• Selected References in Dendrochronology

      Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-08)
    • Tree Rings and Forest Mensuration: How Can They Document Trends in Forest Health and Productivity?

      University of Arizona. Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-04)
    • Tree-Rings and Radiocarbon

      Ferguson, C. W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-01-08)
    • Tree-ring Variation in Western Larch (Larix occidentalis) Exposed to Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

      Fox, C. A.; Kincaid, W. B.; Nash, T. H., III; Young, D. L.; Fritts, H. C.; Southern California Edison Company; Department of Botany and Microbiology, Arizona State University; Department of Botany and Microbiology, Arizona State University; Department of Mathematics, Arizona State University; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (NRC Research Press, 1986)
      A Tree-ring analysis was conducted to determine the relationship of sulfur emissions from the lead /zinc smelter at Trail, B.C. to radial growth in western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.). Tree cores were collected from five stands known to have been polluted and from three control stands. Age effects were removed from crossdated ring-width series by fitting theoretical growth curves, and, subsequently, tree-ring chronologies were developed for each stand. We assumed that macroclimatic variation was estimated by the average of the control chronologies and two lagged values thereof. These control variables along with annual estimates of sulfur emissions were used in regression models to predict variation in the tree-ring chronologies from each of the polluted stands. Separate analyses were performed for years before and after installation of two tall stacks, for drought and nondrought years, and for years prior to initiation of smelting. In each case following initiation of smelting, the variation explained by sulfur decreased with distance from the smelter, and, concomitantly, the variation explained by the control variables increased with distance. Furthermore, chronology statistics suggested an increase in synchronous high frequency variation in chronologies from polluted sites that persisted beyond implementation of pollution controls, which reduced emissions ten-fold.
    • Northern Hemisphere Temperature Estimation Using Blue Group Northern Hemisphere 70-Chronology Set: High Latitude and High Altitude Sites

      LaMarche, Valmore C., Jr.; Cain, Cyra J.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986)
    • Tree-Ring Chronologies of Western North America: California, Eastern Oregon and Northern Great Basin with Procedures Used in the Chronology Development Work Including Users Manuals for Computer Programs COFECHA and ARSTAN

      Holmes, Richard L.; Adams, Rex K.; Fritts, Harold C.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986)
      Well replicated tree-ring samples were collected, dated and measured for California west of the Sierra Nevada, eastern Oregon and the northern Great Basin. A computer program was developed and used to check crossdating quality. Another computer program to generate and analyze tree-ring chronologies was evaluated, further developed cooperatively and used to produce chronologies for the dated site collections. This report contains these site chronologies in three versions along with site descriptions and chronology statistics. Users manuals are included for the two computer programs. The effect on a chronology of poor crossdating is discussed, and a study of standardization of tree-ring measurement series is reported. Some new techniques are described for processing tree-ring samples.
    • Radial Growth Losses in Douglas-Fir and White Fir Caused by Western Spruce Budworm in Northern New Mexico: 1700-1983

      Swetnam, Thomas W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1985-10-31)
      Regional outbreaks of western spruce budworms (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) have recurred at least three times in northern New Mexico since the early 1920's when the U. S. Forest Service first began systematic forest-pest surveys and documentation (Lessard 1975, U. S. Forest Service documents). The current outbreak was first noticed in a small area on the Taos Indian Reservation in 1974, and since then the defoliated areas have increased in New Mexico and Arizona to more than 370,000 acres of Federal, Indian, State and private lands (Linnane 1984). Losses in timber values can generally be ascribed to radial growth loss, height growth loss, topkilling, reduced regeneration, and mortality (Carlson et al. 1983, Fellin et al. 1983). A damage assessment project was initiated in 1978 and was aimed at obtaining measurements of some of these losses in budworm infested stands on the Carson National Forest, New Mexico (Holland and Lessard 1979). A large data base has subsequently been developed, including yearly measurements on topkilling, mortality, defoliation, and insect population changes (Stein 1980, 1981, Stein and McDonnell 1982, Rogers 1984). A growth assessment study was undertaken in 1982 to determine the feasibility of using dendrochronological methods to identify the timing of past outbreaks and to quantify radial growth losses associated with budworm defoliation (Swetnam 1984). Results of this work showed that three major outbreaks during the twentieth century were clearly visible in the tree-ring samples obtained from currently infested trees. The radial growth of host trees was corrected for age, climate and other non-budworm environmental effects, and then growth losses were computed as a percentage of expected growth (Swetnam 1984). Additional collections were obtained in 1984 in order to expand the scope of the radial growth study. The objectives included 1) assessment of a larger number of tree -ring samples, 2) comparison of radial growth losses between the two primary host species - Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and white fir (Abies concolor), 3) comparison of radial growth losses between age classes, and 4) analysis of the relationship between yearly measurements of defoliation, insect populations and radial growth. This report summarizes the findings of the above analyses. Increment core samples from the 1982 collections are included here, therefore this report supersedes the earlier report (Swetnam 1984). Information is also presented on observations derived from the dated tree-ring series on the timing of occurrence of known and inferred spruce budworm outbreaks for the past 284 years (1700- 1983). This is the longest record of spruce budworm occurrence yet developed for western North America.
    • Using Dendrochronology To Measure Radial Growth of Defoliated Trees

      Swetnam, Thomas W.; Thompson, Marna Ares; Sutherland, Elaine Kennedy; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Cooperative State Research Service, 1985-06)
    • Dendrochronology of Bristlecone Pine

      Ferguson, C. W.; Graybill, D. A.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (1985-05-31)
      Since Edmund Schulman’s initial interest in 1953, the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research has conducted dendrochronological studies of bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D. K. Bailey, sp. Nov.) in the White Mountains of east-central California where living trees reach ages in excess of 4,000 years. The focus of this report relates to the support by the Geology and Anthropology sections in the National Science Foundation under grant EAR-8018687 for the period 1 April 1981 to 31 October 1984 with the assistance of the Department of Energy contract no. DE-AC02-81EV10680 covering the period 1 May 1981 to 31 October 1982. A summary of this research was recently published in Radiocarbon (Ferguson and Graybill 1983). In most cases various facets of the work were related to projects sponsored by all agencies. Therefore the full range of activities during that period is described herein. The primary project goals were: To extend the bristlecone pine chronology from the White Mountains of California beyond 6700 B.C. and strengthen it by incorporating additional specimens. To develop bristlecone pine chronologies in new areas for applications in archaeology, isotopic studies, and other earth sciences. To furnish dendrochronologically dated wood to researchers engaged in the study of past variations in carbon isotopes and climate.
    • The Use and Limitations of Dendrochronology in Studying Effects of Air Pollution on Forests

      Cook, Edward R.; Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1985-05)
      The annual ringwidths of trees can be used to search for hypothesized air pollution effects on forests. This search is extremely complicated by the inherent statistical properties of ringwidth data and the high level of uncertainty regarding the sources of variance observed in the ringwidths. A linear aggregate model for ringwidths is described which highlights the general classes of variance which may be found in a tree-ring series. Dendrochronological principles and techniques are described which can be used to create a tree-ring chronology that is suitable for rigorous statistical analysis and hypothesis testing. The need to model climatic influences on tree growth prior to the search for pollution effects is necessary and a method for achieving this is described. Only after the variance due to age trends, stand dynamics effects and climatic influences has been accounted for can any confidence be placed on inferred pollution effects. An analysis of a red spruce tree -ring chronology indicates that a decline in ringwidths since 1968 cannot be explained by a linear temperature response model using monthly climatic variables. However, threshold responses to climate that could be responsible for the decline need to be considered before the anomalous decline can be attributed to non-climatic influences such as pollution.
    • Western U.S. Tree-Ring Index Chronology Data for Detection of Arboreal Response to Increasing Carbon Dioxide

      Graybill, Donald A.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1985-04-26)
      Ongoing research designed to expand a grid of tree-ring chronologies in the western U.S. that can be used to examine tree growth response to increasing atmospheric CO2 is summarized in this interim report. Current and projected sampling is designed to cover most of the Great Basin and the Southwestern U.S., focusing on long -lived species growing under stressful climatic conditions. Older trees growing in these circumstances provide the best potential for analytical discrimination of climatic and CO2 signals. A descriptive statistical summary of all current data sets is provided and potential directions of the project are discussed.
    • Forensic Dendrochronology

      Ferguson, C. W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (1985-04-25)
    • Impact of Spruce Budworm on Radial Growth of Trees in Northern New Mexico

      Swetnam, Thomas W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (1985-02-25)
    • Diagnosis and Distribution of Conifer Decay in the Swiss Rhone Valley: A Dendrochronological Study

      Schweingruber, F. H.; Kontic, R.; Niederer, M.; Nippel, C. A.; Winkler-Seifert, A.; Swiss Federal Institute of Forestry Research, Birmensdorf, Switzerland; Institute of Botany, University, Basel, Switzerland (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1985)
      Abrupt, long -term growth reductions evident in annual ring sequences were visually identified and dated. The simple method used allowed relationship of the frequency of such reductions to site and industry. In the Valais, the first damage occured as early as 1921, with the greatest damage concentrated in the early seventies. From 1977 onwards, recovery is apparent in annual ring sequences from the Valais but not from the Swiss Mittel-land. No clear relationships between abrupt growth reduction and site or climate were found. Annual ring analysis indicates local and regional pollution as the cause of the reductions.
    • An Examination of the Possible Causes of Climatic Variations Revealed in Well-Verified Dendroclimatic Reconstructions for North America and the North Pacific: Final Project Report

      Fritts, H. C.; Lough, J. M.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984-12)
    • Projected Effects of Climatic Variation Upon Water Availability in Western United States (Final Report)

      Stockton, Charles W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984-10)
    • Radial Growth Assessment of Western Spruce Budworm Infested Douglas-Fir Trees on the Carson National Forest, New Mexico

      Swetnam, Thomas W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983-11-03)
      Growth of western spruce budworm (WSBW) infested Douglas-fir (Pseudotsugae menziesii) forests on the Carson National Forest, New Mexico, was assessed through dendrochronological analysis of increment cores extracted at breast height. Comparisons of indexed and filtered host and non-host (ponderosa pine [Pinus ponderosa]), tree-ring chronologies revealed that host tree growth was reduced during past and present WSBW outbreaks. The non -host chronologies were used to remove the non-WSBW growth effects from the host chronologies, and the corrected host tree growth indices were then used to assess growth loss during known outbreak periods. Maximum growth loss during one year was generally greater than 50 percent. The average growth loss for five year periods during outbreaks was approximately 30 to 40 percent, and the maximum growth loss between two years during an outbreak was usually more than 50 percent.
    • Fire Scar Dates from Devils Tower National Monument, Wyoming

      Thompson, Marna Ares; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983-07)
      In the fall of 1982 the Modern Studies section of the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research agreed to analyze increment cores and cross sections of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from Devils Tower National Monument for the purpose of providing a tree-ring chronology and a chronology of fire occurrence in Devils Tower. Three subsites were chosen and sampled in November, 1982 by Richard Guilmette of Devils Tower National Monument. A cross section was taken from one fire-scarred tree on each subsite, and increment cores were taken from ten trees on each subsite. Increment cores were collected from four additional trees on subsite DSF (vicinity of Tree 11) in January, 1983, in an attempt to strengthen the record of ring-width growth in the early 1600's. As a result of our analyses of the materials we conclude that dendrochronological dating of ponderosa pine in Devils Tower is possible, and that it can provide accurate and unique information on the nature of fire occurrence in Devils Tower.
    • Projected Effects of Climatic Variation Upon Water Availability in Western United States (Progress Report)

      Stockton, Charles W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983-07)