• Early Season Crop Management

      Silvertooth, Jeffrey C. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-06)
      The approaches and techniques used to produce a cotton crop in Arizona can vary to some degree from county to county, or from farm to farm. However, one of the objectives that has become increasingly common across Arizona is that of achieving earliness with a crop.
    • General Maturity Groups for Cotton Varieties

      Silvertooth, Jeffrey C. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-06)
      Three maturity groupings are often used to classify cotton varieties, consisting of: 1) short season or more determinate plants, 2) medium season varieties, and 3) long or full season varieties which are more indeterminate in nature. Classification of cotton varieties into one of these three categories is not necessarily straightforward in all cases. In fact, it easily can become a process of “splitting hairs” when making maturity grouping designations for cotton varieties. Nevertheless, maturity designations are commonly assigned to most commercially available varieties, which can effect selection and management.
    • Water Management for Defoliation

      Silvertooth, Jeffrey C. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-06)
      There are several factors which are important to consider in managing defoliation. Factors such as plant-water relations, Nitrogen (N) fertility status, the extent of honeydew deposits on the leaves from insects such as the sweet potato whitefly or aphids, and weather conditions following the defoliant application are all important in terms of the final defoliation results.
    • Phosphorus Fertilizer Rate Effect on Alfalfa Yield and Soil Test P, Buckeye, 2014

      Ottman, Mike; Rovey, Jason; Mostafa, Ayman; Burayu, Worku; University of Arizona, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences; Rovey Farming Company; Maricopa County Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-06)
      Phosphorus is the primary fertilizer nutrient needed by alfalfa in Arizona. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of P fertilizer rate on alfalfa yield and soil test P. A phosphorus fertilizer rate study was conducted with alfalfa in Buckeye, AZ where 11-52-0 was applied at 0, 200, 400, and 800 lb fertilizer/acre in February, 2014 after the first cutting. Alfalfa hay yield was increased by phosphorus fertilizer application up to the cutting on July 30, but not thereafter. No differences in yield were found among the fertilizer rates of 200,400, and 800 lb 11-52-0/acre. Soil test phosphorus increased directly proportional to fertilizer rate, but eventually decreased close to deficient levels 3-5 months after fertilizer application. It is not known if additional fertilizer applications throughout the season would increase yield. Fertilizer rates higher than 200 lb 11-52-0/acre were not beneficial under the conditions of this study.
    • Growing Strawberries in Home Gardens

      DeGomez, Tom (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-06)
      Strawberries are easy to grow. They provide the first fruit of the season, and are quick to bear. When harvested fully ripe in the home garden they have excellent flavor. In stores they can be expensive and are often harvested prior to being fully ripe. Various types of strawberries are available. Each type has specific environmental requirements such as temperature and hours of daylight for good production. With the wide range of climatic zones in Arizona it is important to choose the right type of strawberry for your growing conditions.
    • Training and Pruning Newly Planted Decidous Fruit Trees

      DeGomez, Tom (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-06)
      Training and pruning newly-planted deciduous fruit trees is one of the most important steps in developing trees with a strong framework (scaffold branches). Trees with a good framework of branches can support heavy crops without limb breakage and will help to bring the young tree into production at an early age. Selection and arrangement of these branches determines the type of development and growth in later years. The goal of pruning and training is to balance vegetative and fruiting wood growth.
    • Estimating the Vegetative/Reproductive Balance in Cotton Growth

      Silvertooth, Jeffrey C. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-06)
    • Agricultural Use of Recycled Water for Crop Production in Arizona

      Cusimano, Jeremy; McLain, Jean E.; Eden, Susanna; Rock, Channah M. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-06)
      Agriculture is by far the largest water-demanding sector in Arizona, accounting for 70% of water demand (ADWR, 2009). Arizona’s agriculture industry is extremely diversified, producing many crops that can legally be irrigated with recycled water, including cotton, alfalfa, wheat, citrus, and vegetables. Throughout the State, farming communities are taking advantage of increasing supplies of recycled water.
    • Soil Fertility and Soil Testing Guideline for Arizona Cotton

      Silvertooth, Jeffrey C. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-06)
      According to all available evidence, there are 20 total nutrients necessary for complete plant growth and development. Not all are required for all plants, but all have been found to be essential to some.
    • Sudangrass Hay Production in the Irrigated Deserts of Arizona and California

      Knowles, Tim C.; Ottman, Michael J. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-05)
      Foreign sudangrass hay buyers want dust-free hay with a bleached light green color and a stem diameter less than one quarter of an inch. Two types of sudangrass hybrids are currently grown in the United States: true sudangrass hybrids and sorghum-sudan hybrids. Sudangrass and related hybrids are annual warm season grasses grown for pasture, green chop, silage, and hay. Sudangrass produces well on all soil types, however best yields are obtained on well-drained, deep loam soils that have a high capacity to absorb and hold water. Sufficient nitrogen should be applied at planting to ensure establishment of the crop and hasten development. Typically, 40 to 80 pounds of actual nitrogen per acre are suggested at planting, based on results from a preplant nitrate-nitrogen soil test. This should be followed by split applications of 60 to 120 pounds actual nitrogen per acre in irrigation water following each cutting. Harvest sudangrass when it is at least 18 to 24 inches tall at the first cutting. Nitrates present in hay crops are considered toxic to many classes of livestock. Most cases of hydrocyanic or prussic acid poisoning are caused by the ingestion of plants that contain cyanogenetic glucosides. Cyanogenetic glucoside itself is non-toxic but hydrocyanic acid.
    • Cultural Practices for Karnal Bunt Control

      Ottman, Michael J (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-05)
      Environmental conditions between awn emergence and the end of flowering is the overriding factor in disease development. 2 The University of Arizona Cooperative Extension Cultural practices may be partially effective in controlling Karnal bunt but cannot eliminate the disease completely. Karnal bunt is most likely to be found in areas where lodging or water ponding have occurred.
    • Planting methods for small grains in Arizona

      Ottman, Michael J. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-05)
      Small grains are planted for a variety of reasons, but their rotational benefit makes them a popular crop all over the world and influences the way they are planted. One of the major benefits of small grains as rotational crops is that they cover the soil and suppress weeds. Thus, small grains are most commonly solid seeded with a grain drill.
    • Planting Dates for Small Grains in Arizona

      Ottman, Michael J (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-05)
      Planting at the optimum time is probably the most important cultural practice in producing high small grain yields. Wheat and barley crops that are planted too early or too late have lower yield potential no matter how they are grown after planting. However, small grains are sometimes planted later than optimum when grown in rotation with cotton or vegetables due to harvest timing in these crops. Therefore, the entire farm enterprise should be considered when deciding on a planting date for small grains.
    • Seeding rates for small grains in Arizona

      Ottman, Michael J. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-05)
      Wheat and barley are the two major small grain crops in Arizona. These crops can produce yields near maximum at a wide range of seeding rates due to yield component compensation. Grain yield is determined by plants per unit area, tillers per plant, kernels per head, and kernel weight. At a low seeding rate, the plant will compensate for fewer plants per unit area by producing more tillers per plant and larger heads. At a high seeding rate, fewer tillers are produced compared to a low seeding rate, and the heads are smaller. Therefore, grain yields near maximum can be produced at a wide range of seeding rates if conditions are favorable (see Fig. 1). Weed control can be a problem at low seeding rates and lodging may be a problem at high seeding rates. The optimum seeding rate for small grains depends on a variety of factors which will be discussed
    • Growing Alfalfa for Seed in Arizona

      Husman, Stephen H; Ottman, Michael J (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-04)
      Seed production for profitability is challenging. Cultural practices differ from those commonly used in forage production. This article outlines management recommendations that may help to accomplish profitable seed alfalfa yields.
    • Backyard Fruit Production at Elevations 3500 to 6000 Feet

      Young, Deborah; Call, Robert E; Kilby, Michael; DeGomez, Tom (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-03)
      The mid elevations (3,500 to 6,000 feet) in Arizona can be ideal for growing tree fruit. Site selection can make a pronounced effect on how well fruit will grow and produce. The warmer the site the greater the chance of success. Areas where cold air settles are a poor choice for tree fruit production. Variety selection is very important for good fruit production.February and March are the best months to plant bare root trees, although they can be planted anytime during the dormant season. Try to plant 30 days before bud break. Containerized plants are best planted in late September through early October. The open center pruning system allows for more sunlight to reach all the branches of the tree. Whereas the central leader is used with those trees that are less vigorous. Training trees when young is an important step in ensuring a strong scaffold system when bearing. Fruit thinning helps to control fruit size and consistent bearing. Proper fertilization, irrigation, and pest control will promote healthy productive trees.
    • Evaluation of Nitrogen Fertilization Practices for Surface-Irrigated Lemon Trees - 2012

      Wright, Glenn C; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona; Yuma Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-02)
      Lisbon lemons were treated with N levels ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 lbs. N per tree annually. Fourth–season yield results from the trial show significant effects of the treatments upon overall yield and leaf N concentrations, but no effect upon fruit packout. Treatments did lead to a significant effect upon leaf nutrient concentration. Total cumulative yields from 2008 to 2012 (not including the freeze-affected 2011-12 season) were significantly affected by the treatments. Trees treated annually with 2.0 lbs N had the greatest yield, which represented a 12% increase over the yield of trees treated with just 0.5 lbs. N annually.
    • Cotton (Texas) Root Rot

      Olsen, Mary (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-02)
      The most important disease of woody dicotyledonous plants in Arizona is Phymatotrichopsis root rot (Cotton or Texas root rot) caused by a unique and widely distributed soil-borne fungus, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora. The fungus is indigenous to the alkaline, low-organic matter soils of the southwestern United States and central and northern Mexico.
    • Control of Brown Wood Rot in Lemons with Low Pressure Injection 2012

      Wright, Glenn C.; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona; Yuma Agriculture Center, Yuma, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2015-02)
      We injected AGRA PHOS (Potassium Phosphite) 0-2.4-2, Propaconizole – 0.05%, Propaconizole plus Azoxystrobin – 0.117 and 0.135% respectively, Zn, Mn and Fe 0.105, 0.112, and 0.10% respectively, and Azoxystrobin – 0.137% using a low pressure injection system for the control of Antrodia sinuosa in lemon trees. The Propaconizole + Azoxystrobin treatment, the Azoxystrobin treatment, and the Zn + Mn + Fe treatment led to significantly less fungal lesion growth when applied prior to the introduction of the fungus, as compared to their application after fungal introduction.
    • Water Use in Vegetables - Cauliflower

      Martin, Edward C.; Slack, Donald C.; Pegelow, E. J. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2014-10)
      This publication discusses water use in cauliflower production in Arizona.