Forage & Grain Report 1989
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
The Forage and Grain Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.
This report, along with the Cotton Report, was established by Hank Brubaker, Extension Agronomist, after seeing a similar report published by Texas A&M University in the mid-1970’s.
The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to farmers, researchers, and those in the agricultural industry. The research is conducted by University of Arizona and USDA-ARS scientists.
Both historical and current Forage and Grain Reports have been made available in the UA Campus Repository as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.
Contents for Forage & Grain Report 1989
- Improved Regrowth Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa
- Progress in the Development of Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa
- Variability in Salt Tolerance within a Population of Alflafa
- Alfalfa Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1988
- Alfalfa Variety Demonstration at the Safford Agricultural Center, 1988
- Alfalfa Herbicide Trial Greenlee County, 1989
- Effect of Fungicides on Development of Cercospora Summer Black Stem and Leaf Spot in Alfalfa
- Corn Hybrid Evaluation in Bonita, Cochise County, 1988
- Corn Silage Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1988
- Corn Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1988
- Feed Wheat Variety Demonstration in Graham County, 1989
- Oat Variety Grain and Forage Yield Trials at the Maricopa Agricultural Center 1989
- Small Grain Variety Comparisons at the Maricopa Agriculutral Center, 1989
- Forage Production of Four Crops Grown Under Two Different Irrigation Cultures
- Wheat and Durum Variety Trial in Poston, 1989
- High Rates of Sewage Sludge in Wheat Production
- High Rates of Sewage Sludge in Barley Production
- Interpretation of Basal Stem Nitrate-N Concentrations for Improved Nitrogen Management in Irrigated Durum Wheat Production
- Effects of Residual and Fertilizer Phosphorus on Durum Wheat Production and Wheat Stem Phosphate Levels
- Effects of Early Season Nitrogen Rates on Stem Nitrate Levels and Nitrogen Fertilizer Requirements During Grain Filling for Irrigated Durum Wheat
- Wheat Irrigation Scheduling at the Safford Agricultural Center, 1989
- Pinto Bean Variety Trials in Graham and Greenlee Counties, 1988
- Possible New Annual Leguminous Forages for Arizona
- Climatic and Edaphic Conditions at Lehmann Lovegrass Sites in Southeastern Arizona and the Republic of South Africa
Corn Hybrid Evaluation in Bonita, Cochise County, 1988Droughts in the Midwestern corn belt pushed up demand and prices for corn nationwide, but those droughts did not affect southeast Arizona. Rainfall increased; in some locations in Cochise County, rains nearly set a record. High moisture during July helped pollination and pushed Arizona growers into the limelight with a first and a third place win in the National Corn Growers yield trials. The national winner was Ted Johnson, with a yield of 253 bushels per acre (14,168 pounds per acre) (1, 2).
Pinto Bean Variety Trials in Graham and Greenlee Counties, 1988Two pinto bean variety trials were grown in Greenlee and southern Graham counties. UI 114, the most commonly grown variety in both areas, was out yielded in both locations by other varieties. In Greenlee county, Luna, a New Mexico variety, surpassed UI 114 by approximately 100 pounds per acre. In Graham county, Olathe, a Colorado variety, out yielded UI 114 by more than 250 pounds per acre. At $40 per hundredweight, the latter difference translates into more than $100 per acre.
Wheat Irrigation Scheduling at the Safford Agricultural Center, 1989Wheat irrigations were scheduled using two computer models and an infrared thermometer, using three critical threshold values. Yields from these plots were compared with plots scheduled by the farm manager. The highest yield was obtained by the computer model using evapotranspiration data taken from the local AZMET station; this corroborates results from the previous year. The crop coefficients and the irrigation model that have been developed over the past several years are very accurate for this area. The two lower threshold infrared treatments were second and third in yield and had lower water use efficiencies.
Effects of Early Season Nitrogen Rates on Stem Nitrate Levels and Nitrogen Fertilizer Requirements During Grain Filling for Irrigated Durum WheatA field experiment was conducted on a Pima clay loam at the Safford Agricultural Center to: 1) determine the optimum rates of late season N needed to achieve optimum yield and quality of irrigated durum wheat in conjunction with varying rates of early season N; and 2) evaluate the usefulness of stern NO₃-N analysis in predicting the late season N rates which optimize grain production but minimize the potential for nitrate pollution of groundwater. The application of 75, 175 and 350 lbs. N/a during vegetative growth resulted in wheat with deficient, sufficient and excessive N status at the boot stage, as indicated by stem NO₃-N analysis. The application of 60 lbs. N/a at heading to N- deficient wheat and 15-20 lbs. N/a to N-sufficient wheat resulted in grain protein levels above 14 %, but the applications had little effecton grain yield. Applications of N at heading to wheat which had previously received excessive N did not affect grain yield or quality. The use of stein NO₃-N analysis appears to be a useful tool in predicting the minimum N rate to be applied during the early reproductive period to insure acceptable levels of grain protein at harvest.
Corn Silage Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1988Eleven corn hybrids were grown for silage in Greenlee county in 1988. Excellent yields were recorded; the top hybrid, Northrup King's S 8505, produced nearly 40 tons per acre at 70% moisture. Laboratory analyses were run on samples from each hybrid; these analyses, plus calculations of crude protein and energy per acre were made.
Effects of Residual and Fertilizer Phosphorus on Durum Wheat Production and Wheat Stem Phosphate LevelsCollecting additional data to calibrate and refine current guidelines for interpreting soil and plant test values is an ongoing need in Arizona. An experiment was conducted at the Safford Agricultural Center during the 1987 -89 crop years to evaluate the response of 'Aldura' durum wheat to a range of residual soil and fertilizer P levels. Maximum grain yields exceeding 5,500 lbs./A were obtained by banding 50 lbs. P₂O₅/A as triple superphosphate with the seed at planting in 1988. Residual P front phosphorus fertilizer applications up to 80 lbs. P₂O₅/A had no significant effect on grain yields of the succeeding wheat crop. Basal stem PO₄-P tissue analysis seemed reliable in monitoring P nutrition of durum wheat during the vegetative growth period. Observed critical levels of POD P in basal stem tissue for durum wheat at the 3-4 leaf, joint and boot growth stages were 2000, 1200 and 500 ppm, respectively.
Interpretation of Basal Stem Nitrate-N Concentrations for Improved Nitrogen Management in Irrigated Durum Wheat ProductionAttempts to characterize nitrogen (N) status of irrigated spring wheat by using basal stem nitrate - N (NO₃⁻N) tissue tests have shown contradictory results, due to the wide range of agronomic conditions existing in Arizona. Seven N fertility trials were conducted at the Maricopa and Safford Agricultural Centers over the 1985-88 crop years to examine the effects of N rate, N fertilizer form, residual soil N, soil texture and contrasting varieties on basal stem NO₃⁻N concentrations, yield and quality of irrigated durum wheat. Fertilizer N treatments were broadcast at planting then at the 5-6 leaf, boot and anthesis growth stages to simulate fertigation in conjunction with the first four basin irrigation events. Stem tissue samples were taken from all plots at the 3-4 leaf 5-6 leaf joint, boot and anthesis growth stages for NO₃⁻N analysis with a nitrate electrode. Diagnostic levels for durum wheat basal stem tissue NO₃⁻N tests at these growth stages are presented.
High Rates of Sewage Sludge in Barley ProductionA greenhouse experiment was conducted at the University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, to study the effects of liquid sewage sludge loading rates on the vegetative growth, yield, and quality of barley grain and straw. Vegetative growth, grain yields, and straw yields were similar whether barley was grown with inorganic N or equivalent amounts of plant-available N from sewage sludge. Sewage sludge loading rates higher than three times the recommended plant-available N rate decreased barley stands in the seedling stage. The loss of stand was compensated for by higher tillering later in the season. High sludge loading rates tended to delay maturity, increase tillering and increase straw yield; however, they did not affect grain yield. Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper, (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in barley grain and straw and the amounts of heavy metals recovered in the soil following each harvest were similar to the control for all sewage sludge treatments.
High Rates of Sewage Sludge in Wheat ProductionA greenhouse experiment was conducted at the University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, to study the effects of sewage sludge loading rates on the vegetative growth, yield, and heavy metal contents of wheat grain and straw. Vegetative growth, grain and straw yields were similar whether wheat was fertilized with the recommended rate of inorganic N (112 kg/ha) or equivalent amounts of plant-available N from sewage sludge. Sewage sludge loading rates higher than three times the recommended plant- available N level delayed maturity and decreased wheat stands in the seedling stage; however, grain and straw yields were similar for all sewage sludge loading rates. Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in wheat grain and straw and in the soil following each harvest were low and similar for all fertilizer treatments.
Effect of Fungicides on Development of Cercospora Summer Black Stem and Leaf Spot in AlfalfaCercospora summer black stem and leaf spot, a fungal disease of alfalfa, has been associated with a stand decline problem in La Paz County. In a continuation of a study initiated in 1987, we examined the ability of three fungicides to control the disease and decline problem. Bravo, Funginex, and Kocide significantly reduced the severity of Cercospora summer black stem and leaf spot. In addition, significant increases in yield were recorded on plots treated with fungicides.
Alfalfa Herbicide Trial Greenlee County, 1989Replicated herbicide experiments were carried out on alfalfa fields in Graham and Greenlee counties in the winter of 1989. Five herbicides were tested; tanzy mustard and (oxtail barley were the mails target weed species. Velpar L applied on at a rate of 4 pints per acre in 20 gallons of water provided the best control with 99% control of the broad -leafed weeds and 86% of the grassy weeds just prior to the first cutting. Better control of foxtail barley probably would have been achieved by several of the herbicides if they had been applied earlier, before the weeds germinated and /or if the materials had been incorporated by an adequate irrigation or rainfall.
Feed Wheat Variety Demonstration in Graham County, 1989Two wheat varieties were grown in Graham county as a follow -up to a previous field demonstration. AC79-97, a red wheat developed by the University of Arizona for the Safford area, yielded 6719 pounds per acre, compared with 6359 pounds per acre for Super-X. The protein differential made the crop values even more important than the yield comparison. AC79-97 produced $454 per acre, compared to $423 for Super-X. Using two year's data, AC79-97 produced 85 more pounds of protein per acre than Super-X, with a protein supplement replacement value of $28 per acre.
Corn Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1988DeKalb 656 and a new Northrup King hybrid, NK 7759, were the leading hybrids in both yields and adjusted gross income per acre. However, yields were lower than anticipated. The top yield was 8161 pounds per acre, providing an adjusted gross income of $480.30 per acre.
Alfalfa Variety Demonstration at the Safford Agricultural Center, 1988A new alfalfa variety trial was planted in the fall of 1987to replace the previous four-year trial. The top varieties from the previous trial were placed in the new trial, along with new, promising varieties. A single year's data is insufficient to judge the performance of a variety during its useful years of production. The data simply indicate performance in their first year. Pioneer 5929, the variety that had the best overall yield in the previous trial (1), performed well in this trial as well. However, Mecca, a new variety from Plant Genetics, Inc., had the highest yield.