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Insects, Diseases, and Abiotic Disorders in Southwest Forests and Woodlands (Climate Change and Variability in Southwest Ecosystems Series)Recent events in the forests of the Southwest have prompted scientists to consider the role of climate variability in insect and disease cycles. Over 70 million pine trees along with millions of other conifers died in 2002-03. Average temperature increases of 3°C enabled the MPB at those high elevations to achieve univoltine (having one generation per year) reproduction leading to previously unheard of outbreaks in white bark pine at high elevation sites in Idaho.Aspen defoliation in Arizona and New Mexico averaged ~ 20,375 acres from 1990 to 1997. A series of events has contributed to the decline of aspen since 1997.