease, an easement does not give the holder a right of “possession” of the property, only a right of use. This fact sheet describes the different types of easements for private property. Revised 9/2016; Originally Published 1/2010.