Forage & Grain Report 1996
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
The Forage and Grain Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.
This report, along with the Cotton Report, was established by Hank Brubaker, Extension Agronomist, after seeing a similar report published by Texas A&M University in the mid-1970’s.
The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to farmers, researchers, and those in the agricultural industry. The research is conducted by University of Arizona and USDA-ARS scientists.
Both historical and current Forage and Grain Reports have been made available in the UA Campus Repository as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.
Contents for Forage & Grain Report 1996
- Sudangrass Variety Evaluation at La Paz County, 1996 (Preliminary)
- Silage Corn Variety Trial in Greenlee County, 1995
- 1995-1996 Alfalfa Yields of Five Varieties Planted Octobert 1994 on the Colorado River Indian Tribes Reservation
- 1995-1996 Alfalfa Hay Yields from Eight Varieties Planted in February 1995 on the Colorado River Indian Tribes Reservation
- Raised Bed Alfalfa Varietal Production in La Paz County, Arizona, 1993-1995
- Alfalfa Variety Trial in Southeastern Arizona, 1995
- Alfalfa Variety Trial in Cochise County, Arizona, 1995
- Alfalfa Variety Performance at Maricopa, 1993-1995
- Efficacy of Norflurazon (Evital and Zorial) for Bermudagrass and Nutsedge Control in Parker Valley Alfalfa (Preliminary)
- Effects of Aerially Applied Plant Growth Regulators on Alfalfa Quality and Yields
- Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizer Applied in Winter on Alfalfa Yield at the First Cutting in Spring
- Small Grains Variety Evaluation at the Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1996
- Small Grains Variety Evaluation at the Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1995 (Final Report)
- Wheat, Barley, and Durum and Advanced Lines Test, Gila Bend, AZ, 1996
- Wheat, Barley, Durum and Advanced Lines Test, Gila Bend, AZ 1995 (Final Report)
- Small Grains Variety Trials, Safford Agricultural Center, 1995
- Late Season Water and Nitrogen Effects on Durum Quality, 1995 (Final)
- Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizer Applied at Flowering on Durum Wheat Grain Yield and Quality
- Nitrogen Fertilization of Durum Based on Stem Nitrate, Buckeye, 1996
- Intensive Cereal Management for Durum Production, Buckeye, 1996
- The Response of Lesquerella to Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate and Time of Application
- Fungicide Evaluations on Beans in Southeastern Arizona, 1994-1995
- National Dry Bean Nursery in Bonita, 1995
National Dry Bean Nursery in Bonita, 1995Results of the 1995 National Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery Trials are reported in this paper. Thirty seven varieties of eight different classes of beans were included in this replicated, small plot trial. Bill-Z, the leading pinto bean variety in the area, was the highest yielding variety in the study with a yield just under 3000 pounds per acre. Fleetwood Navy variety and UI 59 Great Northern variety were the next leading varieties with yields about 50 pounds less than Bill-Z. Chase, a pinto variety recently developed with strong rust tolerance, yielded only 2300 pounds per acre in this study. Yields, seed per pound, aerial biomass, harvest index and maturity class are also reported.
Fungicide Evaluations on Beans in Southeastern Arizona, 1994-1995Fungicidal evaluations were performed on pinto beans in two sites in 1994 and one site in 1995 to determine their effect on bean rust, white mold or common bacterial blight The results were mixed between sites and years, but in 1994 the untreated control yielded less than all of the treatments except one and the Fluazinam 500F 1 lb rate was the highest yielding treatment In 1995, no disease symptoms were observed in the field.
The Response of Lesquerella to Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate and Time of ApplicationLesquerella is a plant that grows in the wild in southwestern U.S. and produces seeds containing hydroxy fatty acids similar to those in castor beans. Research has indicated that lesquerella has potential as a crop plant for Arizona. An important step in the commercialization of this plant for Arizona farms is the development of an efficient agronomic production system. Research to determine the effect of nitrogen (N) rates and timing of N applications on lesquerella production was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center in the 1993 -94 and 1995 -96 seasons. Nitrogen application rates of 0 to 108 and 0 to 162 lbs. N /acre were evaluated in 1993 -94 and 1995 -96 tests, respectively. Seed yields as high as 1780 lbs. /acre were obtained in the 1995 -96 test using a conventional combine for harvest. In both tests, lesquerella biomass production and seed yields increased as the N rate was increased. In 1995 -96, a split application of N in March and April resulted in higher seed yields than a single application in March. Seed oil content decreased in both tests as the N rate was increased. In 1995 -96, seed oil content decreased 12% as the N rate was increased from 0 to 162 lbs. N /acre. The N application rate had no effect on 1000 -seed weight.
Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizer Applied at Flowering on Durum Wheat Grain Yield and QualityApplication of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in conjunction with the irrigation event occurring closest to the flowering stage is effective in reducing the incidence of yellowberry and boosting grain protein levels of durum wheat. However, N applications at this time normally do not increase grain yield, except perhaps on very sandy soils. A field experiment was conducted to determine the profitability of applying 35 pounds of N per acre at flowering to durum wheat to avoid dockage for poor grain quality. Two treatments consisted of a check plot with no N applied at flowering and UAN 32 water run at a rate of 35 lbs. N /acre to basin irrigated durum wheat grown on a loamy sand soil. Maximum durum wheat grain yield (6157 lbs. /acre), protein concentration (13.7 %), and corrected income per acre ($480.31) was obtained with the N fertilizer application. In fact, N fertilization at flowering on this sandy soil increased durum wheat grain yield by 255 lbs. /acre compared to the unfertilized plot.
Late Season Water and Nitrogen Effects on Durum Quality, 1995 (Final)Durum grain quality is affected by many factors, but water and nitrogen are factors that the grower can control. The purpose of this research was to determine 1) the nitrogen application rate required at pollen shed to maintain adequate grain protein levels if irrigation is excessive or deficient during grain fill and 2) if nitrogen applications during grain fill can elevate grain protein. Field research was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center using the durum varieties Duraking, Minos, and Turbo. The field was treated uniformly until pollen shed when nitrogen was applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 lbs/acre. During grain fill, the plots were irrigated based on 30, 50, or 70% moisture depletion. In a separate experiment, nitrogen fertilizer was applied at a rate of 30 lbs N/acre at pollen shed only, pollen shed and the first irrigation after pollen shed, and pollen shed and the first and second irrigation after pollen shed. Irrigation had no effect on grain protein level, although increasing nitrogen rates at pollen shed from 0 to 30 and 30 to 60 lbs N/acre increased protein by 1 percentage point. Nitrogen fertilizer application at the first irrigation after pollen shed increased grain protein content from 10.4 to 11.4% and application at the first and second irrigation after pollen shed increased grain protein content further to 11.9% averaged over varieties. Irrigation management during grain fill may not play as large a role in controlling grain protein content as was originally thought except perhaps on heavy soils, and nitrogen fertilizer application during grain fill may not be too late to increase grain protein content.
Small Grains Variety Trials, Safford Agricultural Center, 1995Eight varieties of durum wheat, seven varieties of barley and four varieties of bread/feed wheat were grown in a replicated small plot study on the Safford Agricultural Center in the 1995 growing season. The results of this study are reported in this paper.
Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizer Applied in Winter on Alfalfa Yield at the First Cutting in SpringSome growers feel that nitrogen (N) fixing nodules found on the roots of the alfalfa plant are ineffective in cold soil during the winter and early spring. Thus, starter N fertilizer is commonly applied in late winter to established alfalfa to enhance growth until spring when the soil warms up and alfalfa begins actively fixing atmospheric N₂. Established alfalfa normally does not benefit from applications of N fertilizer since it is a leguminous crop that is capable of fixing its own N from atmospheric N₂. Afield experiment was conducted to determine the effect of N fertilizer applied in winter on alfalfa hay yield at the first cutting in spring. Two treatments consisted of an unfertilized check plot and UAN 32 water run at a rate of 35 lbs. N/acre to three year old 'CVF 101' alfalfa grown on a silt loam soil testing deficient in nitrate-N. Maximum alfalfa hay yield (J ton/acre) was obtained at the first spring cutting without N fertilizer application. However, since the field has a known yield potential of 1.5 ton/acre, factors other than fertility influenced the alfalfa hay yields observed in this study.
Effects of Aerially Applied Plant Growth Regulators on Alfalfa Quality and YieldsPlant growth regulators were aerially applied on April 26, 1996, to two alfalfa fields, one (Cibola) in its first year of production and the other field (CUF 101) in its third year. The first year field was approximately 50% through the cutting cycle and the third year field was approximately 30% through the cutting cycle when applications were made. No statistical differences were noted in hay tonnage the first cutting after application. Yield increases due to treatments were noted in the second cutting and maximum increases ranged from 277 -461 lbs of hay per acre. No yield or quality differences were noted the third cutting after application. The two fields differed in their response. The lowest rates of plant growth regulators produced higher yields in the first year field, but these treatment rates had greatly lowered hay quality the previous cutting. These effects were not noticed in the third year stand field. Increased hay tonnage was noted in the third year field from the 16 oz/acre rates, but was not evident in the first year field. Hay quality was usually highest in the check the first two cuttings after treatment. It is unknown if the differences noted between the two fields are due to different age of plants, variety and/or stage of growth when treatments were applied.
Efficacy of Norflurazon (Evital and Zorial) for Bermudagrass and Nutsedge Control in Parker Valley Alfalfa (Preliminary)Summer weeds including established bermudagrass and nutsedge are of economic concern to alfalfa growers in western Arizona. Two replicated evaluations of norflurazon herbicide applications for summer weed control were conducted on established alfalfa fields in La Paz County. Zorial Rapid 80 WP and Evital 5G herbicides were tested for their effectiveness of bermudagrass and nutsedge control when applied following hay harvest but prior to irrigation in early spring. Zorial 80 WP was applied at 2.0 lb a. i. /acre. Evital 5G was applied at single application rates of 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 lb a. i. /acre in spring and two split applications in spring and summer for a total of 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 lb a. i. /acre. Norflurazon applications resulted in bleaching and shoot tip death of established bermudagrass 49 days after a single application (DAT), however by 78 DAT bermudagrass regrowth reinfested all plots resulting in zero control. Purple nutsedge control resulting from a single application of Evital 5G at 2.0 lb a.i./acre was 41, 82, and 35% at 35, 63, and 99 DAT, respectively. However, Zorial 80 WP applied at 2.0 lb a. i. /acre provided only 5, 23, and 0% purple nutsedge control at 35, 63, and 99 DAT, respectively. The limited effectiveness of the Zorial 80 WP spray solution for nutsedge control resulted from poor soil incorporation since the liquid was unable to penetrate the dense nutsedge foliage. The Evital 5G norflurazon formulation provided promising purple nutsedge control following one application to established alfalfa since the weight of the granules allowed the herbicide to reach the soil surface where irrigation could move the herbicide down through the soil profile to nutsedge roots. At 99 DAT a second split Evital treatment was applied to control nutsedge regrowth, and hopefully provide season long control. Nutsedge control results following this second split application are pending.
Alfalfa Variety Trial in Cochise County, Arizona, 1995Fourteen alfalfa varieties with fall dormancy ratings from 6 to 9 were tested in replicated small plot trials on the Kibler farm in Stewart District northwest of Willcox. The leading variety after one year of testing was DeKalb 189 with a yield over 8 tons per acre. Heat units with temperature thresholds of 77 °F and 40 °F are given for each cutting.
Alfalfa Variety Trial in Southeastern Arizona, 1995Twenty one alfalfa varieties with Fall Dormancy ratings of 8 or 10 were tested in a replicated small plot trial on the Safford Agricultural Center. The leading variety after four years of cuttings is Mesa (formerly known as 84D92, from MBS, Inc). Since this was the last year of the study, stand counts and stem counts were taken and reported in this report Heat units with thresholds of 77° F and 40° F are included for each cutting in the study.
Raised Bed Alfalfa Varietal Production in La Paz County, Arizona, 1993-1995Twenty alfalfa varieties grown in small plots on raised beds were evaluated for forage production beginning after planting in the fall of 1992. Data from eleven harvests were obtained in 1993 -1995, generally covering the summer months. No variety produced more forage than CUF 101 in each of the three years although Moapa had more tonnage than CUF 101 in two of the years. Moapa and Tillman (101.6% and 100.8% of CUF 101 respectively) had higher total production than CUF 101 during the study, although Tillman had the least production of varieties tested during the third year. The varieties Rio and WL 516 had least amounts of forage production over the three year period. Percentage bloom and plant height were very highly correlated from the July 1993 harvest. Total production from 1993-1994 were similar to the bloom and height of July 1993, as Tillman, Moapa and CUF 101 had the highest percentage bloom, while Rio and WL 516 had the least bloom. Cibola and CW 2981 had greater than 240, 000 crowns per acre following the 1994 season, followed by Tillman and Condor. WL 516, Madera, and ABI 9182 each had fewer than 180,000 crowns per acre. Tillman and Cibola had greater than 120,000 crowns /acre at the end of the third year; all other varieties had fewer. Hopperburn and associated yellows during the fall of 1995 was correlated with both crowns /acre and plant height, although crown numbers and height were not correlated.
1995-1996 Alfalfa Hay Yields from Eight Varieties Planted in February 1995 on the Colorado River Indian Tribes ReservationEight alfalfa varieties were evaluated for forage production during 1995 and the first half of 1996 following a Feb. 1995 planting. DK 189 has yielded the most tonnage thus far (104.8% of CUF 101), and all varieties have averaged over one ton of hay /acre/harvest.