• Barley Grain Grown with Dried Sewage Sludge

      Day, Arden; Thompson, Rex; Swingle, Spencer; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      A four-year experiment, conducted at the Mesa Agricultural Center, studied the use of dried sewage sludge from the City of Phoenix as a source of plant nutrients in the commercial production of barley grain. The objective was to compare the effects of sewage sludge and commercial fertilizer on barley growth, grain yield, and quality. Three fertilizer treatments were used: (1) suggested rates of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in Arizona; (2) dried sewage sludge to supply plant-available N in amounts equal to the suggested rate; and (3) N, P, and K from inorganic fertilizers, in amounts equal to those in sewage sludge. Characteristics of barley growth, grain yield, and quality were similar for the three fertilizer treatments. Barley can use the fertilizer nutrients in dried sewage sludge to produce grain as effectively as it can utilize the fertilizer nutrients in inorganic fertilizer.
    • Barley Response to Water and Nitrogen Levels

      Roth, Bob; Gardner, Bryant; Tickes, Barry; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Results from one year's data show that yields of more than five tons per acre are feasible for Fiesta, Gustoe and NKX -1558 barley cultivars. The cultivar Barcott is a shorter season variety; yields were reduced by approximately one ton per acre, compared to the other cultivars. Additional data needs to be collected to verify the amounts of water and nitrogen required for obtaining optimum production.
    • Cost of Producing Wheat in Arizona: 1987 State Summary

      Wade, James; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
    • Durum Wheat Variety and Planting Rate Trial at Marana in 1987

      Thacker, Gary; Ottman, Mike; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Five varieties of durum wheat were evaluated at two different seeding rates, in cooperation with Pacheco Farm Management in Marana. Significant differences between varieties were observed in grain yield, plant height, lodging, bushel weight and protein level. No significant differences in yellow berry were observed between the varieties. The planting rates did not cause significant differences in grain yield nor in any of the other characteristics that were measured. There were no significant variety x planting rate interactions.
    • Durum Wheat Variety Trials in Cochise, Graham and Greenlee Counties, 1987

      Clark, Lee; Schwennesen, Eric; Cluff, Ronald, E.; DeRosa, Edith; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Aldura, Westbred Turbo and Westbred 881 were grown in four sites in three counties (Graham, Greenlee and Cochise) in southeastern Arizona to determine which would produce the largest income per acre. At an assumed 75 cent premium for Westbred 881 over a base of $5.25 per hundredweight, Aldura and Westbred Turbo generally out produced Westbred 881. Relative yields of the three varieties are shown for all locations.
    • Effects of N and P Applications on Wheat Stem Nitrate and Phosphate Levels, and Grain Production in Graham County

      Knowles, Tim; Doerge, Thomas; Ottman, Mike; Clark, Lee; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Obtaining optimal yields of spring wheat in Arizona normally requires applications of fertilizer nitrogen (N), and occasionally phosphorus (P). The University of Arizona currently recommends preplant soil tests for NO₃-N and P, plus periodic stem tissue NO₃-N analyses to predict the N and P needs of wheat. Preplant application of P within the root zone of growing plants is suggested due to the immobility of P in soils. Split applications of N broadcast to dry soil preceding irrigations are generally recommended. Collecting additional data to calibrate and refine current guidelines for interpreting soil and plant test values is an ongoing need in Arizona. An experiment was conducted at the Safford Agricultural Center during the 1986-87 crop year to evaluate the response of "Aldura" durum wheat to banded and broadcast N and P, and split applications of N on a clay loam soil testing low in NO₃-N and available P. Maximum grain yields of over 4,500 lbs./A were obtained by banding of 40 lbs. P₂O₅ /A and 32 lbs. N/A as 16-20-0 at planting and broadcasting 118 lbs. urea-N/A prior to seeding. Stem tissue NO₃-N analyses revealed that N deficient conditions prevailed throughout the growing season in all fertilizer treatments. Treatments in which the preassigned rate of N was split into three applications produced the lowest yields due to serious N deficiency early in the season. The stem NO₃-N tissue test proved accurate in predicting N status and a stem. PO₄-P tissue test seemed reliable in monitoring P nutrition of durum wheat.
    • Effects of Sewage Sludge on the Yield and Quality of Wheat Grain and Straw

      Day, Arden; Swingle, Spencer; Taylor, Brooks; Pepper, Ian; Minnich, Martha; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Experiments were conducted in Avra Valley, Arizona, to study the use of digested liquid sewage sludge as a source of plant nutrients in the commercial production of grain and straw from wheat. Wheat grown with the recommended amount of plant -available nitrogen from sewage sludge produced the same grain yield as wheat grown with the same amount of nitrogen from inorganic fertilizer. Wheat grain and straw grown with sewage sludge and inorganic fertilizer had similar livestock feeding qualities. Fertilizing wheat with sewage sludge delayed maturity.
    • Effects of Sewage Sludge on Wheat Forage Production

      Day, Arden; Swingle, Spencer; Taylor, Brooks; Pepper, Ian; Minnich, Martha; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Experiments were conducted in Avra Valley, Arizona, to study the use of digested liquid sewage sludge as a source of plant nutrients in the commercial production of green-chopped feed and hay from wheat. Wheat grown with the recommended amount of plant-available nitrogen from sewage sludge produced more green-chopped feed and hay than did wheat grown with the same amount of nitrogen from inorganic fertilizer. Wheat green-chopped feed and hay grown with sewage sludge and inorganic fertilizer had similar livestock feeding qualities. Fertilizing wheat with sewage sludge delayed maturity.
    • Gypsum Application on Wheat at Coolidge, 1987

      Ottman, Mike; Stroehlein, Jack; Christian, Tom; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Gypsum is applied to alleviate the problems associated with sodium- affected soils, such as surface crusting and impeded water infiltration. Due to the uncertainties in identifying gypsum-responsive sites, field studies were initiated to further our understanding of conditions responsible for the response of wheat to gypsum applications. Gypsum was applied at rates ranging from 0 to 4 T/A on two commercial farms near Coolidge, AZ. No differences in wheat grain yield, grain protein, stand, grain bushel weight, or plant height were detected at the 5% probability level at either site with the exception of increased plant height at one site. The positive benefits of gypsum have been documented in the past with certain soils; this study is just one of many required to more positively define gypsum-responsive sites in Arizona. The economics of gypsum application involves delivery and application cost of gypsum and the change in yield and value of subsequent crops.
    • Inproved Nitrogen Management in Irrigated Wheat Production Using Stem Nitrate Analysis

      Doerge, Thomas; Knowles, Tim; Ottman, Mike; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      The method for predicting the nitrogen (N) requirements of irrigated wheat that is recommended by the University of Arizona requires preplant soil, plus mid-season stem nitrate analysis. Additional information on the relationships between N rates, stem NO₃-N levels and grain yields are needed for the wide range of agronomic conditions typical of Arizona's wheat growing areas. Three N fertility trials were conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center to, 1) measure the accuracy of the current University of Arizona procedure on soils of contrasting texture; 2) to evaluate the use of the current stem testing procedure on two durum varieties, "Aldura" and "Westbred-881"; and 3) to evaluate the effect of various N forms on the levels of NO₃-N in stem tissue for wheat grown in a clay loam soil. The University of Arizona procedure was found to over predict slightly the amount of N required for optimum economic return on sandy soils where the maximum yields obtained did not exceed 5100 lbs. grain/a which is considerably below the expected yield possibility for these sites. The procedure accurately predicted the amount of N required for optimum production on a clay loam soil (175 lbs. N/a)at a maximum yield of 6000 lbs. grain /acre. "Aldura" and "Westbred-881" were remarkably similar in their response to a wide range of N applications. There was no significant difference in the yields of these two varieties, but "Westbred-881" did contain somewhat higher protein levels. Little statistical or practical differences were observed in the quantities of N contained in the stem tissue of these two varieties; this should help simplify the interpretation of stem NO₃-N values for various wheat cultivars. The chemical form of N applied to wheat grown in a clay loam soil had no significant effect on the quantity of NO₃-N measured in stem tissue at any time during the growing season. The currently recommended procedure for predicting optimum N fertilization rates in wheat productions shows considerable promise but needs further evaluation, particularly under high - yielding conditions.
    • Oat Hay Variety Evaluation

      Harper, John; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
    • One-Irrigation Barley Observations in Graham and Cochise Counties, 1987

      Clark, Lee; Young, Deborah; Schwennesen, Eric; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      A series of experimental plots was planted because ranchers, conservationists, farmers and homeowners in southeastern Arizona were interested in knowing more about one -irrigation barleys. The results of these observations are contained in this paper.
    • Predicting the Nitrogen Requirements of Irrigated Durum Wheat in Graham County Using Soil and Nitrate Analysis

      Doerge, Thomas; Knowles, Tim; Ottman, Mike; Clark, Lee; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      The high yielding spring wheats grown in Arizona usually require applications of fertilizer nitrogen (N) to achieve optimum grain yields and acceptable quality. The University of Arizona's currently recommended procedure (preplant soil plus periodic stem tissue analysis for NO₃-N to predict the N needs of wheat) is not widely used by Graham County growers for various reasons. A nitrogen fertility trial was conducted at the Safford Agricultural Center during the 1986-87 crop year to: 1) examine the relationships between basal stem nitrate-N levels, grain yields of durum wheat, and N fertilizer rates; and 2) to test the accuracy of the recommended procedure for predicting the N needs of durum wheat. Five rates of N from O to 419 lbs N /acre were applied in three split applications. One additional N treatment was made as indicated by the current University of Arizona procedure. Maximum grain yields of 5500 to 6200 lbs /a and protein levels in excess of 14.5% were attained with the application of at least 186 lbs NIA. An untimely early season irrigation induced a temporary N deficiency condition for all plots, which may have kept grain yields below the maximum yield possibility for this site. In spite of this, the amount of N predicted by the University of Arizona procedure (197 lbsN/acre) did attain an adjusted economic return which was not significantly different from the maximum numerical yield that was achieved for any of the other N treatments.
    • Response of Barley and Wheat to Sewage Sludge Loading Rates

      Day, Arden; Solomon, Mengste; Taylor, Brooks; Pepper, Ian; Minnich, Martha; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the responses of barley and wheat to sewage sludge loading rates of 150 to 750 lb /acre plant-available N and to recommended inorganic N (150 lb/ acre). All sewage sludge rates delayed maturity in both barley and wheat. Sludge loading rates up to 450 lb /acre of plant-available N increased vegetative growth and grain yield in both crops. Sludge rates higher than 450 lb/acre of plant-available N resulted in a reduction in the number of plants per pot; however, the stand reduction was greater for wheat than for barley.
    • Russian Wheat Aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvillko): A New Insect Pest of Small Grains in Arizona

      Dick, Gary; Moore, Leon; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
    • Seeding Rate and Row Spacing for Westbred 881 and Aldura Durum Wheat at Maricopa, 1987

      Ottman, Mike; Day, Arden; Harper, John; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Westbred 881 durum wheat commands a premium price due to its superior quality, but produces a lower yield than other commonly grown commercial cultivars. This study was initiated to improve our understanding of how best to manage Westbred 881. Two durum wheat cultivars (Westbred 881 and Aldura) were planted at 5 seeding rates (30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 lbs. seed/A), 5 row spacings (3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 inches), and two planting dates (Dec. 1 and Jan. 16) at the Maricopa Agricultural Center. Both cultivars produced optimum yields at seeding rates of 120 to 180 lbs/A for the Dec. 1 planting date. At the Jan. 16 planting date, however, yields of Westbred 881 increased linearly with seeding rate up to 240 lbs/A, while Aldura produced optimum yields between 120 and 180 lbs. seed/A. At the Dec. 1 planting date, Aldura produced similar yields at row spacings from 3 to 12 inches, while the yield of Westbred 881 decreased linearly with an increase in row spacing. The highest yield achieved in this study was with Westbred 881 at the 3 -inch row spacing. Row spacings of 6 to 12 inches were optimum for both Westbred 881 and Aldura at the Jan. 16 planting date. The seeding rate and row spacing responses attained with Westbred 881 may be related to its tittering characteristics.
    • Seeding Rate, Nitrogen Rate, and Planting Date of One-Irrigation Barley at Marana, 1987

      Ottman, Mike; Ramage, Tom; Thacker, Gary; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      One-irrigation barleys were bred to be grown with only a single irrigation near planting time. To further our understanding of how to manage these new cultivars, one-irrigation barleys were grown at 4 seeding rates (20, 40, 60, and 80 lbs seed /A), 4 nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100, and 150 lbs/A), and 3 planting dates (Nov. 17, Dec. 15, and Jan. 22). Seeding rates 01 40 to 60 lbs seed/A resulted in the highest yields at the Dec. 15 planting date, comparing all planting dates combined. However, in individual analyses of the Nov. 17 and Jan. 22 planting dates, no significant differences in yield due to seeding rate were detected. Grain yield increased linearly with nitrogen rate at the Nov. 17 planting date, but was not influenced by nitrogen rate at the other planting dates. Yields were similar for the Nov. 17 and Dec. 15 planting dates, but decreased considerably in the Jan. 22 planting date due partially to lower head number. Grain yields of 2-22-9 were consistently higher than Seco this year.
    • Small Grain Comparisons at the Maricopa Agricultural Center in 1987

      Thompson, Rex; Sheedy, Michael; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
    • Small Grain Variety Comparisons at the Yuma Agricultural Center in 1987

      Thompson, Rex; Sheedy, Michael; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
    • Standardization of the Wheat Stem Tissue NO₃-N Procedure

      Knowles, Tim; Doerge, Thomas; Ottman, Mike; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Current University of Arizona recommendations require periodic stein NO₃-N tests to determine nitrogen (N) fertility status of wheat crops. Lack of data on the importance of sample handling techniques, plant part selection, grinding criteria and extraction conditions have resulted in a reluctance by some growers and laboratory operators to utilize this test procedure. A laboratory study was carried out to examine factors important in wheat stem tissue analysis for NO₃-N. Sample handling, fineness of tissue grinding, and different extraction ratios were examined to determine their effects on NO₃-N recovery. Detailed partitioning of wheat plants at the 3-4 leaf, joint and boot growth stages was conducted to document which plant part is the best indicator of the N status of wheat. Optimal recovery of tissue NO₃-N existed for stem tissue separated immediately in the field and dried within 8 hours; stem tissue ground to 30 mesh or less and extracted for at least 30 minutes; and when using a sample size of 0.1000 g, in conjunction with 25 ml of extractant (i.e. 1:250 plant tissue to extractant ratio). Partitioning data confirmed current University of Arizona wheat tissue sampling guidelines which suggest sampling of the basal portion of the stem tissue.