• Wheat and Barley Variety Demonstration - 1986 - TLM Farms - Yuma, AZ

      Tickes, Barry; Ottman, Mike; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      On farm variety demonstrations are conducted by the Cooperative Extension Service to demonstrate the commercial potential of new and established varieties of wheat and barley when grown under various environmental and management conditions. As part of an ongoing variety demonstration program conducted in Yuma County, Arizona for the past 20 years, this study was conducted at TLM Farms on the south Yuma Mesa on extremely coarse-textured sandy soils under sprinkler irrigation. Five hard red spring wheat, six durum and four barley varieties were evaluated under TLM Farms management using 13 ft x 275 ft randomized plots with four replications. Statistically significant yield differences were measured that suggest, when compared to previous and other studies, that variety performance on coarse textured, sprinkler-irrigated soils is different than on finer textured flood-irrigated soils.
    • Crop Yield Variability in Irrigated Wheat

      Husaker, Douglas; Bucks, Dale; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      Optimum design and management of irrigated wheat production is limited by the scarcity of information available on yield variability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability in soil-water parameters and the effects compared to grain yield response under level-basin irrigation. Three levels of seasonal irrigation water and two border lengths were used. Grain yields were found to increase significantly with the amount of water applied and soil water depletion (estimate of crop evapotranspiration), although yield variability was greater with reduced or deficit irrigations. Variations in soil water content were responsible for about 22% of the variability in grain yield, indicating that other soil and crop- related factors had a significant influence on production. Spatial dependence was exhibited over a greater distance at the wetter compared with the drier irrigation regimes.
    • The Stateus of Stem Nematodes in Arizona Alfalfa in 1985-86

      Nigh, Edward Jr.; Dawson, Lester; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      Alfalfa stem nematodes have become a more serious pest since the advent of non -dormant alfalfa. Their distribution has increased and their period of feeding activity has been prolonged. A state survey has been conducted to determine the presence of the nematode in the principal alfalfa- growing areas of the state. The population dynamics were followed during the 1985-86 growing season. Alfalfa samples, including stems and crowns, were taken from selected fields in each geographic area and the nematodes were extracted. Populations from the samples determined the fields infested and the periods of feeding and reproduction. More than one -half of the fields sampled in the Salt River Valley were infested with the nematode and new infestations were found in Yuma County. Warm weather from October through the winter permitted nematode activity, causing serious stand decline. This pest is becoming more widely distributed and more economically important to alfalfa growers in Arizona.
    • Comparison of Irrigation Scheduling Methods on Wheat

      Biggs, Niel; Clark, Lee; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      Several improved irrigation scheduling methods are available to farmers to reduce the amount of water used while not reducing crop yield. Each scheduling method has its own advantages and disadvantages. Because of the disadvantages, farmers have been slow in adopting some of the newer irrigation scheduling methods. This study compares two improved scheduling methods, the neutron hydro probe and a simplified bookkeeping method using a personal computer, with the irrigation practices normally used by a farm manager to grow wheat. In addition to the traditional parameters of applied water and yield, the time and difficulty associated with each method were evaluated.
    • Yield Requirements of Non-Premium Durum Wheat

      Farr, Chuck; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
    • Soil Test Calibration for P, K. Mg, and Zn in the Production of Durum Wheat

      Doerge, Thomas; Ottman, Mike; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      Additional data to calibrate and refine current guidelines for interpreting soil test values is an ongoing need in Arizona. This includes information for soils testing above and below the level that may currently be considered adequate for optimum plant growth. An experiment was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center during the 1985-86 crop year to evaluate the response of durum wheat to the application of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), or zinc (Zn) on a soil testing adequate or higher for all of these nutrients. Grain yields from plots receiving every combination of three of the four nutrients were compared to yields obtained when all four nutrients were applied. No significant change in grain yield was measured as a result of witholding any one of the nutrients. Current guidelines used to interpret soil test results for wheat production correctly predicted the nutrient status of this soil with respect to P, K, Mg, and Zn.
    • Intercropping Studies with Different Cereal and Legume Crops

      Menezes, Eduardo; Voigt, Robert; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      An intercropping study was carried out with three legumes (field beans, cowpeas, and soybeans) and three cereals (sorghum, corn, and pearl millet) in all combinations to define the most appropriate intercropping under near optimum irrigation. The sorghum x soybean intercropping was chosen as the most appropriate for the environment.
    • Seeding Rate of One-Irrigation Barley

      Ottman, Mike; Ramage, Tom; Thacker, Gary; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      One-irrigation barleys have been selected for performance with a pre-plant irrigation to fill the soil to field capacity to a depth of 5 feet. The barley is then grown with no additional irrigation, which simulates conditions of the North African coast. In this study, two of these barley selections were planted at four planting rates at three dates in Marana to determine optimum seeding rates. A seeding rate of 20 lbs /A resulted in greater yields than 40, 60, or 80 lbs /A when the data were combined for all planting dates.
    • Determining the Economic Damaging Level of the Egyptian Alfalfa Weevil Hypera brunneipennis (Bohemian)

      Cotty, Susanne; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      An experiment was conducted to ascertain the population level of Egyptian alfalfa weevil Hvpera brunneipennis (EAW) at which chemical control becomes economically justified. Four treatments were established by applying malathion at 1 lb. a.i./acre when an average of 5,10,15, or 20 weevil larvae were found per five sweeps; one treatment was sprayed every week (0 larvae) and the controls received no chemical treatment. Five 180- degree sweeps were taken weekly in each plot with a standard 15 -inch net and net contents were emptied into a white plate for counting. EAW larvae and adults were counted and insecticide was applied when the larval number reached the designated level. Hay from each plot was cut twice manually, air dried and weighed. Significant yield differences (P =0.05) occurred between the 0 larvae treatment and the other treatments for the first cutting but no yield differences occurred for the second cutting.
    • Water Use Variability in Irrigated Wheat

      Bucks, Dale; Hunsaker, Douglas; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      An understanding of the expected variability in irrigated crops under field size, surface irrigation conditions is needed to improve irrigation designs and water management scheduling procedures. The objective of this work is to describe water application uniformity under an efficient level -basin irrigation system and the variability of water use (soil water depletion) for three levels of irrigation and two basin lengths for a wheat crop. High water distribution uniformities with a level -basin irrigation system did not necessarily result in maximum irrigation application efficiencies where variations in soil -water factors were greater on a drier irrigation treatment than medium or wet treatment. Variations in soil water depletion were found for all irrigation treatments with the largest variation (13 %) occurring for the drier treatment. Spatial dependence was exhibited for soil water depletion but not necessarily for seasonal irrigation water applications.
    • Wheat and Barley Variety Demonstrations, Bruce Church Range, Poston, AZ - 1986

      Winans, Sherwood; Tickes, Barry; Ottman, Mike; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      A wheat and barley demonstration on the Bruce Church Farm, Poston, Arizona, harvested June 5, 1986, gave crop and variety performance differences under grower management conditions. The top yielding barley variety was Westbred Gustoe, 6190 lbs /acre. The leading durum varieties were Turbo and Yavaros, 7280 and 7220 lbs/acre, respectively. Durum Wheat Westbred 881 was highest in protein (15.6 %) and lowest in percentage of yellowberry. In the bread wheat varieties, yields ranged from 6740 to 6570 lbs per acre. Varieties tested were Yecora Rojo, Probred, Probrand 775, and Westbred 911, with no significant differences in yield between varieties. Yecora Rojo was highest in protein (15.8 %). While these are the results of one year, continued testing over several years is necessary to assess variety performance under grower management conditions.
    • Alfalfa Variety Demonstration Safford Agricultural Center, 1985

      Cluff, Ronald, E.; Parsons, David; Thatcher, Max; Clark, Lee; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
    • Response of Guar to Fertilizer Applications

      Stroehlein, Jack; Kebler, Karen; Forrest, Paul; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      Fertilizer studies were carried out with guar in the field and greenhouse over two seasons. Response to N was found in terms of plant growth and bean yield. With very low available soil P, fertilizer P increased the P concentration in guar plants but not bean yields. Zinc increased yields in the greenhouse only on the soil with the lowest available Zn.
    • Nutrient Composition of Large Leaflet Alfalfa

      Dobrenz, Albert; Whiting, Frank; Brown, Bill; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      A large leaflet alfalfa was developed with five cycles of recurrent selection. This new germplasm was compared to the original population 'Hayden' for nutrient composition. Crude protein, lignin, cell solubles, hemicellulose and neutral detergent fiber were not significantly different among the cycles and the original population of alfalfa at the June and July harvests. Ether extract (lipid) did drop considerably in plants of the first two cycles, but was not different in plants from Hayden in cycle five at the first harvest. Selection for large leaflets has not significantly changed the nutrient composition components after five cycles of recurrent selection.
    • Improving the Germination Salt Tolerance of Alfalfa

      Dobrenz, Albert; Robinson, David; Smith, Steve; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      The development of alfalfa that can germinate at extremely high NaC1 levels will improve early emergence and establishment of this important forage crop in saline soils. We have identified plants in the eighth cycle of selection that germinated at -3.0 MPa (30,000 ppm). Seed from these plants displayed a 40% better germination at -2.1 MPa (21,000 ppm) than the previous cycle. Germination at higher salt concentrations were not different between the two germplasm sources.
    • Durum Wheat Variety Trials, Cochise County - 1986

      Clark, Lee; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
    • The Relative Influences of Moisture and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Sorghum Development for Grain and Forage Production under Double Cropping

      Refay, Yahya; Voigt, Robert; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
      Three high yielding and three low yielding grain sorghum hybrids were grown for grain yield and total dry weight in late planted simulated double-crop after barley or wheat harvest with two levels of irrigation (dry and wet) and two levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0 and 100 lbs/acre). The experiment was conducted on the University of Arizona Marana Agricultural Center. Nitrogen fertilizer and the interaction between nitrogen fertilizer and water irrigation had no significant effect on the grain yield of sorghum hybrids. Additional nitrogen fertilizer applied under dry conditions reduced both grain and total dry matter production, and when applied under wet conditions produced gains in grain or dry matter production of only 1% to 4% for the high and low yielding groups. Additional irrigation water produced 61% to 77% additional grain under low and high fertilizer levels for high and low yielding sorghum groups. Additional irrigation water produced 8% to 38% more plant dry matter under low and high fertilizer levels.
    • Results of 1985 Dry Bean Trials in Safford

      Buhrow, Russ; Clark, Lee; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
    • Wheat and Barley Variety Demonstrations, Mohave Valley Farms, Mohave Valley, AZ - 1986

      Grumbles, Robin; Sherrill, Chip; Winans, Sherwood; Ottman, Mike; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)
    • Summary of 1986 Wheat and Barley Variety Trials in Yuma, Poston and the Mohave Valley

      Ottman, Mike; Tickes, Barry; Winans, Sherwood; Grumbles, Robin; Ottman, Mike (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1986-09)