• Radial Growth Assessment of Western Spruce Budworm Infested Douglas-Fir Trees on the Carson National Forest, New Mexico

      Swetnam, Thomas W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983-11-03)
      Growth of western spruce budworm (WSBW) infested Douglas-fir (Pseudotsugae menziesii) forests on the Carson National Forest, New Mexico, was assessed through dendrochronological analysis of increment cores extracted at breast height. Comparisons of indexed and filtered host and non-host (ponderosa pine [Pinus ponderosa]), tree-ring chronologies revealed that host tree growth was reduced during past and present WSBW outbreaks. The non -host chronologies were used to remove the non-WSBW growth effects from the host chronologies, and the corrected host tree growth indices were then used to assess growth loss during known outbreak periods. Maximum growth loss during one year was generally greater than 50 percent. The average growth loss for five year periods during outbreaks was approximately 30 to 40 percent, and the maximum growth loss between two years during an outbreak was usually more than 50 percent.
    • Radial Growth Losses in Douglas-Fir and White Fir Caused by Western Spruce Budworm in Northern New Mexico: 1700-1983

      Swetnam, Thomas W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1985-10-31)
      Regional outbreaks of western spruce budworms (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) have recurred at least three times in northern New Mexico since the early 1920's when the U. S. Forest Service first began systematic forest-pest surveys and documentation (Lessard 1975, U. S. Forest Service documents). The current outbreak was first noticed in a small area on the Taos Indian Reservation in 1974, and since then the defoliated areas have increased in New Mexico and Arizona to more than 370,000 acres of Federal, Indian, State and private lands (Linnane 1984). Losses in timber values can generally be ascribed to radial growth loss, height growth loss, topkilling, reduced regeneration, and mortality (Carlson et al. 1983, Fellin et al. 1983). A damage assessment project was initiated in 1978 and was aimed at obtaining measurements of some of these losses in budworm infested stands on the Carson National Forest, New Mexico (Holland and Lessard 1979). A large data base has subsequently been developed, including yearly measurements on topkilling, mortality, defoliation, and insect population changes (Stein 1980, 1981, Stein and McDonnell 1982, Rogers 1984). A growth assessment study was undertaken in 1982 to determine the feasibility of using dendrochronological methods to identify the timing of past outbreaks and to quantify radial growth losses associated with budworm defoliation (Swetnam 1984). Results of this work showed that three major outbreaks during the twentieth century were clearly visible in the tree-ring samples obtained from currently infested trees. The radial growth of host trees was corrected for age, climate and other non-budworm environmental effects, and then growth losses were computed as a percentage of expected growth (Swetnam 1984). Additional collections were obtained in 1984 in order to expand the scope of the radial growth study. The objectives included 1) assessment of a larger number of tree -ring samples, 2) comparison of radial growth losses between the two primary host species - Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and white fir (Abies concolor), 3) comparison of radial growth losses between age classes, and 4) analysis of the relationship between yearly measurements of defoliation, insect populations and radial growth. This report summarizes the findings of the above analyses. Increment core samples from the 1982 collections are included here, therefore this report supersedes the earlier report (Swetnam 1984). Information is also presented on observations derived from the dated tree-ring series on the timing of occurrence of known and inferred spruce budworm outbreaks for the past 284 years (1700- 1983). This is the longest record of spruce budworm occurrence yet developed for western North America.
    • Rates of Slope Degradation as Determined from Botanical Evidence, White Mountains, California

      LaMarche, Valmore C., Jr.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (United States Government Printing Office (Washington, D.C.), 1968)
    • Recent Developments in New World Dendrochronology

      Bannister, Bryant; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (1966)
    • Reconstruction of Past Climatic Variability: Final Technical Report

      Fritts, Harold C.; Blasing, T. J.; DeWitt, E.; Lofgren, G. R.; McDougall, K. B.; Shatz, D. J.; Sherwood, J.A.; Stevens, D. W.; Winter, C. L.; Wiseman, M. A.; et al. (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1976-03-01)
      Results are reported from the first three years of a five-year project to reconstruct past climatic fluctuations in the Northern Hemisphere from variations in the growth rings of trees. The most significant result is the growing international collaboration stimulated by this research effort. The second is the development of 127 high-quality tree-ring chronologies from North America and Europe. Other developments include the establishment of the International Tree-Ring Data Bank, evaluation of multivariate techniques for calibration and analysis, the selection of a revised data set for reconstructing North American climate, and several other technical achievements. These results now will be used to improve reconstructions of past climate and to expand them to eastern North America and Europe.
    • Report Submitted to the National Science Foundation Climate Dynamics Program on the Dendroclimatology Workshop held at the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research

      Fritts, Harold C.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1977-11-01)
    • Riparian dendrochronology: a method for determining flood histories of ungaged watersheds

      Laing, David; Stockton, Charles Wayne; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1976-08)
      Examination of 106 crossdated tree-ring cores from the riparian zone of Pine Creek near Escalante, Utah, 10 cores from Bright Angel Creek, Grand Canyon, Arizona, 8 cores from South Taylor Creek, Zion National Park, Utah, and 5 cores from the Animas River near Silverton, Colorado, has yielded the following information: 1. Various riparian gymnosperm and angiosperm species crossdate with semi-arid site gymnosperms. 2. Tree growth is best correlated with snowpack water equivalent. 3. Flood damage to trees is manifested in growth suppression on root exposure or burial, in reaction wood on tilting, and in scarring. 4. Flood damage is very infrequent at Pine Creek from 1700 to 1880, more so from 1880 to 1909, and very frequent from 1909 to the present. (The town of Escalante was settled in 1875, and stocking of the range around Pine Creek reached a maximum shortly after 1900.) 5. Flood damage shows fairly constant frequency in the Bright Angel Creek watershed, which has seen little land use. 6. Flood damage on South Taylor Creek shows a marked increase in frequency between about 1900 and 1937 when the region was included in Zion National Monument, after which flood damage declined markedly in frequency.
    • Sampling and Precise Dating Requirements for Extracting Isotopic Records from Tree Rings

      Stockton, Charles W.; Boggess, William R.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (American Chemical Society (Washington, D.C.), 1982)
      The use of tree-ring width series as the time control for extraction of isotope and chemical information from wood cellulose has become commonplace. However, many researchers are unaware of the need to maximize the signal in the tree-ring series by sampling from those populations that are most sensitive to past environmental conditions. The series which are most environmentally sensitive may also be the most difficult to date accurately. Therefore a sufficient number of samples must be collected to provide adequate dating control. Techniques exist that can assure precise dating of individual ring widths but they depend on adequate replication of samples. Proper site selection and dating techniques for adequate tree-ring analysis will be discussed. Examples will be cited in which necessary sampling depth and ring width analysis appear to be insufficient to justify subsequent conclusions made from the derived isotopic series.
    • Sampling Techniques Used in Dendrochronology

      Ferguson, C. W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1966-05-16)
    • Santa Catalina Mountains: Biological and Geological Description and Road Log

      University of Arizona. (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1974-06)
    • Selected Readings in Dendrochronology

      Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1982)
    • Selected References in Dendrochronology

      Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-08)
    • Southwest Archaeological Tree-Ring Dating

      Dean, Jeffrey S.; Robinson, William J.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-01-31)
    • A Study of the Physiological Relationships Underlying Correlations of Tree-Ring Width and Climate

      Fritts, Harold C.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1969-05-22)
    • To the Friends of Camille Flammarion

      Henri Tessier (Orléans), 1926-05-20
    • Tree Ring Evidence of a 22-Year Rhythm of Drought Area in Western United States and Its Relationship to the Hale Solar Cycle

      Stockton, Charles W.; Meko, David M.; Mitchell, J. Murray, Jr.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Data and Information Service, Silver Spring, MD (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1978-09)
    • Tree Ring Research Shows Benefits of Natural Forest Fires

      Graduate College, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1982-12
    • Tree Rings and Forest Mensuration: How Can They Document Trends in Forest Health and Productivity?

      University of Arizona. Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-04)
    • Tree Rings in the Western Great Basin

      Ferguson, C. W.; Wright, R. A.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Nevada State Museum (Carson City, Nevada), 1963-01)
      Introduction: The success of tree-ring dating in the Southwest has not been duplicated in the Great Basin area. Studies of modern tree-ring material in the western Great Basin have been relatively limited, but substantial work has been done by Douglass (1928), Hardman and Reil (1936), Keen (1937), Antevs (1938), Schulman (1956), Schulman and Ferguson (1956), Ferguson and Wright (1962), and Ferguson (1963) . In terms of tree-ring dating in the Great Basin, as elsewhere, there are two major aspects: the modern, dealing with both chronology building and interpretation in terms of environment, and the archaeological. Archaeological dating is dependent upon the finding of tree -ring material of suitable sensitivity and length preserved in archaeological context. There has been no dating of archaeological tree -ring material in the Great Basin due to a combination of the paucity of excavated wood and charcoal and to the difficulty in dating any such material. Conditions for the dating of both modern and archaeological material, however, are met in the western Great Basin, and it remains for time and the active participation of research workers to establish the framework for more extensive dating in the area.
    • Tree-Ring Chronologies of Western North America: California, Eastern Oregon and Northern Great Basin with Procedures Used in the Chronology Development Work Including Users Manuals for Computer Programs COFECHA and ARSTAN

      Holmes, Richard L.; Adams, Rex K.; Fritts, Harold C.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986)
      Well replicated tree-ring samples were collected, dated and measured for California west of the Sierra Nevada, eastern Oregon and the northern Great Basin. A computer program was developed and used to check crossdating quality. Another computer program to generate and analyze tree-ring chronologies was evaluated, further developed cooperatively and used to produce chronologies for the dated site collections. This report contains these site chronologies in three versions along with site descriptions and chronology statistics. Users manuals are included for the two computer programs. The effect on a chronology of poor crossdating is discussed, and a study of standardization of tree-ring measurement series is reported. Some new techniques are described for processing tree-ring samples.