• Alfalfa Varieties and Experimentals: Yield Evaluation Progress Report, Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1987

      Thompson, Rex; Sheedy, Michael; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
    • Alfalfa Variety Demonstration at the Safford Agricultural Center, 1984-1986

      Clark, Lee; Cluff, Ronald; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Twenty non- dormant and very non -dormant alfalfa varieties were compared over three seasons. A very non -dormant variety Pioneer 5929 yielded the most during the 1986 season, with a yield approaching 12 tons per acre in six cuttings.
    • Alfalfa Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1986

      Clark, Lee; DeRose, Edith; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Ten alfalfa varieties ranging from very non -dormant to moderately dormant were tested. No statistically significant differences were seen. The highest yielding variety yielded more than seven tons per acre, considerably better than the county average of 5.5 tons per acre.
    • Barley Grain Grown with Dried Sewage Sludge

      Day, Arden; Thompson, Rex; Swingle, Spencer; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      A four-year experiment, conducted at the Mesa Agricultural Center, studied the use of dried sewage sludge from the City of Phoenix as a source of plant nutrients in the commercial production of barley grain. The objective was to compare the effects of sewage sludge and commercial fertilizer on barley growth, grain yield, and quality. Three fertilizer treatments were used: (1) suggested rates of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in Arizona; (2) dried sewage sludge to supply plant-available N in amounts equal to the suggested rate; and (3) N, P, and K from inorganic fertilizers, in amounts equal to those in sewage sludge. Characteristics of barley growth, grain yield, and quality were similar for the three fertilizer treatments. Barley can use the fertilizer nutrients in dried sewage sludge to produce grain as effectively as it can utilize the fertilizer nutrients in inorganic fertilizer.
    • Barley Response to Water and Nitrogen Levels

      Roth, Bob; Gardner, Bryant; Tickes, Barry; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Results from one year's data show that yields of more than five tons per acre are feasible for Fiesta, Gustoe and NKX -1558 barley cultivars. The cultivar Barcott is a shorter season variety; yields were reduced by approximately one ton per acre, compared to the other cultivars. Additional data needs to be collected to verify the amounts of water and nitrogen required for obtaining optimum production.
    • Corn Variety Trial in Bonita, Graham County, 1986

      Clark, Lee; Cluff, Ronald; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Fourteen corn hybrids were tested, only one of which had previously been evaluated in University tests. Yields, stands, moisture in the grain at harvest, net value of the crop (after subtracting drying costs) and other agronomic data were determined. The top -yielding hybrid, Pioneer 3183, produced 11,942 pounds per acre but produced about $2 per acre less than the highest valued variety, DeKalb 656, which produced $460.54 per acre.
    • Corn Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1986

      Clark, Lee; DeRose, Edith; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Ten varieties of 115 to 125 day corn hybrids were tested in an on going variety trial in Greenlee county. Drying costs were also calculated to not only determine the top- yielding variety but also the variety having the highest net value after subtracting drying costs. Pioneer 3183 ranked top in both categories.
    • Cost of Producing Wheat in Arizona: 1987 State Summary

      Wade, James; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
    • Double-Crop Grain Sorghum Variety Trial, Graham County, 1986

      Clark, Lee; Cluff, Ronald; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Nine medium to medium -late maturing grain sorghum hybrids were compared for yield, percent moisture at harvest, bushel weight, plant height, percent bird damage and standability. The highest yielding entry in the trial was a new hybrid from Northrup King (NK 2656). Its yield of 6185 pounds per acre was 11% higher than the most, commonly grown hybrid in the area.
    • Dryland Catchment Test Planted to Hybrid Sorghum and Pearl Millet in Avra Valley Near Three Points, 1986

      Thacker, Gary; Voigt, Robert; Schmalzel, Carl; Ottman, Mike; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
    • Durum Wheat Variety and Planting Rate Trial at Marana in 1987

      Thacker, Gary; Ottman, Mike; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Five varieties of durum wheat were evaluated at two different seeding rates, in cooperation with Pacheco Farm Management in Marana. Significant differences between varieties were observed in grain yield, plant height, lodging, bushel weight and protein level. No significant differences in yellow berry were observed between the varieties. The planting rates did not cause significant differences in grain yield nor in any of the other characteristics that were measured. There were no significant variety x planting rate interactions.
    • Durum Wheat Variety Trials in Cochise, Graham and Greenlee Counties, 1987

      Clark, Lee; Schwennesen, Eric; Cluff, Ronald; DeRosa, Edith; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Aldura, Westbred Turbo and Westbred 881 were grown in four sites in three counties (Graham, Greenlee and Cochise) in southeastern Arizona to determine which would produce the largest income per acre. At an assumed 75 cent premium for Westbred 881 over a base of $5.25 per hundredweight, Aldura and Westbred Turbo generally out produced Westbred 881. Relative yields of the three varieties are shown for all locations.
    • The Effect of Gypsum and Sulfuric Acid Soil Amendments on the Yield of Alfalfa and Soil Infiltration Rates: A Progress Report

      Harper, John; Watson, Jack; Doerge, Tom; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
    • Effects of N and P Applications on Wheat Stem Nitrate and Phosphate Levels, and Grain Production in Graham County

      Knowles, Tim; Doerge, Thomas; Ottman, Mike; Clark, Lee; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Obtaining optimal yields of spring wheat in Arizona normally requires applications of fertilizer nitrogen (N), and occasionally phosphorus (P). The University of Arizona currently recommends preplant soil tests for NO₃-N and P, plus periodic stem tissue NO₃-N analyses to predict the N and P needs of wheat. Preplant application of P within the root zone of growing plants is suggested due to the immobility of P in soils. Split applications of N broadcast to dry soil preceding irrigations are generally recommended. Collecting additional data to calibrate and refine current guidelines for interpreting soil and plant test values is an ongoing need in Arizona. An experiment was conducted at the Safford Agricultural Center during the 1986-87 crop year to evaluate the response of "Aldura" durum wheat to banded and broadcast N and P, and split applications of N on a clay loam soil testing low in NO₃-N and available P. Maximum grain yields of over 4,500 lbs./A were obtained by banding of 40 lbs. P₂O₅ /A and 32 lbs. N/A as 16-20-0 at planting and broadcasting 118 lbs. urea-N/A prior to seeding. Stem tissue NO₃-N analyses revealed that N deficient conditions prevailed throughout the growing season in all fertilizer treatments. Treatments in which the preassigned rate of N was split into three applications produced the lowest yields due to serious N deficiency early in the season. The stem NO₃-N tissue test proved accurate in predicting N status and a stem. PO₄-P tissue test seemed reliable in monitoring P nutrition of durum wheat.
    • Effects of Sewage Sludge on the Yield and Quality of Wheat Grain and Straw

      Day, Arden; Swingle, Spencer; Taylor, Brooks; Pepper, Ian; Minnich, Martha; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Experiments were conducted in Avra Valley, Arizona, to study the use of digested liquid sewage sludge as a source of plant nutrients in the commercial production of grain and straw from wheat. Wheat grown with the recommended amount of plant -available nitrogen from sewage sludge produced the same grain yield as wheat grown with the same amount of nitrogen from inorganic fertilizer. Wheat grain and straw grown with sewage sludge and inorganic fertilizer had similar livestock feeding qualities. Fertilizing wheat with sewage sludge delayed maturity.
    • Effects of Sewage Sludge on Wheat Forage Production

      Day, Arden; Swingle, Spencer; Taylor, Brooks; Pepper, Ian; Minnich, Martha; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Experiments were conducted in Avra Valley, Arizona, to study the use of digested liquid sewage sludge as a source of plant nutrients in the commercial production of green-chopped feed and hay from wheat. Wheat grown with the recommended amount of plant-available nitrogen from sewage sludge produced more green-chopped feed and hay than did wheat grown with the same amount of nitrogen from inorganic fertilizer. Wheat green-chopped feed and hay grown with sewage sludge and inorganic fertilizer had similar livestock feeding qualities. Fertilizing wheat with sewage sludge delayed maturity.
    • Genetic Gains and Stability for Germination Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa

      Poteet, David; Robinson, David; Smith, Steve; Dobrenz, Albert; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Improving the germination salt tolerance of alfalfa will help this crop endure both increasingly saline irrigation water and salt build -up in the soil. Seven previous cycles of selection for salt tolerance at germination plus the parental line, Mesa-Sirsa, were evaluated for percentage germination under various levels of NaCI solutions. Germination improved linearly from the earliest to the latest cycle of selection. Germination salt tolerance can be improved through recurrent selection techniques.
    • Grain Sorghum Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1986

      Clark, Lee; DeRose, Edith; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Eleven full season hybrid grain sorghums, representing seven commercial sources, were grown on a silty clay soil south of Duncan. The test plots were managed the same as the rest of the field planted to DeKalb 69. Grain yields ranging from 6911 to 4546 pounds per acre were obtained, with DeKalb 69 the top yielder.
    • Gypsum Application on Wheat at Coolidge, 1987

      Ottman, Mike; Stroehlein, Jack; Christian, Tom; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      Gypsum is applied to alleviate the problems associated with sodium- affected soils, such as surface crusting and impeded water infiltration. Due to the uncertainties in identifying gypsum-responsive sites, field studies were initiated to further our understanding of conditions responsible for the response of wheat to gypsum applications. Gypsum was applied at rates ranging from 0 to 4 T/A on two commercial farms near Coolidge, AZ. No differences in wheat grain yield, grain protein, stand, grain bushel weight, or plant height were detected at the 5% probability level at either site with the exception of increased plant height at one site. The positive benefits of gypsum have been documented in the past with certain soils; this study is just one of many required to more positively define gypsum-responsive sites in Arizona. The economics of gypsum application involves delivery and application cost of gypsum and the change in yield and value of subsequent crops.
    • Inproved Nitrogen Management in Irrigated Wheat Production Using Stem Nitrate Analysis

      Doerge, Thomas; Knowles, Tim; Ottman, Mike; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1987-09)
      The method for predicting the nitrogen (N) requirements of irrigated wheat that is recommended by the University of Arizona requires preplant soil, plus mid-season stem nitrate analysis. Additional information on the relationships between N rates, stem NO₃-N levels and grain yields are needed for the wide range of agronomic conditions typical of Arizona's wheat growing areas. Three N fertility trials were conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center to, 1) measure the accuracy of the current University of Arizona procedure on soils of contrasting texture; 2) to evaluate the use of the current stem testing procedure on two durum varieties, "Aldura" and "Westbred-881"; and 3) to evaluate the effect of various N forms on the levels of NO₃-N in stem tissue for wheat grown in a clay loam soil. The University of Arizona procedure was found to over predict slightly the amount of N required for optimum economic return on sandy soils where the maximum yields obtained did not exceed 5100 lbs. grain/a which is considerably below the expected yield possibility for these sites. The procedure accurately predicted the amount of N required for optimum production on a clay loam soil (175 lbs. N/a)at a maximum yield of 6000 lbs. grain /acre. "Aldura" and "Westbred-881" were remarkably similar in their response to a wide range of N applications. There was no significant difference in the yields of these two varieties, but "Westbred-881" did contain somewhat higher protein levels. Little statistical or practical differences were observed in the quantities of N contained in the stem tissue of these two varieties; this should help simplify the interpretation of stem NO₃-N values for various wheat cultivars. The chemical form of N applied to wheat grown in a clay loam soil had no significant effect on the quantity of NO₃-N measured in stem tissue at any time during the growing season. The currently recommended procedure for predicting optimum N fertilization rates in wheat productions shows considerable promise but needs further evaluation, particularly under high - yielding conditions.