• Agricultural Use of Recycled Water for Crop Production in Arizona

      Cusimano, Jeremy; McLain, Jean E.; Eden, Susanna; Rock, Channah M. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-06)
      Agriculture is by far the largest water-demanding sector in Arizona, accounting for 70% of water demand (ADWR, 2009). Arizona’s agriculture industry is extremely diversified, producing many crops that can legally be irrigated with recycled water, including cotton, alfalfa, wheat, citrus, and vegetables. Throughout the State, farming communities are taking advantage of increasing supplies of recycled water.
    • Arizona Ranching Budgets 2016

      Teegerstrom, Trent; Tronstad, Russ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-03)
      The dependency of Arizona ranchers on federal lands has been well documented. Mayes and Archer (1982) estimated that public and state grazing lands outside of the Indian reservations account for 85% of the total grazing land in Arizona. The partnership between private ranchers, state lands, and the federal government comes with many complex factors that influence the cost of doing business both in terms of variable and fixed costs. Not only are the regulations, fees, and enforcement of regulations a challenge for managing mixed land ownership, but additional costs from vandalism, theft, and daily disruptions of operations add to the normal operating expenses (Ruyle et al., 2000). Ownership and maintenance of range improvements, such as wells, spring development, and dirt tanks, etc., is also complicated by the rangeland ownership mix. This study is designed to examine the cost of ranching for different geographic areas in Arizona and show how different production costs exist throughout the state.
    • Better Coverage of Arizona's Weather and Climate: Gridded Datasets of Daily Surface Meteorological Variables

      Weiss, Jeremy; Crimmins, Michael; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-08)
      Many areas that use agricultural and environmental science for management and planning – ecosystem conservation, crop and livestock systems, water resources, forestry and wildland fire management, urban horticulture – often need historical records of daily weather for activities that range from modeling forage production to determining the frequency of freezing temperatures or heavy rainfall. In the past, such applications primarily have used station-based observations of meteorological variables like temperature and precipitation. However, weather stations are sparsely and irregularly located throughout Arizona, and due to the highly variable terrain across the state (Figure 1), information recorded at these sites may not represent meteorological conditions at distant, non-instrumented locations or over broad areas. This issue, along with others related to quality, length, and completeness of station records, can hinder the use of weather and climate data for agricultural and natural resources applications. In response to an increasing demand for spatially and temporally complete meteorological data as well as the potential constraints of station-based records, the number of gridded daily surface weather datasets is expanding. This bulletin reviews a current suite of these datasets, particularly those that integrate both atmospheric and topographic information in order to better model temperature and precipitation on relatively fine spatial scales, and is intended for readers with knowledge of weather, climate, and geospatial data. In addition to addressing how these datasets are developed and what their spatial domain and resolution, record length, and variables are, this bulletin also summarizes where and how to access these datasets, as well as the general suitability of these datasets for different uses.
    • Demystifying The Solar Module

      Franklin, Ed; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-08)
      The adoption of solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems to serve as an energy source for residential, commercial and agriculture applications is growing. Early use of solar PV energy as an alternative energy source to fossil fuels became popular in the 1970’s during the rise of the environmental movement. The cost of solar power in 1977 was $76.00 per watt. A combination of factors including public awareness, demand for solar, availability of product and service, and improving technology has dropped the cost per solar watt. In 2015, the cost of solar power was $0.613 per watt (Shahan, 2014). Energy rebates offered by local, state, and federal agencies has made the adoption of solar energy more affordable.
    • Doing our Part to Help Conserve Arizona's Water Resources and Reduce Global Warming by Saving Energy at Home

      Artiola, Janick; Crimmins, Michael; Yoklic, Martin (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-01)
      Climate change is affecting Arizona's Water Resources adversely and water use is linked to energy consumption. This publication discusses the effects of global warming on the environment and provides tips on how to conserve electricity at home.
    • DroughtView: Satellite-based Drought Monitoring and Assessment

      Weiss, Jeremy; Crimmins, Michael (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-05)
      Remotely sensed data are valuable for monitoring, assessing, and managing impacts to arid and semi-arid lands caused by drought or other changes in the natural environment. With this in mind, we collaborated with scientists and technologists to redevelop DroughtView, a web-based decision-support tool that combines satellite-derived measures of surface greenness with additional geospatial data so that users can visualize and evaluate vegetation dynamics across space and over time. To date, users of DroughtView have been local drought impact groups, ranchers, federal and state land management staff, environmental scientists, and plant geographers. Potential new applications may include helping to track wildland fire danger. Here, we present the functionality of DroughtView, including new capabilities to report drought impacts and share map information, as well as the data behind it.
    • Easements

      Dolan, Cori; Apel, Mark; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-10)
      Easements are the right to use the land of another for a special purpose. Unlike a lease, an easement does not give the holder a right of “possession” of the property, only a right of use. This fact sheet describes the different types of easements for private property. Revised 9/2016; Originally Published 1/2010.
    • An easy to use system for determining range cattle body condition

      Tolleson, Douglas R.; Schafer, David W.; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-10)
      determining body condition for effective cattle management
    • An Easy to Use System for Developing a Drought Management Contingency Plan

      Tolleson, Douglas R.; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-10)
      an easy to use framework to help develop a contingency plan for drought
    • Economic Impact of Cooperative Extension Efforts in Rangeland Management for a Northern Arizona Ranching Allotment

      Duval, Dari; Ruyle, George; Howery, Larry; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-07)
      Estimates economic impacts of Cooperative Extension's involvement in collaborative rangeland management efforts with a rancher and federal agencies for a Northern Arizona grazing allotment.
    • Gypsum and Sulfur-Bearing Amendments for Arizona Soils

      Fuller, Wallace H.; Ray, Howard E. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1963-03)
    • Hand Tools Used for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

      Franklin, Edward; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-08)
      A description of the multiple hand tools commonly used to measure energy output of solar photovoltaic (PV) silicon-type modules. These tools include a digital multi-meter to measure voltage, a clamp-on ammeter to measure current, a pyranometer to measure solar irradience, an angle finder to measure module tilt angle, a non-contact thermometer to measure solar cell temperature, and a Solar Pathfinder to evaluate a potential site for shading issues.
    • Home-siting for New Rural Residents

      Apel, Mark; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-10)
      Choosing the right spot to build a home in Arizona on a vacant piece of property is just as important as choosing the property itself. This fact sheet describes the factors that should be considered before beginning construction on any given piece of property. Revised 9/2016; Originally published 1/2011
    • How Do Domestic Herbivores Select Nutritious Diets on Rangelands?

      Howery, Larry D.; Provenza, Fred. D.; Ruyle, George B.; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-12)
      Animal learning has been shown to play a major role in the development of diet selection by domestic herbivores. Dr. Frederick Provenza and his associates at Utah State University have conducted a series of studies over the past 30 years to learn how physiological and behavioral mechanisms govern diet selection. In this paper, we synthesize several key diet selection concepts presented in 4 articles (i.e., Provenza et al. 1992; Provenza 1995, 1996, 1997). Reviewed 12/2014; originally published 05/1998.
    • How to Be Engaged with Your Local Government on Sustainable Development

      Apel, Mark (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-10)
      While individuals may make conscious, life-style choices that promote sustainability, such as eating locally-grown food or driving a hybrid vehicle, the responsibility of “the greatest good for the greatest number” often rests squarely in the hands of local government. Often local government needs to be involved when dealing with issues that affect the community as a whole. At the same time, engaging with one’s local government may seem daunting and many people believe that there are invisible walls between the citizens of a community and their elected or public officials. However, our state and federal constitutions require transparency and access to government. This fact sheet describes the opportunities for citizens to participate directly with their local government. Revised 9/2016; Originally published 11/2010
    • Insects, Diseases and Abiotic Disorders in Southwest Forests and Woodlands

      DeGomez, Tom; Garfin, Gregg (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-11)
      Recent events in the forests of the Southwest, and across western North America, have prompted scientists to consider the role of climate variability in insect and disease cycles. Studies focusing on Arizona and other southwestern states point to multiple, interacting climate-related mechanisms that increase the propensity for forest mortality. Effects of insects on forests are complex, and species and site dependent. Many influences, such as drought, decreased precipitation, increased temperature, increased vapor pressure deficit, and increased stand density, combined in nonlinear and overlapping ways to create the recent and devastating pine bark beetle outbreaks in Arizona forests. Climate clearly plays a role in many, but not all, Southwest insect cycles. It is important that educators demonstrate the complexity of all of the interplaying issues, in order to communicate no false impressions of an “easy” or “one-size- fits-all” solution” for land managers.
    • Interpretation of Soil Analyses

      McGeorge, W. T. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1940-04)
    • Interpretation of Water Analyses

      McGeorge, W. T. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1940-04)
    • Invasive Plants on Small Acreage Properties in Arizona

      McReynolds, Kim; Dolan, Cori (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2017-01)
      Invasive plants are plants that have been accidentally or intentionally introduced to an area outside their original range and become problematic in their new environment by interfering with native or desirable species. Landowners can help prevent the spread and assist in controlling these invasive plants. Revised 11/2016. Originally published 01/2010.
    • Know Your Zoning

      Apel, Mark; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2016-10)
      Zoning is the mechanism by which government protects public health, safety and welfare in addition to minimizing impacts to neighboring properties. This fact sheet informs the reader on where to go to find out about the zoning of their rural property in Arizona and what limitations and opportunities their zoning calls for. Revised 9/2016; Originally published 1/2011