• Renal Cell Carcinoma in Arizona American Indians/Alaska Natives

      Winegard, Billie; The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix; Flood, Timothy (The University of Arizona., 2012-05-02)
      OBJECTIVE – This study assesses trends in the incidence of cancers of the kidney and renal pelvis (K&RP) with focus on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from 1995-2009 among American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) residing in Arizona. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS – Using the Arizona Cancer Registry (ACR), we obtained the total number of new cases of cancers of the K&RP from 1995 through 2009. The incidence rates of these cancers, as well as the sub-group of RCC, were age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. population for comparison between populations. Comparisons between demographic and tumor characteristics were also completed between AI/AN and non-Hispanic white cases. RESULTS – Between 1995 and 2009, 502 cases of K&RP were diagnosed in AI/AN in Arizona, with a majority of these cases (463, 92.23% of cases) being RCC of the kidney parenchyma. Over the study period, the age-adjusted incidence per 100,000 population was 19.18 for all tumors of the K&RP and 17.65 for RCC. Comparing the average age-adjusted rate over the first third (1995-1999) of the study period versus the last third (2005-2009), the rate of RCC among AI/AN increased 12.30% from 16.55 to 18.58 per 100,000 population. When this rate was stratified by sex, AI/AN males showed the most striking increase - 54.56% (19.22 to 29.70 cases of RCC per 100,000 population). While AI/AN females showed a decrease in the rate of 28.24% (14.20 to 10.19 cases per 100,000 population). CONCLUSIONS – The incidence rate of RCC has increased dramatically in Arizona AI/AN males. Research looking at this disease in this group is needed to determine which risk factors may be associated and to determine if any steps can be taken toward prevention or if there is a need for screening in this population.