Forage & Grain Report 1992
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
The Forage and Grain Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.
This report, along with the Cotton Report, was established by Hank Brubaker, Extension Agronomist, after seeing a similar report published by Texas A&M University in the mid-1970’s.
The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to farmers, researchers, and those in the agricultural industry. The research is conducted by University of Arizona and USDA-ARS scientists.
Both historical and current Forage and Grain Reports have been made available in the UA Campus Repository as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.
Contents for Forage & Grain Report 1992
- Alfalfa Variety Demonstration at the Safford Agricultural Center, 1991
- Alfalfa Renovation
- Sandbur Control in Alfalfa
- Survey of Soil Phosphorus in Established Alfalfa Fields in Yuma County
- The Effect of Phosphorus on Alfalfa Yield
- Alfalfa Response to Water and Nitrogen
- The Effect of Summer and Winter Termination of Irrigation on Non-Dormant Alfalfa Yield and Stand
- 'Solum' Barley as a Low Input and Profitable Rotation Option
- Wheat and Barley Irrigation Scheduling Using AZSCHED
- Arizona Russian Wheat Aphid Survey, 1991
- Corn Hybrid Evaluation in Northern Cochise Counties, 1991
- Yellow and White Corn Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1991
- Grain Sorghum Variety Trials in Greenlee County, 1991
- National Dry Bean Nursery and Pinto Bean Variety Demonstrations Graham County, 1991
- Purple Nutsedge Control with EPTC and Summer Fallow
Purple Nutsedge Control with EPTC and Summer FallowA test was conducted to demonstrate the effect of timing of application and formulation of EPTC for purple nutsedge control under summer fallow. Vapam applied in the irrigation water was also evaluated. Preirrigation applications of both the Emulsifiable concentrate and granular formulations of EPTC were ineffective. The same treatments applied after the irrigation when the top 6 inches of soil were dry were very effective in controlling the emergence of purple nutsedge shoots. Vapam was ineffective in this test. This test demonstrated the importance of proper application and cultural practices when using this treatment to control purple nutsedge.
National Dry Bean Nursery and Pinto Bean Variety Demonstrations Graham County, 1991Two bean variety studies were conducted in the southern part of Graham county in 1991. One was a replicated small plot trial in cooperation with the National Dry Bean Nursery which contained forty -one varieties from eight different commercial classes of beans. The highest yielding variety was CO-1760, a Great Northern variety which yielded 3340 pounds per acre. The second highest yielding variety was Bill-Z, a pinto variety, which yielded 3111 pounds per acre. Several other varieties of beans yielded nearly 3000 pound per acre and are potential alternative crops for the area. The other study was a pinto bean demonstration. In it, Olathe was the top yielding variety with a yield of 3260 pounds per acre with Bill-Z a close second with 3190 pounds per acre.
Grain Sorghum Variety Trials in Greenlee County, 1991Nine grain sorghum hybrids were compared in replicated tests in two locations in the Duncan - Virden valley. Four full season, four mid full season and one non - specified experimental hybrids were included in the trials. A new mid-full season hybrid, DeKalb 66, was the top yielding cultivar in the test with a yield of 9830 pounds per acre. It yielded about 700 pounds per acre more than the top yielding hybrid in the previous trial. The devastating effect of hail was seen as one of the tests was hailed on in mid season.
Yellow and White Corn Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1991Asgrow RX947 was the leading yellow corn hybrid with a yield of 9255 pounds per acre and a net return (after drying) of $447.93 per acre. It was followed by Cargill 8127 (a new entry) and Pioneer 3162 (the top yielding hybrid from the Bonita area). Cargill 9402W lead the white corn hybrids with a yield of 8464 pounds per acre and a net yield of $484.97 per acre. It was followed by Garst 8101W (last years winner) and Pioneer 3281W It is noted that the income from white corn was higher than yellow corn with lower yields. This is due to an $0.85 per cwt premium used in the calculations.
Corn Hybrid Evaluation in Northern Cochise Counties, 19911990 was a good year for corn yields, and 1991 was even better. The two new hybrids by Pioneer and Northrup King (Pioneer 3162 and NK N8318) were at the top of the list again, but yielding around 1000 pounds per acre more than last year. The Pioneer hybrid yielded over 14,000 pounds per acre and eight of the fourteen hybrids yielded over 13,000 pounds per acre.
Arizona Russian Wheat Aphid Survey, 1991Russian wheat aphid (RWA) were found for the first time in Mohave county, bringing, to seven of the fifteen counties in the state that have now reported incidence of the pest. RWA presence in the southeastern part of the state came about a month later than was noted in 1990, and in most cases didn't reach threshold numbers until after heading. Hence, only 23 % of the fields surveyed were sprayed. Economic damage was considered lighter than usual throughout the state.
Wheat and Barley Irrigation Scheduling Using AZSCHEDIrrigations for Aldura wheat and two varieties of barley were scheduled using AZSCHED software. Planting of the crops was delayed by adverse weather so the cropping season was compressed from normal. No statistical differences were seen between the three irrigation treatments, but it was felt that AZSCHED tracked the crop water needs during the season.
'Solum' Barley as a Low Input and Profitable Rotation Option'Solum' barley was planted in four large acreage demonstration studies in Maricopa County from 1990 -92. In two of the four demonstrations, a single fruit set cotton production strategy was implemented resulting in a double crop/rotation in the same year. Barley yields were 4672, 4460, 4305, and 4721 pounds per acre respectively. These yields were accomplished with 13 -20 acre inches per acre of water both from irrigation and rainfall sources. All demonstrations resulted in a positive net return of from 150 to 200 dollars per acre. In addition, physical soil characteristics such as tilth, water holding capacity, and intake rate were significantly improved. A cotton yield of roughly two bales per acre was measured in one location with the 1992 yield to yet be determined.
The Effect of Summer and Winter Termination of Irrigation on Non-Dormant Alfalfa Yield and StandA test was conducted to evaluate the effect of irrigation termination during the summer (July through October) and winter (October through February) upon alfalfa yield and stand Termination during the summer harmed the stand and seriously reduced yields. Termination during the winter resulted in minor yield reduction and no stand damage. The benefits of suboptimal irrigation are site specific and dependent upon many factors. This test demonstrated that the winter should not be overlooked as a time to conserve water on alfalfa production.
Survey of Soil Phosphorus in Established Alfalfa Fields in Yuma CountyA survey was conducted to evaluate the soil phosphorus levels in a cross section of established alfalfa fields in Yuma County The levels of extractable phosphorus (P) varied from 3 to 43 ppm P. All of the soils testing in the very low (below 5 ppm P) and low categories (5 -10 ppm P) were located in the Wellton-Mohawk Valley and on the Yuma Mesa. Annual soil testing in the fall should be used to identify fields which would be expected to be responsive to P fertilizer applications. Soil testing could also help identify fields less like& to respond to P additions (P values > 15 ppm). Eighty percent of the fields tested from the Yuma and North Gila Valleys were in the high and very high ranges, 16-25 ppm and > 25 ppm P respectively. These high values may reflect residual P from applications of phosphorus fertilizers to vegetable and cotton crops grown in rotation with the current alfalfa crops. Fall soil testing in these areas could help identify nonresponsive fields in order to avoid unneeded P applications.
Sandbur Control in AlfalfaEPTC IO percent granules, Trifluralin 10 percent granules and Poast were evaluated for southern sandbur (cenchrus echinatus) control. Trifluralin resulted in variable control ranging from 90 percent down to 55 percent. EPTC produced good but sometimes varied control when applied in February, prior to the germination of the weeds, and repeated in April, June and July. Poast was effective postemergence only when applied to small seedlings. It was ineffective when applied to established sandbur.
Alfalfa RenovationA test was conducted to evaluate the effect that renovating a weak alfalfa stand had upon yields in one field in the Yuma Valley. Results indicated that yields were not significantly different in the renovated vs. the not renovated plots. Under the conditions present in this test, there appeared to be no yield advantage to renovation during the first year.
Alfalfa Variety Demonstration at the Safford Agricultural Center, 1991Yields are given for 20 varieties of alfalfa grown at the Safford Agricultural Center. Yields were down slightly from 1990. Mecca retained its number one position with a yield of 9.22 tons per acre and yielded nearly 4.4 tons per acre more than Cuf 101, over the four years of the trial.