Forage & Grain Report 1990
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
The Forage and Grain Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.
This report, along with the Cotton Report, was established by Hank Brubaker, Extension Agronomist, after seeing a similar report published by Texas A&M University in the mid-1970’s.
The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to farmers, researchers, and those in the agricultural industry. The research is conducted by University of Arizona and USDA-ARS scientists.
Both historical and current Forage and Grain Reports have been made available in the UA Campus Repository as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.
Contents for Forage & Grain Report 1990
- Carbohydrates in Germination Salt Tolerant and Non-Salt Tolerant Alfalfa Seed
- Release of a Nondormant Alfalfa Population with Improved Forage Yield in Saline Environments
- Performance of Middle-Eastern Alfalfas Using Traditional and Southwestern Harvest Management Practices
- Stand Longevity of 13 Alfalfa Varieties Grown on the Yuma Mesa
- Evaluation of Coated Alfalfa Seed
- Alfalfa Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1989
- Alfalfa Variety Demonstration at the Safford Agricultural Center, 1989
- Summary of 1990 Estimated Cost of Growing Alfalfa
- Moisture Loss from Uncovered Stored Alfalfa
- Shepardspurse Control in Established Alfalfa
- Eptam 10% Granules vs. Eptam 7EC Water Run as a Preplant Treatment in Alfalfa
- General Recommendations for Establishing a Permanent Vegetative Cover on Retired Farmland
- Revegetation of Retired Farmland: Evaluation of Six Range Grasses Under Three Irrigation Regimes
- Revegetation of Retired Farmland: Evaluation of Eight Range Grasses
- Revegetation of Retired Farmland: Response of Range Grasses to Establishment Irrigations and Microcatchment Water Harvesting
- Revegetation of Retired Farmland: Response of Fourwing Saltbush to Establishment Irrigation and Weeding
- Small Grain Variety Comparisons at the Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1990
- Forage Production of Four Crops Grown Under Two Different Production Cultures, 1990
- Oat Variety Grain and Forage Yield Trials at the Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1990
- Summary of 1990 Estimated Cost of Growing Wheat in Arizona
- Wheat and Barley Rate and Date Studies: Safford Agricultural Center, 1988 to 1990
- An Evaluation of Potential New Treatments for Canarygrass Control in Red Wheat
- Predicting Late Season Nitrogen Fertilizer Requirements of Irrigated Durum Wheat Using Stem Nitrate Analyses
- A Comparison of Irrigation Scheduling Methods on Durum Wheat, Safford Agricultural Center, 1988-90
- Scheduling Wheat Irrigations Using Infrared Thermometers and the Crop Water Stress Index in Arizona
- Corn Hybrid Evaluations in Cochise County, 1989
- Double Crop Corn Hyrbrid Evaluations, Graham County, 1989
- Pinto Bean Variety Demonstration in Bonita, Graham County, 1989
Pinto Bean Variety Demonstration in Bonita, Graham County, 1989Six pinto bean varieties were tested in the Bonita area of Graham county with excellent results, three of these varieties yielded over 3000 pounds per acre. These yields coupled with bean values above 30 cents per pound have created considerable interest in growing dry beans in Cochise and parts of Graham county.
Double Crop Corn Hyrbrid Evaluations, Graham County, 1989Ten corn hybrids of widely differing maturities were planted in Graham county to find which maturity would be optimal for double crop corn production. The highest yielding hybrid was the quickest maturing with a relative maturity of 98 days, it yielded 5629 pounds per acre.
Corn Hybrid Evaluations in Cochise County, 1989Corn yields were decreased in 1989 compared to 1988. The highest yielding yellow corn produced less than 10,000 pounds per acre. The weather was considered the largest factor in the yield reduction. Yellow corn hybrids were grown in two sites with two different cooperators. Yield differences may have been due to cultural practices. An auxiliary study on plant populations is also included in this report.
Scheduling Wheat Irrigations Using Infrared Thermometers and the Crop Water Stress Index in ArizonaDurum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum ) is grown as a winter annual crop, normally in rotation with cotton, and in 1989, comprised 121,500 acres in Arizona. Winter rainfall is insignificant, therefore water is supplied totally through surface irrigation. The relationship between the timing and amount of irrigation water applied and grain yields have not been well -defined Field plot studies were conducted in 1986 and 1987 to test the feasibility of using the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) to time wheat irrigations and also to determine the relationship among the CWSI, grain production, and water applied The study was repeated at the commercial production level with a grower cooperator in 1989 to determine the usefulness of CWSI scheduling on large farms. Highest grain production was attained when irrigations were scheduled when the CWSI averaged 0.37 and 0.30 units on small plots for 1986 and 1987, respectively. At the grower production level, highest yields were attained when irrigations were scheduled when the CWSI averaged 0.17 units. In 1986 and 1987 scheduling irrigations at lower CWSI values did not significantly increase grain production while requiring more applied water than the optimum CWSI values. Scheduling irrigations at CWSI's exceeding the optimum values did significantly reduce grain production from the optimum, but required less applied water in all three years.
A Comparison of Irrigation Scheduling Methods on Durum Wheat, Safford Agricultural Center, 1988-90Four irrigation scheduling methods are compared over a three year period on the Safford Agricultural Center. A computerized checkbook method based on the consumptive water use curves of Erie, et al, updated with near real time evapotranspiration data from the AZMET system and utilizing empirical crop coefficients, produced the highest yields and with the highest water use efficiency. Scheduling irrigations with the IR thermometer produced yields higher than the Check when a Stress Index threshold of 2 (similar to a CWSI of 0.2) was used, but not with a threshold value of 3 nor 4. A method of irrigation scheduling using Erie's curves, but not updated for current weather values, yielded less than the check in all years of the study, and was not considered an acceptable method Irrigation inputs from the 1990 season were plugged into new near real time irrigation scheduling software which utilizes AZMET data to determine both evapotranspiration and crop coefficients. This method was found to track the field data quite well and will be utilized in future research.
Predicting Late Season Nitrogen Fertilizer Requirements of Irrigated Durum Wheat Using Stem Nitrate AnalysesA field experiment was conducted on a Casa Grande sandy loam at the Maricopa Agricultural Center to 1) determine the optimum rates of late season N needed to achieve optimum yield and quality of irrigated dumm wheat in conjunction with varying rates of early season N, and 2) to evaluate the usefulness of stem NO₃⁻N analysis in predicting the late season N rates which optimize grain production but minimize the potential for nitrate pollution of groundwater. The application of 80, 195 and 350 lbs. N/a during vegetative growth resulted in wheat with deficient, sufficient and excessive N status at the boot stage as indicated by stem NO₃⁻N analysis. The application of 60 lbs. N/a at heading to N-deficient wheat and 15 lbs. N/a to N-sufficient wheat resulted in grain protein levels above 14% but had little effect on grain yield. Applications of N at heading to wheat which had previously received excessive N did not affect grain yield or quality. The use of stem NO₃⁻N analysis appears to be a useful tool in predicting the minimum N rate to be applied during the early reproductive period to insure acceptable levels of grain protein at harvest.
An Evaluation of Potential New Treatments for Canarygrass Control in Red WheatCanarygrass (Phalaris minor) has become an increasingly widespread weed in wheat grown in central and southwestern Arizona. Only two herbicides, Barban and Diclofop, have been used effectively to control this weed. The registration of Barban was dropped in 1989 and the labeled rate of Diclofop was lowered to marginal control levels in 1990. A test was conducted to evaluate potential new treatments for the control of canarygrass. One treatment; Puma at 1.14 lbs./A resulted in excellent control of this weed.
Wheat and Barley Rate and Date Studies: Safford Agricultural Center, 1988 to 1990Seeding rates of wheat and barley varying from 50 to 250 pounds per acre were planted at four or five planting dates from the 1987-88 season to the 1989-90 season. Optimum seeding rates for wheat seemed to be near the upper limit whereas for barley it fell between 150 and 250 pounds per acre. This is considerably higher than what is commonly recommended in other parts of the state.
Oat Variety Grain and Forage Yield Trials at the Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1990Twelve oat varieties (9 hulled and 3 hull-less) were yield tested for both forage and grain production at the Maricopa Agricultural Center during the '89-90 growing season. Highest forage producing varieties were generally later maturing - Cayuse and Stampede; while lower yields were produced by early maturing varieties - Montezuma and Palestine. Highest grain yields were produced by Swan and FMC400.
Forage Production of Four Crops Grown Under Two Different Production Cultures, 1990Forage trials of four crops grown under high-input and low-input production cultures were performed at the Maricopa Agricultural Center. Six varieties of each crop were grown to evaluate yield potential under both production cultures. Only a preplant irrigation was applied to the low-input culture, but up to four additional irrigations were applied to the high-input culture. No fertilizer application was given to low-input, but a total of 135#N/A and 75#P₂O₅/A was applied to the full production culture. Barley, durum, and wheat cultivars developed for grain yield under a low-input production culture were tested for forage production under both high- and low-input practices. No advantage in forage production was observed by using the following varieties in a low-input production culture: Stampede oats, Westford barley, Mexicali durum, and 911 wheat produced the highest yields in each of the four crops. Yields were greater from crops grown under a high-input culture: Stampede oats, Harlan II barley, Aldura durum, and 911 wheat were highest yielding varieties in each crop.
Small Grain Variety Comparisons at the Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1990Yield trials were conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center during the '89 -90 growing season. Barley, durum and wheat varieties as well as experimental lines from various seed companies were tested for yield performance. Gustoe and two experimental lines, 7024 and PHS84-11, were the highest yielding barley entries. Aldura, Turbo and Aldente were the top yielding durum varieties. 911, Probred and BR5738-1 were the top yielding wheat cultivars.
Revegetation of Retired Farmland: Response of Fourwing Saltbush to Establishment Irrigation and WeedingThis is an experiment on seeding fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens) in 80-inch wide waterharvesting microcatchments on retired farmland west of Tucson. At 32 months after planting plots that received the establishment irrigation had more cover than unirrigated plots. Keeping plots free of competing weeds also gave some advantage. However, the coefficient of variation was very high, and none of these differences was statistically significant.
Revegetation of Retired Farmland: Response of Range Grasses to Establishment Irrigations and Microcatchment Water HarvestingIn July 1987, we began an experiment to evaluate the effects of water harvesting and establishment irrigations on range grasses on retired farmland. In each of the two years since establishment, we have measured significantly higher forage production where we applied establishment irrigations. We have not detected any significant differences in forage production due to water harvesting treatments.
Revegetation of Retired Farmland: Evaluation of Eight Range GrassesIn July of 1988, we planted eight range grass species on retired farmland in the Avra Valley west of Tucson. In November of 1989, Arabian yellow bluestem, kleingrass, buffelgrass, "Catalina" lovegrass, and bermudagrass all yielded over 1000 Kg /Ha of oven dry forage "Cochise" lovegrass yielded 889 Kg /Ha, sideoats grama grass yielded 126 Kg /Ha, and bottlebrush yielded 86 Kg /Ha.
Revegetation of Retired Farmland: Evaluation of Six Range Grasses Under Three Irrigation RegimesIn July of 1986 and 1987, we seeded bufelgrass, kleingrass, 'Catalina' lovegrass, "Cochise" lovegrass, bottlebrush, and sideoats grama grass on retired farmland in the Avra Valley west of Tucson. We seeded these grasses under three irrigation regimes: no establishment irrigation, two establishment irrigations, and four establishment irrigations. Establishment irrigations significantly increased the forage production of the grasses in the first two years of the 1986 planting and in the first year of the 1987 planting. Buffelgrass, kleingrass, and the lovegrasses appear to be promising species for vegetative cover on retired farmland.
General Recommendations for Establishing a Permanent Vegetative Cover on Retired FarmlandA permanent vegetative cover should be established on farmland before retirement. After four years of research, we recommend 1. Work with the fanner while he is still on the land; 2 Furrow the land into 38 or 40 -inch beds; 3. Plant adapted species; and 4. Apply establishment irrigations.
Eptam 10% Granules vs. Eptam 7EC Water Run as a Preplant Treatment in AlfalfaA test was conducted to compare EPTC applied preplant to alfalfa as a 10% granule and as a emulsifiable concentrate metered into the irrigation water. Observations and measurements on weed control and phytotoxicity were recorded EPTC appeared to be more active in controlling weeds and injuring seedling alfalfa when applied to 3.0 lb./acre as a granule rather than the same rate applied as a water run.
Shepardspurse Control in Established AlfalfaA test was conducted on established alfalfa to evaluate the efficacy of 10 herbicide treatments for the control of shepardspurse (Capsella bursa). Control ranged from 13 to 99 percent.
Moisture Loss from Uncovered Stored AlfalfaMoisture loss from stacked alfalfa was measured at various times of the year and at various baling moistures. Total moisture loss over two month time periods varied from 4.5% to 8.3% with considerable fluctuation occurring due to environmental conditions.