• Dendrochronology of Bristlecone Pine

      Ferguson, C. W.; Graybill, D. A.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (1985-05-31)
      Since Edmund Schulman’s initial interest in 1953, the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research has conducted dendrochronological studies of bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D. K. Bailey, sp. Nov.) in the White Mountains of east-central California where living trees reach ages in excess of 4,000 years. The focus of this report relates to the support by the Geology and Anthropology sections in the National Science Foundation under grant EAR-8018687 for the period 1 April 1981 to 31 October 1984 with the assistance of the Department of Energy contract no. DE-AC02-81EV10680 covering the period 1 May 1981 to 31 October 1982. A summary of this research was recently published in Radiocarbon (Ferguson and Graybill 1983). In most cases various facets of the work were related to projects sponsored by all agencies. Therefore the full range of activities during that period is described herein. The primary project goals were: To extend the bristlecone pine chronology from the White Mountains of California beyond 6700 B.C. and strengthen it by incorporating additional specimens. To develop bristlecone pine chronologies in new areas for applications in archaeology, isotopic studies, and other earth sciences. To furnish dendrochronologically dated wood to researchers engaged in the study of past variations in carbon isotopes and climate.
    • Dendrochronology of Bristlecone Pine

      Ferguson, C. W.; Graybill, D. A.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (1981-10-31)
    • Dendrochronology of Bristlecone Pine in East-Central Nevada

      Ferguson, C.W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1970-06-30)
      In the Administrative Study Plan, as set forth 10 August 1966 and approved 16 August 1966, it was proposed that a joint inventory and dendrochronological study of bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata Engelm., be conducted by the Forest Service and the University of Arizona on the Snake, Mt. Moriah, Ward Mountain, and the Schell Creek divisions of the Humboldt National Forest in Nevada. Through a closely integrated inventory and dendrochronological program designed to take full advantage of the unique scientific resources available at the University of Arizona, the proposed study was expected to yield maximum information on the age, volume, growth, extent, and area of bristlecone pine and to provide authoritative data for interpretive and future planning uses. Dr. J. O. Klemmedson of the Department of Watershed Management, for the inventory phase, and Dr. C. W. Ferguson of the Laboratory of Tree -Ring Research, for the dendrochronological phase, were co- investigators of the project.
    • Dendrochronology of Bristlecone Pine Prior to 4000 B.C.

      Ferguson, C. W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1972-10)
      A 7104 -year tree -ring chronology for bristlecone pine was published in tabular form in 1969. Since then, the chronology has been improved in quality and extended in time. Twenty-one pieces of wood, representing separate trees, have been identified for the period prior to 4000 B.C. and these have made possible a chronology extension to nearly 8200 years. In this paper, the specimens are described in terms of the time range each represents and their statistical parameters relating to the quality of tree-ring record they contain. These specimens not only have extended the climatic tree-ring chronology, but also have made possible the calendar-year dating of additional samples for calibration of the radiocarbon time scale.
    • Dendrochronology on and Adjoining the Appleton-Whittell Research Ranch

      Ferguson, C. W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983-03-11)
    • Dendroecological Research on Mt. Graham: Development of Tree-Ring Chronologies for the Pinaleño Mountains

      Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (1992-03-30)
    • Dendrohydrology Literature Review

      Stockton, Charles W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (1966-12-31)
    • Dendrometer, Dendrograph and Phytogram Characteristics of Douglas Fir and Southwestern White Pine in the Rincon Mountains

      Gensler, W.; Agricultural Electronics Corporation, Tucson, Arizona (Agricultural Electronics Corporation (Tucson, AZ), 1990-07-01)
    • Diagnosis and Distribution of Conifer Decay in the Swiss Rhone Valley: A Dendrochronological Study

      Schweingruber, F. H.; Kontic, R.; Niederer, M.; Nippel, C. A.; Winkler-Seifert, A.; Swiss Federal Institute of Forestry Research, Birmensdorf, Switzerland; Institute of Botany, University, Basel, Switzerland (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1985)
      Abrupt, long -term growth reductions evident in annual ring sequences were visually identified and dated. The simple method used allowed relationship of the frequency of such reductions to site and industry. In the Valais, the first damage occured as early as 1921, with the greatest damage concentrated in the early seventies. From 1977 onwards, recovery is apparent in annual ring sequences from the Valais but not from the Swiss Mittel-land. No clear relationships between abrupt growth reduction and site or climate were found. Annual ring analysis indicates local and regional pollution as the cause of the reductions.
    • Drought History and Reconstructions from Tree Rings

      Stockton, Charles W.; Meko, David M.; Boggess, William R.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1989-07)
    • Erosion and Deposition Produced by the Flood of December 1964 on Coffee Creek, Trinity County, California

      Stewart, John H.; LaMarche, Valmore C., Jr.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (United States Government Printing Office (Washington, D.C.), 1967)
    • Estimating Long-Term Statistics for Annual Precipitation for Six Regions of the United States from Tree-Ring Data

      Fritts, Harold C.; DeWitt, Emily; Gordon, Geoffrey A.; Hunt, John H.; Lofgren, G. Robert; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1979-12)
      Spatial anomalies of seasonal precipitation for the United States and southwestern Canada have been reconstructed from 1602 through 1961 using dendrochronologicai and multivariate techniques on 65 arid-site tree-ring chronologies from western North America. Seasonal reconstructions are averaged to obtain mean annual precipitation values for six regions of importance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Nuclear Waste Management Program (NWMP). Statistics calculated from the regionally averaged annual values for 25-year and longer intervals show annual precipitation in the seventeenth through nineteenth centuries to be lower than in the twentieth century for three regions in the American Southwest and higher for one region in the Northwest and two regions in the East. The variability of precipitation generally was higher in the past three centuries than in the present century. Twenty-five-year intervals with noteworthy statistics are identified and important results are summarized and tabulated for use in the hydrologic modeling of the NWMP. Additional research is recommended to incorporate temperature and precipitation into a single hydrologic parameter.
    • Ethylene Production By Different Age Class Ponderosa and Jeffery Pine Needles as Related to Ozone Exposure and Visible Injury

      Telewski, Frank W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Springer-Verlag, 1992)
      Ethylene production by different needle age classes was characterized using a mercuric perchlorate traps in natural populations of two ponderosa pine varieties (Pinus ponderosa var. arizonica [Engelm] Shaw and var. ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Jeffery pine (Pinus leffrevi Grev. and Balf.). All ozone -exposed populations contained individuals which were symptomatic and asymptomatic with respect to visible ozone injury. Ethylene production of different needle age classes was also characterized in Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa seedlings grown in open top ozone fumigation chambers. Older age class needles produce more ethylene than younger age class needles. Needles of both P. ponderosa var. ponderosa and P. jeffreyi exhibiting ozone injury in the field produced significantly (p >0.05) higher levels of ethylene than asymptomatic conspecifics. Seedlings exposed to highest treatment level of ozone in the fumigation study produced the highest levels of ethylene followed by fumigation with medium and low ozone concentrations and carbon filtered air. These data indicate that measurement of ethylene in conifer needles as a measure of stress needs to be calibrated for needle age class. It also suggests that the sensitivity of a tree to ozone injury may be regulated by the inherent ability of the individual to produce ethylene.
    • An Examination of the Possible Causes of Climatic Variations Revealed in Well-Verified Dendroclimatic Reconstructions for North America and the North Pacific: Final Project Report

      Fritts, H. C.; Lough, J. M.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984-12)
    • Final Progress Report First Year - National Park Service Contract Number 14-10-0232-903

      Weekly, Ward F.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (2012-09-24)
    • Fire and Flood in a Canyon Woodland: The Effects of Floods and Debris Flows on the Past Fire Regime of Rhyolite Canyon, Chiricahua National Monument: Final Report

      Swetnam, Thomas; Baisan, Christopher; Caprio, Tony; McCord, Alex; Brown, Peter; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (1990)
      Prior research in the Rhyolite Canyon area of Chiricahua National Monument (Swetnam et. al. 1989) revealed an anomalous 50 year fire-free interval between 1901 and 1851. Disruption of fire spread resulting from flooding and mass soil movement (debris flows) were postulated as potential causes of this long interval. The present study gathered additional evidence of fire and floods in the canyon system. Sampling of flood-scarred trees along stream channels successfully identified several flood events in Rhyolite canyon. Pulses of pine regeneration on debris flow deposits were associated with one of these events. However, no definitive linkage of flood events with changes in fire regime was established. Analysis of new fire scar samples combined with previous results indicated that the area affected by the change in fire regime includes the uplands between Jesse James Canyon and Rhyolite drainage. Source areas for fires prior to 1900 were not identified within the study area indicating that ignitions outside the present monument boundaries may have been important in the past. Evidence from the maximum ages of overstory conifers within Rhyolite Canyon suggests the occurrence of a major disturbance within this drainage prior to 1600.
    • Fire History in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of the Jemez Mountains, Northern New Mexico

      Touchan, Ramzi; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-03-20)
      We reconstructed fire history in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests across the Jemez Mountains in northern New Mexico. We collected the fire-scarred samples from nine ponderosa pine areas and four mesic mixed-conifer areas. An additional collection was obtained from a bristlecone pine stand in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. We also reconstructed December-June precipitation from ponderosa pine tree-ring indices that were developed from four different watersheds in northern New Mexico. Prior to 1900, ponderosa pine forests were characterized by high frequency, low intensity surface fire regimes. The mixed-conifer stands sustained somewhat less frequent surface fires, along with patchy crown fires. In both ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests precipitation was significantly reduced in the winter-spring seasons preceding fire events. In addition, winter-spring precipitation during the third year preceding major fire years in the ponderosa pine forest was significantly increased. This study provides baseline knowledge concerning the ecological role of fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests. This information is vital to support ongoing ecosystem management efforts in the Jemez Mountains.
    • Fire History of Rhyolite Canyon, Chiricahua National Monument

      Swetnam, Thomas W.; Baisan, Christopher H.; Brown, Peter M.; Caprio, Anthony C.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, 1989-08)
    • Fire Scar Dates from Devils Tower National Monument, Wyoming

      Thompson, Marna Ares; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983-07)
      In the fall of 1982 the Modern Studies section of the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research agreed to analyze increment cores and cross sections of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from Devils Tower National Monument for the purpose of providing a tree-ring chronology and a chronology of fire occurrence in Devils Tower. Three subsites were chosen and sampled in November, 1982 by Richard Guilmette of Devils Tower National Monument. A cross section was taken from one fire-scarred tree on each subsite, and increment cores were taken from ten trees on each subsite. Increment cores were collected from four additional trees on subsite DSF (vicinity of Tree 11) in January, 1983, in an attempt to strengthen the record of ring-width growth in the early 1600's. As a result of our analyses of the materials we conclude that dendrochronological dating of ponderosa pine in Devils Tower is possible, and that it can provide accurate and unique information on the nature of fire occurrence in Devils Tower.
    • Fire Scar Dates from the Pringle Falls Area of Central Oregon

      Mazany, Terry; Thompson, Marna Ares; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983)
      In 1982 the Silviculture Laboratory located in Bend, Oregon provided the University of Arizona's Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research with nine fire-scarred ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) cross sections from the Pringle Falls area in Central Oregon to assess the potential for fire history studies in that locale. The primary problem was to determine whether or not Pringle Falls tree-ring series could be dendrochronologically crossdated so that accurate calendar dates could be assigned to observed fire scars. The results of this study surpassed all initial expectations. The individual ring series did contain enough shared sensitivity for crossdating and the development of a Pringle Falls skeleton plot chronology. This chronology made possible the accurate dating of the tree -ring series and fire scars, resulting in an extraordinarily lengthy record of fire occurrence. This report describes the process of fire scar identification and presents the chronological record of dated fire scars preserved in the nine cross sections from Pringle Falls.