Forage & Grain Report 2002
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
The Forage and Grain Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.
This report, along with the Cotton Report, was established by Hank Brubaker, Extension Agronomist, after seeing a similar report published by Texas A&M University in the mid-1970’s.
The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to farmers, researchers, and those in the agricultural industry. The research is conducted by University of Arizona and USDA-ARS scientists.
Both historical and current Forage and Grain Reports have been made available in the UA Campus Repository as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.
Contents for Forage & Grain Report 2002Historical Crop Acreage
- Effect of BAS125 on low desert alfalfa growth and quality during the August production period
- Effect of BAS125 10W on late spring/early summer alfalfa growth, 1998
- Insecticidal control of late winter/spring alfalfa pests in the Palo Verde Valley, 2001
- Insecticidal effects on cowpea aphids and their parasitoids, blue alfalfa aphids, and alfalfa weevils in 2002
- Wheat and barley response to nitrogen fertilization at Safford Agricultural Center, 2001-02
- Wheat and barley response to pre-plant phosphorus at Safford Agricultural Center, 2001-02
- Barley response to soil water depletion levels at Maricopa, 2002
- Durum response to soil water depletion levels at Stanfield, 2002
- Irrigation practices and Solum test weight and yield, 2002
- Small Grains Variety Evaluation at Arizona City, Maricopa, and Yuma, 2002
- Small Grain Variety Trials at the Safford Agricultural Center, 2002
Comparative yields of four berseem clover varieties in response to three fall 2000 planting datesFour berseem clover varieties were planted on three dates (Oct. 2 and 16, Nov. 2) in the fall of 2000. Data for plant heights and yields were obtained during the following winter and spring. Varieties differed widely in their initial stages of growth in terms of green coloration, indicating differences in bacterial nodulation and nitrogen fixation. ‘Tabor’ was a uniform rich green in coloration with vigorous growth, while ‘Saidi’ and ‘Serw 3’ were somewhat green. ‘Joe Burton’ was very reddish in coloration, especially in the later plantings, and no nodules were noted during examination of roots of this variety during the fall of 2000. Forage yields for the most part reflected planting date, with the earlier plantings having the highest yields. One exception was the Oct. 16 planting of ‘Tabor’, which had the highest overall individual yield. Lowest yields were noted with ‘Joe Burton’.
2001 National Cooperative Dry Bean NurseryThis report contains the results of the 2001 National Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery Trials. This replicated, small plot trial contains forty eight varieties of ten different bean classes. Buster, a pinto variety from Seminis Vegetable Seed Company was the highest yielding variety in the study for the third year in a row, with a yield above 3500 pounds per acre. Yields, aerial biomass, harvest index, and 100 bean weights are reported in this study.
Small Grain Variety Trials at the Safford Agricultural Center, 2002Small plot replicate trials were established to test nineteen durum wheat varieties, three varieties of bread/feed wheat and six varieties of barley. D1856, an experimental, was the leading durum wheat variety, Cavalier from World Wide Wheat the highest yielding bread/feed wheat variety and Commander was the highest yielding barley. All three varieties were entries from World Wide Wheat. A three year summary is also provided in this paper.
Small Grains Variety Evaluation at Arizona City, Maricopa, and Yuma, 2002Small grain varieties are evaluated each year by University of Arizona personnel at one or more locations. The purpose of these tests is to characterize varieties in terms of yield and other attributes. Variety performance varies greatly from year to year and several site-years are necessary to adequately characterize the yield potential of a variety. A summary of small grain variety trials from previous years can be found online at http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/crops/az1265.pdf.
Detection of Xanthomonas translucens on barley seedBacterial blight of barley, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas translucens, occurs sporadically in Arizona in sprinkler-irrigated barley. The pathogen is seed borne, and there are no resistant varieties of barley. Bacterial blight has been severe when contaminated seed is planted and favorable weather conditions, including spring rains and late frosts, occur in March and April. Methods for detection of the bacteria on seed have been established at The University of Arizona using both standard pathogenicity trials on barley seedlings and immunoassay techniques.
Canarygrass control in wheat - 2002Five herbicides were evaluated for the control of littleseed canarygrass. These herbicides were applied at either the 1-3 leaf stage of the canarygrass or at the 1 leaf to elongating stage of development. All of the herbicides tested except Hoelon, produced excellent control at the early application. Puma, Olympus and the highest rate of F130060 (Aventis) produced good control at the late application. Achieve worked well when applied early but was unacceptable at the late application.
Irrigation practices and Solum test weight and yield, 2002Solum is a barley adapted to one or two irrigations but the grain produced is often low in test weight. Studies were conducted on two commercial farms near Maricopa and Coolidge in an effort to verify data from previous studies suggesting that delaying the first post-emergence irrigation until boot increases test weight compared to earlier irrigation, but does not affect yield. The irrigation treatments consisted of 1) two irrigations – planting and boot, or 2) three irrigations – planting, 5- to 6-leaf stage, and heading (grower standard). The irrigation treatments had no effect on grain yield, test weight, kernel weight, or lodging at either location, but delaying the second irrigation until boot reduced plant height at Coolidge. Despite the lack of positive results from these studies, applying the second irrigation at boot may still be preferable to earlier applications because of reduced plant height and the risk of lodging. We have not been able to measure a benefit from a third irrigation for Solum barley in these or previous studies.
Durum response to soil water depletion levels at Stanfield, 2002This research was conducted to test the effect of soil water depletion levels on durum productivity. An experiment was conducted at a commercial farm in Stanfield where irrigations were applied at 35, 50, or 65% depletion of plant available soil water. These soil water depletion levels were estimated from soil texture and weather data. The grain yields obtained with 35, 50, and 65% depletion were 6718, 6324, and 4752 lbs/acre, respectively. Grain protein decreased and HVAC increased by irrigating more frequently at lower depletion levels. Irrigating at 50% depletion was the most economical in this study considering irrigation costs and grain quality discounts.
Barley response to soil water depletion levels at Maricopa, 2002This research represents the second year of a project to determine when to irrigate barley based on soil water depletion levels. The purpose of this work is to establish the optimum irrigation timing based on depletion of plant available water in the soil. A field experiment was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center testing irrigation of barley at 35, 50, 65, and 80% depletion of plant available water in the soil for two barley varieties, Baretta and Max. Grain yields for the 35, 50, 65, and 80% depletion levels were 8319, 7296, 5606, and 3404 lbs/acre for Baretta and 9164, 8403, 6463, and 3416 lbs/acre for Max, respectively. The yield increase averaged across varieties from irrigating at 35% rather than 50% depletion is 893 lbs/acre, which has a value of $45.54/acre assuming a grain price of $5.10/cwt. However, the cost of producing this grain is $54.33/acre due the cost of two additional irrigations ($44/acre), 30 lbs additional nitrogen per acre ($8.10/acre), and increased hauling cost ($2.23/acre). The profitability of irrigating at 35% rather than 50% depletion is improved with an increase in grain price or decrease in water cost.
Wheat and barley response to pre-plant phosphorus at Safford Agricultural Center, 2001-02This two year study is a follow-up to a study started in 1999, looking at phosphorus applications at planting on wheat and barley. Treatments applied were 0, 100, 200 and 400 pounds of 16-20-0 planted through the grain drill with the seed. Phosphorus applied at planting improved yields in most replicates, but because of the cost of the fertilizer, the higher yields were not always the most economically profitable.
Wheat and barley response to nitrogen fertilization at Safford Agricultural Center, 2001-02This study is a follow-up on a study initiated three years ago with an emphasis on the timing of application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. The times targeted in this study were: at planting, at initiation of growth and at boot stage. A nitrogen starter fertilizer at planting increased yields over 100 pounds of grain per acre for both wheat and barley compared with plots which did not receive the added nitrogen at planting. No difference was seen between applying 46 or 92 pounds of N per acre as a starter fertilizer. Amount of N added at boot stage seemed to increase barley yields slightly but had no effect on wheat yield nor protein content. An economic analysis is included to show the profitability of nitrogen applications.
New Alfalfa Variety Trial in Graham County Arizona, 2001Twenty six alfalfa varieties with fall dormancy ratings of 7 or 9 were tested in a replicated small plot trial on a sandy clay loam soil on the Safford Agricultural Center. This was the third year of the study. Coronado was the highest yielding variety in 2000 with Mecca III following closely behind. Both varieties produced a yield over 9 tons per acre and averaged 9.3 tons per acre over the 3-year period.
Insecticidal effects on cowpea aphids and their parasitoids, blue alfalfa aphids, and alfalfa weevils in 2002Twentynine insecticide treatments were applied on Feb. 7, 2002, to evaluate the effects of chemistry and rates on cowpea aphids and associated parasitic wasps. Data were also able to be collected on blue alfalfa aphids and alfalfa weevil larvae. At seven days post treatment fewest cowpea aphids were noted in plots treated with Furadan, the 3.84 oz./acre rate of WarriorT, and several of the higher rates of Lorsban 4E. Organophosphate insecticides had fewer cowpea aphids on the whole than did pyrethroid insecticides. All insecticide treatments had significantly fewer parasitic wasps than the untreated check, although these populations may correspond to aphid populations. All insecticide treatments had fewer blue alfalfa aphids early in the study, with very good control noted from the 3.84 oz./acre rate of WarriorT and the combination of 8 oz. of Lorsban 4E + 2 oz./acre of Baythroid 2. Treatments containing Baythroid 2 had the fewest blue alfalfa aphids at 44 days post treatment. Treatments which had at least 70% fewer weevils than the untreated check at 12 days post treatment included Furadan, all treatments that included any formulation of Baythroid, and the high rates of WarriorT and Pounce 3.2 EC, and the 0.088 rate of F1785 50DF.
Insecticidal control of late winter/spring alfalfa pests in the Palo Verde Valley, 2001Fifteen insecticide treatments were applied March 12, 2001, to compare their efficacies on alfalfa weevils, western flower thrips, blue alfalfa aphids and associated aphid predators. Furadan and insecticides containing a pyrethroid active ingredient reduced alfalfa weevil larvae by more than 89% when compared with the untreated check. All treatments provided a minimum of 70% control of blue alfalfa aphids by seven days post treatment, with fewest aphids noted in WarriorT insecticide treatments. Although some insecticides reduced adult western flower thrips number initially, adult thrips increased in all plots between four and seven days post treatment. Both treatments that contained Lorsban had significantly more adult thrips than the untreated check, indicating that low amounts of this insecticide may attract adult western flower thrips. At both four and seven days post treatment, nymphal thrips control was best in Success, followed by Furadan, dimethoate and treatments containing Lorsban. Higher numbers of thrips nymphs were noted in all pyrethroid treatments not in combination with other treatments than in the untreated check at four and seven days post treatment, perhaps indicating hormolygosis for western flower thrips and these insecticides. Few aphid predators were present until late in the study.
Effect of BAS125 10W on late spring/early summer alfalfa growth, 1998Four rates of BAS125 were evaluated to document rate effects on reduction in stem elongation and associated increase in alfalfa leaves during the peak period of summer growth. Increasing rates of BAS125 resulted in greater inhibition of alfalfa stem elongation, as the highest rate (0.1875 lbs. a.i./acre) had stems 27-37% shorter than the untreated check through 12 days post treatment, and 20% shorter thereafter. Alfalfa weights (both stem and leaf) were also reduced by BAS125 treatments through 12 days after treatment. Higher rates resulted in lighter leaves. Significantly more trifoliate leaves were noted at the higher rates of BAS125 at 19 days after treatment, as was increased leaf and stem weights than untreated check with most noted at the 0.125 rate. Stem diameters were not significantly different, although untreated stems were wider. Numerically more open flowers were documented with usage of BAS125 at 19 days post treatment, but fewer floral racemes/stem were associated with higher rates at 27 days post treatment. No differences existed for alfalfa plant height measurements in regrowth following harvest, indicating that application of BAS125 are only effective on forage harvest to which they were applied and have no subsequent residual effect.
Effect of BAS125 on low desert alfalfa growth and quality during the August production periodAlfalfa was treated with five rates of BAS125 on August 5, 1997. Data were obtained to determine rate effects on stem regrowth (both height and width), trifoliate leaves, and yield. Variation in plot area affected some results. No statistical differences were noted for quality classification or yields, although increased protein levels were noted from BAS125 treatments. Increasing BAS125 rates resulted in significant decreases in plant height and significant increases in numbers of trifoliate leaves at nodes 1-6. Differences in stem diameters were also noted, with stem width affected by rate of BAS125 at lower portions of stem. Differences in stem diameters of upper parts of stems were primarily associated with plant height reductions as a function of BAS125 rate.