• Navajo Warfare and Economy, 1750-1868

      Kemrer, Meade; Graybill, Donald A.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (University of Alberta (Edmonton, AB), 1970-11)
      Introduction: Dendrochronology has traditionally been employed by archaeologists in a typological sense to provide the necessary spatio-temporal framework for changing attribute or element configurations. In contrast, this paper will stress the potential of dendrochronological analysis as a powerful inferential tool for studying the dynamics of changing human behavior. The most extensive archaeological survey of an ethnically identified population in the American Southwest was conducted between 1953 and 1960 for the Navajo Land Claims Commission. Legally acceptable evidence of Navajo use and occupancy of contested or extra-reservation areas made rigorous time-controls a necessity. These were provided by tree-ring dating, the dating of Navajo ceramics and trade items associated with sites, and through informants who not only knew when sites were occupied, but often the age, sex and clan membership distributions of the former occupants. Criteria for the Navajo identity of structures and features were derived from ethnohistoric research and interviewing Navajos and other persons who had experienced intimate contact with the Navajo people (Littell, 1967).