METALLOGENESIS FOR THE BOLÉO AND CANANEA COPPER MINING DISTRICTS: A CONTRIBUTION TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF COPPER ORE DEPOSITS IN NORTHWESTERN MÉXICO
KeywordsBaja California Sur
porphyry copper deposits
stratiform copper deposits
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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EmbargoEmbargo: Release after 10/13/2011
AbstractNorthwestern Mexico is characterized by different metallogenic provinces that are included along the Basin and Range, the Sierra Madre Occidental, and the Baja California geological provinces. With the purpose of contribute to the current understanding of the mineralizing processes, the present study focused on two important copper metallogenic provinces: the Cananea Porphyry District in Sonora, and the Sediment-hosted Stratiform Copper- and Mn-deposits in Baja California Sur. The U-Pb zircon ages from the mineralizing porphyries from Cananea district suggest a continued magmatic activity period of ~6 Ma. Also suggests a period of ~20 Ma for the entire magmatic activity in the district. The Re-Os molybdenite ages demonstrate five well-constrained mineralization events in the district; the main mineralization is constrained over a short period of time (~4 Ma). The new molybdenite age from the Pilar deposit documents the oldest mineralizing pulse, suggesting possibly the initiation of the Laramide mineralization in northern Sonora. A detailed study of Mariquita porphyry Cu and Lucy Cu-Mo deposits in the Cananea district was performed. Four hydrothermal stages were defined in Mariquita, whereas a single hydrothermal pulse characterizes Lucy. Emplacement depths between 1-1.2 km, and temperatures between 430-380ºC characterized the mineralization from Mariquita, whereas deeper emplacement depths and higher mineralization temperatures characterized Lucy. The stable isotope systematic and fluid inclusion data determined that the mineralizing fluids in Mariquita deposit are essentially magmatic during the earlier hydrothermal stages, whereas the last stage is the mixing between magmatic and winter meteoric-waters. The mineralizing fluids from Lucy deposit are magmatic in origin. A comprehensive study was performed in the Cu-Co-Zn-Mn ineralization of the Boléo District, and Mn-oxide mineralization along the eastern coast Baja California Sur. The REE and trace element in the Mn-oxides demonstrated the exhalative nature of the mineralizing hydrothermal fluids, and exclude the hydrogenous nature. The stable isotope systematic in ore and gangue minerals, along with the Cu-isotope data helped to decipher the nature of mineralizing and non-mineralizing fluids. The application of Pb, Sr and Re-Os isotope systems was applied to constrain the nature of the fluids involved during the mineralization processes and that the metal sources.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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A Re-Os Study of Sulfides from the Bagdad Porphyry Cu-Mo Deposit, Northern Arizona, USARuiz, Joaquin; Barra-Pantoja, Luis Fernando; Ruiz, Joaquin; Patchett, P. Jonathan; Titley, Spencer R.; Barra-Pantoja, Luis Fernando (The University of Arizona., 2001)Use of Re-Os systematics in sulfides from the Bagdad porphyry Cu-Mo deposit provide information on the timing of mineralization and the source of the ore -forming elements. Analyzed samples of pyrite, chalcopyrite and molybdenite mainly from the quartz monzonite and porphyritic quartz monzonite units are characterized by a moderate to strong potassic alteration (secondary biotite and K- feldspar). Rhenium concentrations in molybdenite are between 330 and 730 ppm. Two molybdenite samples from the quartz monzonite and porphyritic quartz monzonite provide a Re-Os isotope age of 71.7 ± 0.3 Ma. A third sample from a molybdenite vein in Precambrian rocks yields an age of 75.8 ± 0.4 Ma. These molybdenite ages support previous suggestions of two mineralization episodes in the Bagdad deposit. An early event at 76 Ma and a later episode at 72 Ma. Pyrite Os and Re concentrations range between 0.008-0.016 and 3.9-6.8 ppb, respectively. Chalcopyrite contains a wide range of Os (6 to 91 ppt) and Re (1.7 to 69 ppb) concentrations and variable ¹⁸⁷Os/¹⁸⁸Os ratios that range between 0.13 to 22.27. This variability in the chalcopyrite data may be attributed to different copper sources, one of them the Proterozoic volcanic massive sulfides in the district, or to alteration and remobilization of Re and Os. Analyses from two pyrite samples yield an eight point isochron with an age of 77 ± 15 Ma and an initial ¹⁸⁷Os/¹⁸⁸Os ratio of 2.12. This pyrite Re-Os isochron age is in good agreement with the molybdenite ages. We interpret the highly radiogenic initial 1870s/188Os as an indication that the source of Os and, by inference, the ore-forming elements for the Bagdad deposit, was mainly the crust. This conclusion agrees with previous Pb and Nd isotope studies and supports the notion that a significant part of the metals and magmas have a crustal source.