• Southwest Archaeological Tree-Ring Dating

      Dean, Jeffrey S.; Robinson, William J.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-01-31)
    • Giant Sequoia Fire History: A Feasibility Study

      Swetnam, Thomas W.; Baisan, Christopher H.; Brown, Peter M.; Caprio, Anthony C.; Harlan, Thomas P.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1988-06-30)
    • Dendrochronology of Bristlecone Pine in East-Central Nevada

      Ferguson, C.W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1970-06-30)
      In the Administrative Study Plan, as set forth 10 August 1966 and approved 16 August 1966, it was proposed that a joint inventory and dendrochronological study of bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata Engelm., be conducted by the Forest Service and the University of Arizona on the Snake, Mt. Moriah, Ward Mountain, and the Schell Creek divisions of the Humboldt National Forest in Nevada. Through a closely integrated inventory and dendrochronological program designed to take full advantage of the unique scientific resources available at the University of Arizona, the proposed study was expected to yield maximum information on the age, volume, growth, extent, and area of bristlecone pine and to provide authoritative data for interpretive and future planning uses. Dr. J. O. Klemmedson of the Department of Watershed Management, for the inventory phase, and Dr. C. W. Ferguson of the Laboratory of Tree -Ring Research, for the dendrochronological phase, were co- investigators of the project.
    • Report Submitted to the National Science Foundation Climate Dynamics Program on the Dendroclimatology Workshop held at the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research

      Fritts, Harold C.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1977-11-01)
    • Rates of Slope Degradation as Determined from Botanical Evidence, White Mountains, California

      LaMarche, Valmore C., Jr.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (United States Government Printing Office (Washington, D.C.), 1968)
    • Living With Climatic Change: Proceedings, Toronto Conference Workshop, November 17-22, 1975

      Beltzner, Klaus P. (Science Council of Canada (Ottawa, Canada), 1976-03)
    • Dendrometer, Dendrograph and Phytogram Characteristics of Douglas Fir and Southwestern White Pine in the Rincon Mountains

      Gensler, W.; Agricultural Electronics Corporation, Tucson, Arizona (Agricultural Electronics Corporation (Tucson, AZ), 1990-07-01)
    • Estimating Long-Term Statistics for Annual Precipitation for Six Regions of the United States from Tree-Ring Data

      Fritts, Harold C.; DeWitt, Emily; Gordon, Geoffrey A.; Hunt, John H.; Lofgren, G. Robert; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1979-12)
      Spatial anomalies of seasonal precipitation for the United States and southwestern Canada have been reconstructed from 1602 through 1961 using dendrochronologicai and multivariate techniques on 65 arid-site tree-ring chronologies from western North America. Seasonal reconstructions are averaged to obtain mean annual precipitation values for six regions of importance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Nuclear Waste Management Program (NWMP). Statistics calculated from the regionally averaged annual values for 25-year and longer intervals show annual precipitation in the seventeenth through nineteenth centuries to be lower than in the twentieth century for three regions in the American Southwest and higher for one region in the Northwest and two regions in the East. The variability of precipitation generally was higher in the past three centuries than in the present century. Twenty-five-year intervals with noteworthy statistics are identified and important results are summarized and tabulated for use in the hydrologic modeling of the NWMP. Additional research is recommended to incorporate temperature and precipitation into a single hydrologic parameter.
    • Erosion and Deposition Produced by the Flood of December 1964 on Coffee Creek, Trinity County, California

      Stewart, John H.; LaMarche, Valmore C., Jr.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (United States Government Printing Office (Washington, D.C.), 1967)
    • Selected References in Dendrochronology

      Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-08)
    • Climatic Variations for North America and the North Pacific Since A.D. 1500 as Identified by Well-Dated Tree Rings, and Applied Research Reconstructing Past Climate of the Northern Hemisphere by Use of Tree Rings (Progress Reports)

      Fritts, Harold C.; Ares, M. C.; Blasing, T. J.; Carter, J. R.; Conkey, L. E.; DeWitt, E.; Lofgren, G. R.; Robinson, W. J.; Sherwood, J. A.; Stevens, D. W.; et al. (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1977)
    • Tree-ring Variation in Western Larch (Larix occidentalis) Exposed to Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

      Fox, C. A.; Kincaid, W. B.; Nash, T. H., III; Young, D. L.; Fritts, H. C.; Southern California Edison Company; Department of Botany and Microbiology, Arizona State University; Department of Botany and Microbiology, Arizona State University; Department of Mathematics, Arizona State University; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (NRC Research Press, 1986)
      A Tree-ring analysis was conducted to determine the relationship of sulfur emissions from the lead /zinc smelter at Trail, B.C. to radial growth in western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.). Tree cores were collected from five stands known to have been polluted and from three control stands. Age effects were removed from crossdated ring-width series by fitting theoretical growth curves, and, subsequently, tree-ring chronologies were developed for each stand. We assumed that macroclimatic variation was estimated by the average of the control chronologies and two lagged values thereof. These control variables along with annual estimates of sulfur emissions were used in regression models to predict variation in the tree-ring chronologies from each of the polluted stands. Separate analyses were performed for years before and after installation of two tall stacks, for drought and nondrought years, and for years prior to initiation of smelting. In each case following initiation of smelting, the variation explained by sulfur decreased with distance from the smelter, and, concomitantly, the variation explained by the control variables increased with distance. Furthermore, chronology statistics suggested an increase in synchronous high frequency variation in chronologies from polluted sites that persisted beyond implementation of pollution controls, which reduced emissions ten-fold.
    • Sampling and Precise Dating Requirements for Extracting Isotopic Records from Tree Rings

      Stockton, Charles W.; Boggess, William R.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (American Chemical Society (Washington, D.C.), 1982)
      The use of tree-ring width series as the time control for extraction of isotope and chemical information from wood cellulose has become commonplace. However, many researchers are unaware of the need to maximize the signal in the tree-ring series by sampling from those populations that are most sensitive to past environmental conditions. The series which are most environmentally sensitive may also be the most difficult to date accurately. Therefore a sufficient number of samples must be collected to provide adequate dating control. Techniques exist that can assure precise dating of individual ring widths but they depend on adequate replication of samples. Proper site selection and dating techniques for adequate tree-ring analysis will be discussed. Examples will be cited in which necessary sampling depth and ring width analysis appear to be insufficient to justify subsequent conclusions made from the derived isotopic series.
    • Navajo Warfare and Economy, 1750-1868

      Kemrer, Meade; Graybill, Donald A.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (University of Alberta (Edmonton, AB), 1970-11)
      Introduction: Dendrochronology has traditionally been employed by archaeologists in a typological sense to provide the necessary spatio-temporal framework for changing attribute or element configurations. In contrast, this paper will stress the potential of dendrochronological analysis as a powerful inferential tool for studying the dynamics of changing human behavior. The most extensive archaeological survey of an ethnically identified population in the American Southwest was conducted between 1953 and 1960 for the Navajo Land Claims Commission. Legally acceptable evidence of Navajo use and occupancy of contested or extra-reservation areas made rigorous time-controls a necessity. These were provided by tree-ring dating, the dating of Navajo ceramics and trade items associated with sites, and through informants who not only knew when sites were occupied, but often the age, sex and clan membership distributions of the former occupants. Criteria for the Navajo identity of structures and features were derived from ethnohistoric research and interviewing Navajos and other persons who had experienced intimate contact with the Navajo people (Littell, 1967).
    • Tree Rings in the Western Great Basin

      Ferguson, C. W.; Wright, R. A.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Nevada State Museum (Carson City, Nevada), 1963-01)
      Introduction: The success of tree-ring dating in the Southwest has not been duplicated in the Great Basin area. Studies of modern tree-ring material in the western Great Basin have been relatively limited, but substantial work has been done by Douglass (1928), Hardman and Reil (1936), Keen (1937), Antevs (1938), Schulman (1956), Schulman and Ferguson (1956), Ferguson and Wright (1962), and Ferguson (1963) . In terms of tree-ring dating in the Great Basin, as elsewhere, there are two major aspects: the modern, dealing with both chronology building and interpretation in terms of environment, and the archaeological. Archaeological dating is dependent upon the finding of tree -ring material of suitable sensitivity and length preserved in archaeological context. There has been no dating of archaeological tree -ring material in the Great Basin due to a combination of the paucity of excavated wood and charcoal and to the difficulty in dating any such material. Conditions for the dating of both modern and archaeological material, however, are met in the western Great Basin, and it remains for time and the active participation of research workers to establish the framework for more extensive dating in the area.
    • Forensic Dendrochronology

      Ferguson, C. W.; Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (1985-04-25)
    • Tree Ring Research Shows Benefits of Natural Forest Fires

      Graduate College, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1982-12
    • The Use and Limitations of Dendrochronology in Studying Effects of Air Pollution on Forests

      Cook, Edward R.; Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1985-05)
      The annual ringwidths of trees can be used to search for hypothesized air pollution effects on forests. This search is extremely complicated by the inherent statistical properties of ringwidth data and the high level of uncertainty regarding the sources of variance observed in the ringwidths. A linear aggregate model for ringwidths is described which highlights the general classes of variance which may be found in a tree-ring series. Dendrochronological principles and techniques are described which can be used to create a tree-ring chronology that is suitable for rigorous statistical analysis and hypothesis testing. The need to model climatic influences on tree growth prior to the search for pollution effects is necessary and a method for achieving this is described. Only after the variance due to age trends, stand dynamics effects and climatic influences has been accounted for can any confidence be placed on inferred pollution effects. An analysis of a red spruce tree -ring chronology indicates that a decline in ringwidths since 1968 cannot be explained by a linear temperature response model using monthly climatic variables. However, threshold responses to climate that could be responsible for the decline need to be considered before the anomalous decline can be attributed to non-climatic influences such as pollution.
    • Diagnosis and Distribution of Conifer Decay in the Swiss Rhone Valley: A Dendrochronological Study

      Schweingruber, F. H.; Kontic, R.; Niederer, M.; Nippel, C. A.; Winkler-Seifert, A.; Swiss Federal Institute of Forestry Research, Birmensdorf, Switzerland; Institute of Botany, University, Basel, Switzerland (Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1985)
      Abrupt, long -term growth reductions evident in annual ring sequences were visually identified and dated. The simple method used allowed relationship of the frequency of such reductions to site and industry. In the Valais, the first damage occured as early as 1921, with the greatest damage concentrated in the early seventies. From 1977 onwards, recovery is apparent in annual ring sequences from the Valais but not from the Swiss Mittel-land. No clear relationships between abrupt growth reduction and site or climate were found. Annual ring analysis indicates local and regional pollution as the cause of the reductions.