• Effects of Early Season Nitrogen Rates on Stem Nitrate Levels and Nitrogen Fertilizer Requirements During Grain Filling for Irrigated Durum Wheat

      Doerge, T. A.; Knowles, T. C.; Clark, L.; Carpenter, E.; Ottman, Michael; Kingdon, Lorraine (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1989-09)
      A field experiment was conducted on a Pima clay loam at the Safford Agricultural Center to: 1) determine the optimum rates of late season N needed to achieve optimum yield and quality of irrigated durum wheat in conjunction with varying rates of early season N; and 2) evaluate the usefulness of stern NO₃-N analysis in predicting the late season N rates which optimize grain production but minimize the potential for nitrate pollution of groundwater. The application of 75, 175 and 350 lbs. N/a during vegetative growth resulted in wheat with deficient, sufficient and excessive N status at the boot stage, as indicated by stem NO₃-N analysis. The application of 60 lbs. N/a at heading to N- deficient wheat and 15-20 lbs. N/a to N-sufficient wheat resulted in grain protein levels above 14 %, but the applications had little effecton grain yield. Applications of N at heading to wheat which had previously received excessive N did not affect grain yield or quality. The use of stein NO₃-N analysis appears to be a useful tool in predicting the minimum N rate to be applied during the early reproductive period to insure acceptable levels of grain protein at harvest.
    • Effects of Residual and Fertilizer Phosphorus on Durum Wheat Production and Wheat Stem Phosphate Levels

      Knowles, T.; Doerge, T.; Clark, L.; Carpenter, E.; Ottman, Michael; Kingdon, Lorraine (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1989-09)
      Collecting additional data to calibrate and refine current guidelines for interpreting soil and plant test values is an ongoing need in Arizona. An experiment was conducted at the Safford Agricultural Center during the 1987 -89 crop years to evaluate the response of 'Aldura' durum wheat to a range of residual soil and fertilizer P levels. Maximum grain yields exceeding 5,500 lbs./A were obtained by banding 50 lbs. P₂O₅/A as triple superphosphate with the seed at planting in 1988. Residual P front phosphorus fertilizer applications up to 80 lbs. P₂O₅/A had no significant effect on grain yields of the succeeding wheat crop. Basal stem PO₄-P tissue analysis seemed reliable in monitoring P nutrition of durum wheat during the vegetative growth period. Observed critical levels of POD P in basal stem tissue for durum wheat at the 3-4 leaf, joint and boot growth stages were 2000, 1200 and 500 ppm, respectively.
    • High Rates of Sewage Sludge in Barley Production

      Day, A. D.; Solomon, M. A.; Ottman, M. J.; Taylor, B. B.; Ottman, Michael; Kingdon, Lorraine (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1989-09)
      A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, to study the effects of liquid sewage sludge loading rates on the vegetative growth, yield, and quality of barley grain and straw. Vegetative growth, grain yields, and straw yields were similar whether barley was grown with inorganic N or equivalent amounts of plant-available N from sewage sludge. Sewage sludge loading rates higher than three times the recommended plant-available N rate decreased barley stands in the seedling stage. The loss of stand was compensated for by higher tillering later in the season. High sludge loading rates tended to delay maturity, increase tillering and increase straw yield; however, they did not affect grain yield. Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper, (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in barley grain and straw and the amounts of heavy metals recovered in the soil following each harvest were similar to the control for all sewage sludge treatments.
    • Interpretation of Basal Stem Nitrate-N Concentrations for Improved Nitrogen Management in Irrigated Durum Wheat Production

      Knowles, T.; Doerge, T.; Ottman, M.; Ottman, Michael; Kingdon, Lorraine (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1989-09)
      Attempts to characterize nitrogen (N) status of irrigated spring wheat by using basal stem nitrate - N (NO₃⁻N) tissue tests have shown contradictory results, due to the wide range of agronomic conditions existing in Arizona. Seven N fertility trials were conducted at the Maricopa and Safford Agricultural Centers over the 1985-88 crop years to examine the effects of N rate, N fertilizer form, residual soil N, soil texture and contrasting varieties on basal stem NO₃⁻N concentrations, yield and quality of irrigated durum wheat. Fertilizer N treatments were broadcast at planting then at the 5-6 leaf, boot and anthesis growth stages to simulate fertigation in conjunction with the first four basin irrigation events. Stem tissue samples were taken from all plots at the 3-4 leaf 5-6 leaf joint, boot and anthesis growth stages for NO₃⁻N analysis with a nitrate electrode. Diagnostic levels for durum wheat basal stem tissue NO₃⁻N tests at these growth stages are presented.
    • Wheat Irrigation Scheduling at the Safford Agricultural Center, 1989

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Ottman, Michael; Kingdon, Lorraine (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1989-09)
      Wheat irrigations were scheduled using two computer models and an infrared thermometer, using three critical threshold values. Yields from these plots were compared with plots scheduled by the farm manager. The highest yield was obtained by the computer model using evapotranspiration data taken from the local AZMET station; this corroborates results from the previous year. The crop coefficients and the irrigation model that have been developed over the past several years are very accurate for this area. The two lower threshold infrared treatments were second and third in yield and had lower water use efficiencies.