Forage & Grain Report 1987
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
The Forage and Grain Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.
This report, along with the Cotton Report, was established by Hank Brubaker, Extension Agronomist, after seeing a similar report published by Texas A&M University in the mid-1970’s.
The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to farmers, researchers, and those in the agricultural industry. The research is conducted by University of Arizona and USDA-ARS scientists.
Both historical and current Forage and Grain Reports have been made available in the UA Campus Repository as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.
Contents for Forage & Grain Report 1987
- Genetic Gains and Stability for Germination Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa
- Salt Tolerance During Seedling Establishment in Alfalfa
- Performance of Germination Salt Tolerant Alfalfa on a Non-Saline Site
- Strain Crossing for Large-Leaflet Alfalfa: A First Look
- Seedling Alfalfa Root Research
- PEG-Induced Stress on Alfalfa Seedlings
- Response of Alfalfa to Phosphorus Fertilizer Sources
- The Effect of Gypsum and Sulfuric Acid Soil Amendments on the Yield of Alfalfa and Soil Infiltration Rates: A Progress Report
- Alfalfa Variety Demonstration at the Safford Agricultural Center, 1984-1986
- Alfalfa Varieties and Experimentals: Yield Evaluation Progress Report, Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1987
- Yield Comparisons of Alfalfa Cultivars and Experimentals at Maricopa and Yuma, 1986 to July 1987
- Alfalfa Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1986
- Oxyflourfen (Goal) for Selective Control of Little Malva in Seedling Alfalfa
- Cost of Producing Wheat in Arizona: 1987 State Summary
- Wheat, Barley and Oats for Forage and Grain Production at the Yuma Valley Agricultural Center, 1986-87
- Oat Hay Variety Evaluation
- Russian Wheat Aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvillko): A New Insect Pest of Small Grains in Arizona
- Seeding Rate, Nitrogen Rate, and Planting Date of One-Irrigation Barley at Marana, 1987
- One-Irrigation Barley Observations in Graham and Cochise Counties, 1987
- Yield and Water Use of Barley Cultivars Compared Under an Irrigation Water Gradient at Marana, 1987
- Seeding Rate and Row Spacing for Westbred 881 and Aldura Durum Wheat at Maricopa, 1987
- Durum Wheat Variety and Planting Rate Trial at Marana in 1987
- Barley Grain Grown with Dried Sewage Sludge
- Response of Barley and Wheat to Sewage Sludge Loading Rates
- Effects of Sewage Sludge on Wheat Forage Production
- Effects of Sewage Sludge on the Yield and Quality of Wheat Grain and Straw
- Barley Response to Water and Nitrogen Levels
- Inproved Nitrogen Management in Irrigated Wheat Production Using Stem Nitrate Analysis
- Predicting the Nitrogen Requirements of Irrigated Durum Wheat in Graham County Using Soil and Nitrate Analysis
- Standardization of the Wheat Stem Tissue NO₃-N Procedure
- Effects of N and P Applications on Wheat Stem Nitrate and Phosphate Levels, and Grain Production in Graham County
- Yield and Water Use of Wheat as Influenced by Early Irrigation at Maricopa, 1987
- Gypsum Application on Wheat at Coolidge, 1987
- Wheat Germplasm Releases by the Agricultural Experiment Station in 1987
- Small Grain Comparisons at the Maricopa Agricultural Center in 1987
- Small Grain Variety Comparisons at the Yuma Agricultural Center in 1987
- Wheat Variety Demonstration in Roll, 1987
- Wheat and Barley Variety Test at the Bruce Church Range, Poston, 1987
- Durum Wheat Variety Trials in Cochise, Graham and Greenlee Counties, 1987
- Winter Wheat Variety Trial in Cochise County, 1987
- Corn Variety Trial in Bonita, Graham County, 1986
- Corn Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1986
- Late Corn Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1986
- Summary of Commercial Hybrid Grain Sorghum Yield Tests at Marana, 1983-85
- Grain Sorghum Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1986
- Double-Crop Grain Sorghum Variety Trial, Graham County, 1986
- Water Stress Indices for Research and Irrigation Scheduling in Pearl Millet
- Stomatal Response to Water Stress in Two Pearl Millet Genotypes
- Dryland Catchment Test Planted to Hybrid Sorghum and Pearl Millet in Avra Valley Near Three Points, 1986
Water Stress Indices for Research and Irrigation Scheduling in Pearl MilletThe capability to measure the magnitude of water stress in plants is useful for precision irrigation scheduling and other purposes. This paper reports an evaluation of leaf (TL) and canopy (Tc) temperatures, leaf minus air (TL -Ta) and canopy minus air (Tc -Ta) temperatures, and leaf water stress index (LWSI) and crop water stress index (CWSI) in detecting stress in pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke) over two growing seasons. Baselines which were used to compute LWSI and CWSI were obtained. The upper and lower baselines for the Tc data, respectively, were Tc -Ta = 4.10 C and Tc -Ta = 3.87- .2001VPD where VPD is vapor pressure deficit in mbars. For the TL data, the upper and lower baselines, respectively, were TL -Ta = 1.97oC and TL -Ta = 1.308- .03006VPD. Tests against photosynthesis, transpiration, and grain yield showed that LWSI and CWSI are better indices of stress than TL -Ta, Tc -Ta, TL, Tc, or Ta. Average seasonal LWSI and CWSI ranged from approximately 0.03 for non- stressed to 0.80 for stressed plants. The reliability of LWSI and CWSI to detect stress and their relation with grain yield suggested the possibility of using these indices for irrigation scheduling decisions.
Stomatal Response to Water Stress in Two Pearl Millet GenotypesA study was conducted in the field to test whether stomatal sensitivity to water stress can be used as a selection criterion for drought tolerance in two pearl millet genotypes. In both cultivars, stomatal aperture was significantly reduced by the water stress. However, the proportion of reduction per 20 mm decrease in applied water was much higher for the hybrid than for the female parent. This is clearly an indication of a higher stomatal sensitivity in the hybrid, which probably explains the superior performance under water stress that was previously observed in this genotype.
Double-Crop Grain Sorghum Variety Trial, Graham County, 1986Nine medium to medium -late maturing grain sorghum hybrids were compared for yield, percent moisture at harvest, bushel weight, plant height, percent bird damage and standability. The highest yielding entry in the trial was a new hybrid from Northrup King (NK 2656). Its yield of 6185 pounds per acre was 11% higher than the most, commonly grown hybrid in the area.
Grain Sorghum Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1986Eleven full season hybrid grain sorghums, representing seven commercial sources, were grown on a silty clay soil south of Duncan. The test plots were managed the same as the rest of the field planted to DeKalb 69. Grain yields ranging from 6911 to 4546 pounds per acre were obtained, with DeKalb 69 the top yielder.
Late Corn Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1986Five corn varieties with maturities varying from 95 to 108 days were grown in a double crop situation following barley. The variety that produced the highest net value (after deducting drying costs) yielded only $194.39 per acre, slightly less than the marginal cost of production.
Corn Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1986Ten varieties of 115 to 125 day corn hybrids were tested in an on going variety trial in Greenlee county. Drying costs were also calculated to not only determine the top- yielding variety but also the variety having the highest net value after subtracting drying costs. Pioneer 3183 ranked top in both categories.
Corn Variety Trial in Bonita, Graham County, 1986Fourteen corn hybrids were tested, only one of which had previously been evaluated in University tests. Yields, stands, moisture in the grain at harvest, net value of the crop (after subtracting drying costs) and other agronomic data were determined. The top -yielding hybrid, Pioneer 3183, produced 11,942 pounds per acre but produced about $2 per acre less than the highest valued variety, DeKalb 656, which produced $460.54 per acre.
Winter Wheat Variety Trial in Cochise County, 1987Sixteen winter wheat varieties (including three hybrids) were evaluated in a randomized, complete block experiment, with four replications. Stephens, the standard variety grown in the area, was outyielded by four of the winter wheat cultivars, including two of the hybrids. The highest yielding cultivar was a hybrid, Bounty 100, which yielded 5853 pounds per acre (23% higher than Stephens).
Durum Wheat Variety Trials in Cochise, Graham and Greenlee Counties, 1987Aldura, Westbred Turbo and Westbred 881 were grown in four sites in three counties (Graham, Greenlee and Cochise) in southeastern Arizona to determine which would produce the largest income per acre. At an assumed 75 cent premium for Westbred 881 over a base of $5.25 per hundredweight, Aldura and Westbred Turbo generally out produced Westbred 881. Relative yields of the three varieties are shown for all locations.
Wheat and Barley Variety Test at the Bruce Church Range, Poston, 1987A wheat and barley test on the Bruce Church Ranch, Poston, Arizona, La Paz County, harvested June 8 & 9, 1987, gave crop and variety performance differences under grower management conditions. The top yielding barley variety was Fiesta, 6990 lbs /ac. The leading durum varieties were Turbo, Gem and Aldura. Durum wheat Westbred 881 was highest in protein (13.7 %). In red wheat varieties, yields ranged from 4660 to 5750 lbs/ac. The top three varieties were Baker, Probred and Yecora Rojo. Baker was highest in protein (14.6 %), followed by Yecora Rojo (14.2%). Continued testing over several years is necessary to assess variety performance under grower management conditions.
Gypsum Application on Wheat at Coolidge, 1987Gypsum is applied to alleviate the problems associated with sodium- affected soils, such as surface crusting and impeded water infiltration. Due to the uncertainties in identifying gypsum-responsive sites, field studies were initiated to further our understanding of conditions responsible for the response of wheat to gypsum applications. Gypsum was applied at rates ranging from 0 to 4 T/A on two commercial farms near Coolidge, AZ. No differences in wheat grain yield, grain protein, stand, grain bushel weight, or plant height were detected at the 5% probability level at either site with the exception of increased plant height at one site. The positive benefits of gypsum have been documented in the past with certain soils; this study is just one of many required to more positively define gypsum-responsive sites in Arizona. The economics of gypsum application involves delivery and application cost of gypsum and the change in yield and value of subsequent crops.
Yield and Water Use of Wheat as Influenced by Early Irrigation at Maricopa, 1987When the first irrigation in wheat is applied early, it is usually done to bank or save water for later in the season. On the other hand, when the first irrigation is applied late, it is done to force deep rooting. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of an early irrigation and an early stress period on yield and water use of two durum wheat cultivars when subjected to water stress during the grain fill period. Grain yield of Westbred 881 was not influenced by irrigation treatment, but the grain yield of Aldura was higher with early irrigation rather than early stress. Part of this response may be explained by the poorer stand and the lower stem number of Aldura compared to Westbred 881 under early stress conditions. Water use later in the season was unaffected by irrigation treatment. Early irrigation did not save water for later in the season, and early stress did not improve the plant's ability to extract deep moisture under the conditions of this study.
Effects of N and P Applications on Wheat Stem Nitrate and Phosphate Levels, and Grain Production in Graham CountyObtaining optimal yields of spring wheat in Arizona normally requires applications of fertilizer nitrogen (N), and occasionally phosphorus (P). The University of Arizona currently recommends preplant soil tests for NO₃-N and P, plus periodic stem tissue NO₃-N analyses to predict the N and P needs of wheat. Preplant application of P within the root zone of growing plants is suggested due to the immobility of P in soils. Split applications of N broadcast to dry soil preceding irrigations are generally recommended. Collecting additional data to calibrate and refine current guidelines for interpreting soil and plant test values is an ongoing need in Arizona. An experiment was conducted at the Safford Agricultural Center during the 1986-87 crop year to evaluate the response of "Aldura" durum wheat to banded and broadcast N and P, and split applications of N on a clay loam soil testing low in NO₃-N and available P. Maximum grain yields of over 4,500 lbs./A were obtained by banding of 40 lbs. P₂O₅ /A and 32 lbs. N/A as 16-20-0 at planting and broadcasting 118 lbs. urea-N/A prior to seeding. Stem tissue NO₃-N analyses revealed that N deficient conditions prevailed throughout the growing season in all fertilizer treatments. Treatments in which the preassigned rate of N was split into three applications produced the lowest yields due to serious N deficiency early in the season. The stem NO₃-N tissue test proved accurate in predicting N status and a stem. PO₄-P tissue test seemed reliable in monitoring P nutrition of durum wheat.
Standardization of the Wheat Stem Tissue NO₃-N ProcedureCurrent University of Arizona recommendations require periodic stein NO₃-N tests to determine nitrogen (N) fertility status of wheat crops. Lack of data on the importance of sample handling techniques, plant part selection, grinding criteria and extraction conditions have resulted in a reluctance by some growers and laboratory operators to utilize this test procedure. A laboratory study was carried out to examine factors important in wheat stem tissue analysis for NO₃-N. Sample handling, fineness of tissue grinding, and different extraction ratios were examined to determine their effects on NO₃-N recovery. Detailed partitioning of wheat plants at the 3-4 leaf, joint and boot growth stages was conducted to document which plant part is the best indicator of the N status of wheat. Optimal recovery of tissue NO₃-N existed for stem tissue separated immediately in the field and dried within 8 hours; stem tissue ground to 30 mesh or less and extracted for at least 30 minutes; and when using a sample size of 0.1000 g, in conjunction with 25 ml of extractant (i.e. 1:250 plant tissue to extractant ratio). Partitioning data confirmed current University of Arizona wheat tissue sampling guidelines which suggest sampling of the basal portion of the stem tissue.