• Eptam 10% Granules vs. Eptam 7EC Water Run as a Preplant Treatment in Alfalfa

      Tickes, Barry R.; Heathman, Stanley; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
      A test was conducted to compare EPTC applied preplant to alfalfa as a 10% granule and as a emulsifiable concentrate metered into the irrigation water. Observations and measurements on weed control and phytotoxicity were recorded EPTC appeared to be more active in controlling weeds and injuring seedling alfalfa when applied to 3.0 lb./acre as a granule rather than the same rate applied as a water run.
    • General Recommendations for Establishing a Permanent Vegetative Cover on Retired Farmland

      Thacker, Gary W.; Cox, Jerry R.; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
      A permanent vegetative cover should be established on farmland before retirement. After four years of research, we recommend 1. Work with the fanner while he is still on the land; 2 Furrow the land into 38 or 40 -inch beds; 3. Plant adapted species; and 4. Apply establishment irrigations.
    • Revegetation of Retired Farmland: Response of Range Grasses to Establishment Irrigations and Microcatchment Water Harvesting

      Thacker, Gary W.; Cox, Jerry R.; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
      In July 1987, we began an experiment to evaluate the effects of water harvesting and establishment irrigations on range grasses on retired farmland. In each of the two years since establishment, we have measured significantly higher forage production where we applied establishment irrigations. We have not detected any significant differences in forage production due to water harvesting treatments.
    • Moisture Loss from Uncovered Stored Alfalfa

      Tickes, Barry R.; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
      Moisture loss from stacked alfalfa was measured at various times of the year and at various baling moistures. Total moisture loss over two month time periods varied from 4.5% to 8.3% with considerable fluctuation occurring due to environmental conditions.
    • Shepardspurse Control in Established Alfalfa

      Tickes, Barry R.; Heathman, Stanley; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
      A test was conducted on established alfalfa to evaluate the efficacy of 10 herbicide treatments for the control of shepardspurse (Capsella bursa). Control ranged from 13 to 99 percent.
    • Pinto Bean Variety Demonstration in Bonita, Graham County, 1989

      Clark, L. J.; Schwennesen, E.; Cluff, R. E.; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
      Six pinto bean varieties were tested in the Bonita area of Graham county with excellent results, three of these varieties yielded over 3000 pounds per acre. These yields coupled with bean values above 30 cents per pound have created considerable interest in growing dry beans in Cochise and parts of Graham county.
    • Revegetation of Retired Farmland: Evaluation of Eight Range Grasses

      Thacker, Gary W.; Cox, Jerry R.; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
      In July of 1988, we planted eight range grass species on retired farmland in the Avra Valley west of Tucson. In November of 1989, Arabian yellow bluestem, kleingrass, buffelgrass, "Catalina" lovegrass, and bermudagrass all yielded over 1000 Kg /Ha of oven dry forage "Cochise" lovegrass yielded 889 Kg /Ha, sideoats grama grass yielded 126 Kg /Ha, and bottlebrush yielded 86 Kg /Ha.
    • Summary of 1990 Estimated Cost of Growing Wheat in Arizona

      Wade, James C.; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
    • Corn Hybrid Evaluations in Cochise County, 1989

      Clark, L. J.; Schwennesen, E.; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
      Corn yields were decreased in 1989 compared to 1988. The highest yielding yellow corn produced less than 10,000 pounds per acre. The weather was considered the largest factor in the yield reduction. Yellow corn hybrids were grown in two sites with two different cooperators. Yield differences may have been due to cultural practices. An auxiliary study on plant populations is also included in this report.
    • Scheduling Wheat Irrigations Using Infrared Thermometers and the Crop Water Stress Index in Arizona

      Garrot, D. J. Jr.; Ottman, M. J.; Fangmeier, D. D.; Husman, S. H.; Harper, J. M.; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
      Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum ) is grown as a winter annual crop, normally in rotation with cotton, and in 1989, comprised 121,500 acres in Arizona. Winter rainfall is insignificant, therefore water is supplied totally through surface irrigation. The relationship between the timing and amount of irrigation water applied and grain yields have not been well -defined Field plot studies were conducted in 1986 and 1987 to test the feasibility of using the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) to time wheat irrigations and also to determine the relationship among the CWSI, grain production, and water applied The study was repeated at the commercial production level with a grower cooperator in 1989 to determine the usefulness of CWSI scheduling on large farms. Highest grain production was attained when irrigations were scheduled when the CWSI averaged 0.37 and 0.30 units on small plots for 1986 and 1987, respectively. At the grower production level, highest yields were attained when irrigations were scheduled when the CWSI averaged 0.17 units. In 1986 and 1987 scheduling irrigations at lower CWSI values did not significantly increase grain production while requiring more applied water than the optimum CWSI values. Scheduling irrigations at CWSI's exceeding the optimum values did significantly reduce grain production from the optimum, but required less applied water in all three years.
    • Carbohydrates in Germination Salt Tolerant and Non-Salt Tolerant Alfalfa Seed

      Dobrenz, A. K.; Poteet, D. C.; Miller, R. B.; Smith, S. E.; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
      Alfalfa which is extremely salt tolerant during germination has been developed by researchers at the University of Arizona Carbohydrates were analyzed in the original parental gemiplasm 'Mesa- Sirsa' and Cycle₅Syn₂ and Cycle₈Syn₂ seed to determine why this seed could germinate in extremely saline conditions. Raffinose and sucrose were both significantly higher in the salt -tolerant germplasm compared to the parental germplasm; however, the magnitude increase of these free sugars was not sufficient to explain the increased ability of the seed to absorb water in a stress environment. The galactomannan content was not different among the alfalfa germplasms.
    • Alfalfa Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1989

      Clark, L. J.; DeRosa, E.; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
      Ten alfalfa varieties, ranging from very non- dormant to moderately dormant cultivars, have been grown and yields compared over a four year period No significant differences were noted in the yields for 1989; all varieties yielded over 8 tons per acre in 6 cuttings. Interesting changes are taking place, however, with the very non -dormant varieties continuing their productivity and the more dormant varieties productivity declining.
    • Evaluation of Coated Alfalfa Seed

      Tickes, Barry R.; Ottman, Michael; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
      A test was conducted to evaluate the effect of two seed treatments on seven varieties of alfalfa. The treatments included Rhizocote, Rhizocote plus Apron plus Rovral and untreated seed. Significantly fewer seedlings emerged for the coated than the uncoated seed when planted on a pound for pound basis. First cutting alfalfa yields were neither increased nor decreased as a result of the seed treatments.
    • A Comparison of Irrigation Scheduling Methods on Durum Wheat, Safford Agricultural Center, 1988-90

      Clark, Lee J.; Carpenter, Eddie W.; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
      Four irrigation scheduling methods are compared over a three year period on the Safford Agricultural Center. A computerized checkbook method based on the consumptive water use curves of Erie, et al, updated with near real time evapotranspiration data from the AZMET system and utilizing empirical crop coefficients, produced the highest yields and with the highest water use efficiency. Scheduling irrigations with the IR thermometer produced yields higher than the Check when a Stress Index threshold of 2 (similar to a CWSI of 0.2) was used, but not with a threshold value of 3 nor 4. A method of irrigation scheduling using Erie's curves, but not updated for current weather values, yielded less than the check in all years of the study, and was not considered an acceptable method Irrigation inputs from the 1990 season were plugged into new near real time irrigation scheduling software which utilizes AZMET data to determine both evapotranspiration and crop coefficients. This method was found to track the field data quite well and will be utilized in future research.
    • Alfalfa Variety Demonstration at the Safford Agricultural Center, 1989

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Cluff, R. E.; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
      Yields by cutting are given for 22 varieties of alfalfa grown at the Safford Agricultural Center. Yields were good in 1989 with 9 of the varieties yielding over 10 tons per acre in 7 cuttings and the top variety yielding 12 tons per acre. Graphs are shown comparing yields by cutting between sister varieties of differing fall dormancy classes.
    • Predicting Late Season Nitrogen Fertilizer Requirements of Irrigated Durum Wheat Using Stem Nitrate Analyses

      Doerge, T. A.; Ottman, M. J.; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
      A field experiment was conducted on a Casa Grande sandy loam at the Maricopa Agricultural Center to 1) determine the optimum rates of late season N needed to achieve optimum yield and quality of irrigated dumm wheat in conjunction with varying rates of early season N, and 2) to evaluate the usefulness of stem NO₃⁻N analysis in predicting the late season N rates which optimize grain production but minimize the potential for nitrate pollution of groundwater. The application of 80, 195 and 350 lbs. N/a during vegetative growth resulted in wheat with deficient, sufficient and excessive N status at the boot stage as indicated by stem NO₃⁻N analysis. The application of 60 lbs. N/a at heading to N-deficient wheat and 15 lbs. N/a to N-sufficient wheat resulted in grain protein levels above 14% but had little effect on grain yield. Applications of N at heading to wheat which had previously received excessive N did not affect grain yield or quality. The use of stem NO₃⁻N analysis appears to be a useful tool in predicting the minimum N rate to be applied during the early reproductive period to insure acceptable levels of grain protein at harvest.
    • Wheat and Barley Rate and Date Studies: Safford Agricultural Center, 1988 to 1990

      Clark, Lee J.; Carpenter, Eddie W.; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
      Seeding rates of wheat and barley varying from 50 to 250 pounds per acre were planted at four or five planting dates from the 1987-88 season to the 1989-90 season. Optimum seeding rates for wheat seemed to be near the upper limit whereas for barley it fell between 150 and 250 pounds per acre. This is considerably higher than what is commonly recommended in other parts of the state.
    • Small Grain Variety Comparisons at the Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1990

      Sheedy, M.; Ottman, M.; Ramage, T.; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
      Yield trials were conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center during the '89 -90 growing season. Barley, durum and wheat varieties as well as experimental lines from various seed companies were tested for yield performance. Gustoe and two experimental lines, 7024 and PHS84-11, were the highest yielding barley entries. Aldura, Turbo and Aldente were the top yielding durum varieties. 911, Probred and BR5738-1 were the top yielding wheat cultivars.
    • An Evaluation of Potential New Treatments for Canarygrass Control in Red Wheat

      Tickes, Barry R.; Heathman, Stanley; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
      Canarygrass (Phalaris minor) has become an increasingly widespread weed in wheat grown in central and southwestern Arizona. Only two herbicides, Barban and Diclofop, have been used effectively to control this weed. The registration of Barban was dropped in 1989 and the labeled rate of Diclofop was lowered to marginal control levels in 1990. A test was conducted to evaluate potential new treatments for the control of canarygrass. One treatment; Puma at 1.14 lbs./A resulted in excellent control of this weed.
    • Performance of Middle-Eastern Alfalfas Using Traditional and Southwestern Harvest Management Practices

      Al-Doss, Abdullah; Smith, S. E.; Conta, D. M.; Ottman, Michael; Bantlin, Marguerite (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1990-09)
      The nondormant alfalfa cultivars now grown in Arizona trace largely to a small number of alfalfas introduced from the Middle East. Middle Eastern alfalfas regrow rapidly primarily from crown shoots following harvest and produce high yields during late fall, winter and early spring. Harvest management may have a significant effect on the persistence and yields of Middle - Eastern alfalfas under Arizona conditions. In the Middle East, alfalfa is frequently harvested at the bud stage and little stubble is left. In this experiment we compared the yield and persistence of Middle Eastern alfalfa ecotypes under traditional Middle - Eastern (bud stage + 2 cm stubble) and Southwestern harvest management (10% bloom + 10-15 cm stubble), and a regime with elements of both primary systems (bud stage + 10-15 cm stubble). Only slight differences in yield or persistence were observed between the management systems in the most nondormant entries, however, some ecotypes produced significantly more forage than Lew. No apparent advantages were noted for harvest leaving 2 cm stubble. Elevated yields of high quality forage would be produced with bud stage harvest and 10-15 cm stubble in most Middle Eastern ecotypes.