• Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide-induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW 264.7 Macrophages by Aqueous Extract of Clinopodium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae)

      Burk, David; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Daskalova, Sasha (The University of Arizona., 2012-04-30)
      ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The wild basil Clinopodium vulgare L. is commonly used in Bulgarian folk medicine for treatment of irritated skin, mastitis- and prostatitis-related swelling, as well as for some disorders accompanied with significant degree of inflammation (e.g. gastric ulcers, diabetes, and cancer). AIM OF STUDY: To determine the effect of aqueous extract of Clinopodium vulgare L. on LPS-induced inflammatory responses of murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay. Protein expression levels were monitored by Western blot analysis. Production of NO and PGE(2) was measured by the Griess colorimetric method and enzyme immunoassay, respectively. Activation of MMP-9 was visualized by gelatin zymography. Cytokine levels were determined by BioPlex assay. Intracellular ROS and free radical scavenging potential were measured by DCFH-DA and DPPH method, respectively. Xanthine oxidase activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically.