• Wheat and Barley Variety Demonstration - 1986 - TLM Farms - Yuma, AZ

      Tickes, Barry; Ottman, Mike; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      On farm variety demonstrations are conducted by the Cooperative Extension Service to demonstrate the commercial potential of new and established varieties of wheat and barley when grown under various environmental and management conditions. As part of an ongoing variety demonstration program conducted in Yuma County, Arizona for the past 20 years, this study was conducted at TLM Farms on the south Yuma Mesa on extremely coarse-textured sandy soils under sprinkler irrigation. Five hard red spring wheat, six durum and four barley varieties were evaluated under TLM Farms management using 13 ft x 275 ft randomized plots with four replications. Statistically significant yield differences were measured that suggest, when compared to previous and other studies, that variety performance on coarse textured, sprinkler-irrigated soils is different than on finer textured flood-irrigated soils.
    • Comparison of Irrigation Scheduling Methods on Wheat

      Biggs, Niel; Clark, Lee; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      Several improved irrigation scheduling methods are available to farmers to reduce the amount of water used while not reducing crop yield. Each scheduling method has its own advantages and disadvantages. Because of the disadvantages, farmers have been slow in adopting some of the newer irrigation scheduling methods. This study compares two improved scheduling methods, the neutron hydro probe and a simplified bookkeeping method using a personal computer, with the irrigation practices normally used by a farm manager to grow wheat. In addition to the traditional parameters of applied water and yield, the time and difficulty associated with each method were evaluated.
    • Improving the Germination Salt Tolerance of Alfalfa

      Dobrenz, Albert; Robinson, David; Smith, Steve; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      The development of alfalfa that can germinate at extremely high NaC1 levels will improve early emergence and establishment of this important forage crop in saline soils. We have identified plants in the eighth cycle of selection that germinated at -3.0 MPa (30,000 ppm). Seed from these plants displayed a 40% better germination at -2.1 MPa (21,000 ppm) than the previous cycle. Germination at higher salt concentrations were not different between the two germplasm sources.
    • Small Grain Variety Comparisons at the Yuma Agricultural Center in 1986

      Thompson, Rex; Bobula, Jamie; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
    • Late-Planted Barley Variety Trial, Safford Agricultural Center - 1986

      Clark, Lee; Thatcher, Max; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
    • Intercropping Studies with Different Cereal and Legume Crops

      Menezes, Eduardo; Voigt, Robert; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      An intercropping study was carried out with three legumes (field beans, cowpeas, and soybeans) and three cereals (sorghum, corn, and pearl millet) in all combinations to define the most appropriate intercropping under near optimum irrigation. The sorghum x soybean intercropping was chosen as the most appropriate for the environment.
    • Water Use Variability in Irrigated Wheat

      Bucks, Dale; Hunsaker, Douglas; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      An understanding of the expected variability in irrigated crops under field size, surface irrigation conditions is needed to improve irrigation designs and water management scheduling procedures. The objective of this work is to describe water application uniformity under an efficient level -basin irrigation system and the variability of water use (soil water depletion) for three levels of irrigation and two basin lengths for a wheat crop. High water distribution uniformities with a level -basin irrigation system did not necessarily result in maximum irrigation application efficiencies where variations in soil -water factors were greater on a drier irrigation treatment than medium or wet treatment. Variations in soil water depletion were found for all irrigation treatments with the largest variation (13 %) occurring for the drier treatment. Spatial dependence was exhibited for soil water depletion but not necessarily for seasonal irrigation water applications.
    • Effects of Dried Sewage Slude on Barley Grain Production

      Day, Arden; Thompson, Rex; Swingle, Spencer; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      A four-year experiment was conducted at the Mesa Agricultural Center to study the use of dried sewage sludge from the City of Phoenix as a source of plant nutrients in the commercial production of barley grain. The objective was to compare the effects of sewage sludge and commercial fertilizer on barley growth, grain yield, and quality. Three fertilizer treatments were used: (1) suggested rates of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in Arizona, (2) dried sewage sludge to supply plant-available N in amounts equal to the suggested rate, and (3) N, P, and K from inorganic fertilizers in amounts equal to those in sewage sludge. Characteristics of barley growth, grain yield, and quality were similar for the three fertilizer treatments. Barley can utilize the fertilizer nutrients in dried sewage sludge in the production of grain as effectively as it can utilize the fertilizer nutrients in inorganic fertilizer.
    • Wheat and Barley Variety Demonstrations, Bruce Church Range, Poston, AZ - 1986

      Winans, Sherwood; Tickes, Barry; Ottman, Mike; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      A wheat and barley demonstration on the Bruce Church Farm, Poston, Arizona, harvested June 5, 1986, gave crop and variety performance differences under grower management conditions. The top yielding barley variety was Westbred Gustoe, 6190 lbs /acre. The leading durum varieties were Turbo and Yavaros, 7280 and 7220 lbs/acre, respectively. Durum Wheat Westbred 881 was highest in protein (15.6 %) and lowest in percentage of yellowberry. In the bread wheat varieties, yields ranged from 6740 to 6570 lbs per acre. Varieties tested were Yecora Rojo, Probred, Probrand 775, and Westbred 911, with no significant differences in yield between varieties. Yecora Rojo was highest in protein (15.8 %). While these are the results of one year, continued testing over several years is necessary to assess variety performance under grower management conditions.
    • Response of Guar to Drought Conditions

      Ray, Dennis; Livingston, Margaret; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      Plants with greater drought tolerance will increase crop production in many areas of the world. The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological responses of guar, a drought tolerant plant, under water stress. The dry treatment received only one irrigation and yielded respectably. This treatment maintained turgor and metabolic functions throughout the study by decreasing transpiration rate and increasing diffusive resistance.
    • How the 1986 Cotton and Dairy Programs Affect Alfalfa Hay Prices and Incomes

      Blank, Steve; Ayer, Harry; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      The 1986 Upland cotton program encourages alfalfa production, while the 1986 dairy program reduced the size of Arizona's dairy herd. The increased supply of and decreased demand for alfalfa depress alfalfa prices. Our estimates indicate cotton and dairy programs may reduce alfalfa prices and incomes by about 10 percent.
    • The Stateus of Stem Nematodes in Arizona Alfalfa in 1985-86

      Nigh, Edward Jr.; Dawson, Lester; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      Alfalfa stem nematodes have become a more serious pest since the advent of non -dormant alfalfa. Their distribution has increased and their period of feeding activity has been prolonged. A state survey has been conducted to determine the presence of the nematode in the principal alfalfa- growing areas of the state. The population dynamics were followed during the 1985-86 growing season. Alfalfa samples, including stems and crowns, were taken from selected fields in each geographic area and the nematodes were extracted. Populations from the samples determined the fields infested and the periods of feeding and reproduction. More than one -half of the fields sampled in the Salt River Valley were infested with the nematode and new infestations were found in Yuma County. Warm weather from October through the winter permitted nematode activity, causing serious stand decline. This pest is becoming more widely distributed and more economically important to alfalfa growers in Arizona.
    • Seeding Rate of One-Irrigation Barley

      Ottman, Mike; Ramage, Tom; Thacker, Gary; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      One-irrigation barleys have been selected for performance with a pre-plant irrigation to fill the soil to field capacity to a depth of 5 feet. The barley is then grown with no additional irrigation, which simulates conditions of the North African coast. In this study, two of these barley selections were planted at four planting rates at three dates in Marana to determine optimum seeding rates. A seeding rate of 20 lbs /A resulted in greater yields than 40, 60, or 80 lbs /A when the data were combined for all planting dates.
    • Grain Sorghum Production in South-Central Arizona. II: Full Season, Limited Irrigation - 1985

      Voigt, Robert; Schmalzel, Carl; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      Seventy-two commercial hybrid grain sorghums representing 17 commercial seed companies were grown full season for grain yield with limited irrigation for medium moisture stress. The test, grown at the University of Arizona Marana Agricultural Center, had grain yields ranging from a high of 5098 lbs/acre down to 2100 lbs/acre.
    • The Relative Influences of Moisture and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Sorghum Development for Grain and Forage under Full Season Growth

      Refay, Yahya; Voigt, Robert; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      Three high-yielding and three low-yielding grain sorghum hybrids were grown for a full season for grain yield and total dry weight of forage with two levels of irrigation (dry and wet) and two levels of nitrogen (0 and 100 lbs /acre). The experiment was conducted at the University of Arizona Marana Agricultural Center. The combined high nitrogen fertilizer and high water irrigation increased grain yield and total dry matter of sorghum over the dry moisture condition and no nitrogen fertilizer application more than the applied increases of nitrogen fertilizer or irrigation water alone as expected. Both high- and low-yielding groups of sorghum hybrids had the same basic relative percentage potential for increased grain yield from additional nitrogen fertilizer under either wet or dry conditions.
    • Barley Culivars Compared Under an Irrigation Water Gradient

      Ottman, Mike; Ramage, Tom; Thacker, Gary; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      The relative ability of barley cultivars to perform outside the environment for which they were selected is not fully known. This study was initiated at Marana in 1985-86 to compare barley cultivars, which were adapted to different input levels, under a line-source sprinkler system that delivered a gradient of water. Higher than average rainfall in February and March provided ample moisture for crop growth, prevented very low water levels and led to the water gradient being applied late in the season when most of the cultivars were in the grain fill stage. We determined that cultivars bred for high level management (Gustoe and Barcott) performed best at the high water levels. Suitable cultivars for minimal water could not be determined since truly low water levels were never attained. Harvest index, the proportion of grain to total plant yield, was greatest for Gustoe at the high water level, but no differences were detected at the low water level. We suspect that one-irrigation barleys, bred to produce grain with a single preplant irrigation, effectively recover water with a deep root system and do not necessarily use less water than other barley cultivars.
    • Soil Test Calibration for P, K. Mg, and Zn in the Production of Durum Wheat

      Doerge, Thomas; Ottman, Mike; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      Additional data to calibrate and refine current guidelines for interpreting soil test values is an ongoing need in Arizona. This includes information for soils testing above and below the level that may currently be considered adequate for optimum plant growth. An experiment was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center during the 1985-86 crop year to evaluate the response of durum wheat to the application of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), or zinc (Zn) on a soil testing adequate or higher for all of these nutrients. Grain yields from plots receiving every combination of three of the four nutrients were compared to yields obtained when all four nutrients were applied. No significant change in grain yield was measured as a result of witholding any one of the nutrients. Current guidelines used to interpret soil test results for wheat production correctly predicted the nutrient status of this soil with respect to P, K, Mg, and Zn.
    • Response of Guar to Fertilizer Applications

      Stroehlein, Jack; Kebler, Karen; Forrest, Paul; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      Fertilizer studies were carried out with guar in the field and greenhouse over two seasons. Response to N was found in terms of plant growth and bean yield. With very low available soil P, fertilizer P increased the P concentration in guar plants but not bean yields. Zinc increased yields in the greenhouse only on the soil with the lowest available Zn.
    • Grain Sorghum Production in South-Central Arizona. I: Full Season, Full Irrigation - 1985

      Voigt, Robert; Schmalzel, Carl; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      Seventy-two commercial hybrid grain sorghums, representing 20 commercial sources, were grown full season for grain yield with irrigation water applied as necessary to prevent moisture stress. The test, grown at the University of Arizona Marana Agricultural Center, had grain yields ranging from a high of 6375 lbs/acre down to 3292 lbs/acre.
    • Predicting the Nitrogen Needs of Wheat Using Stem Nitrate Analysis

      Doerge, Thomas; Ottman, Mike; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      The high yielding spring wheats grown in Arizona usually require applications of fertilizer nitrogen (N) to achieve optimum yields and acceptable quality. The University of Arizona's currently recommended procedure of preplant soil plus periodic stem tissue analysis for NO₃-N to predict the N needs of wheat is not widely used by Arizona growers. A nitrogen fertility trial was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center during the 1985-86 crop year to evaluate the accuracy and practicality of the currently recommended procedure for predicting the optimum N rate for 'Aldura' durum wheat grown on a sandy soil low in residual N. Five rates of N from 0 to 500 lbs N/a were applied in four split applications. Three additional N treatments were made using equivalent amounts of three different N sources (urea, ammonium nitrate, and calcium nitrate) as indicated by the current UA procedure. Maximum grain yields of over 6500 lbs/a and protein levels above 13% were attained with the application of 215 to 250 lbs Nia. The amount of N predicted by the UA procedure (215 lbs N/a) did attain maximum grain yield and resulted in the most favorable adjusted economic return of all the fertilizer treatments used in the trial. Though additional work is needed, the stem NO₃-N tissue test was practical to use and proved quite accurate in predicting the N needs of durum wheat.