Forage & Grain Report 2004
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
The Forage and Grain Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.
This report, along with the Cotton Report, was established by Hank Brubaker, Extension Agronomist, after seeing a similar report published by Texas A&M University in the mid-1970’s.
The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to farmers, researchers, and those in the agricultural industry. The research is conducted by University of Arizona and USDA-ARS scientists.
Both historical and current Forage and Grain Reports have been made available in the UA Campus Repository as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.
Contents for Forage & Grain Report 2004Alfalfa
- Comparisons of Insecticides on Fall Alfalfa Insect Populations, and Resultant Hay Yields and Quality
- Evaluation of miticides for potential use in alfalfa hay, 2004
- Effect of two-spotted spider mites and miticides on alfalfa hay produced for a late May cutting
- Small Grains Variety Evaluation at Arizona City, Maricopa, and Yuma, 2004
- Small Grain Variety Trials, Safford Agricultural Center, 2004
- Comparison of multiple rate of Apogee® and Palisade™ for 'Cheyenne' bermudagrass seed production
- Evaluation of Mustang Max 0.8 EW on insects associated with bermudagrass seed production, 2003
2003 Cooperative dry bean nurseryThis report contains the results of the 2003 National Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery Trials grown at two different sites in southeastern Arizona. These replicated, small plot trials contained twenty-eight varieties from ten different classes of beans. Bill-Z, a pinto variety, was the highest yielding variety in the Terry Brother=s trial with a yield over 3800 pounds per acre. K124467, a Flor de Mayo variety from Archer-Daniels-Midland, was the highest yielding variety in the Haas trial with a yield just under 2900 pounds per acre. Yields, aerial biomass, harvest index, and 100 bean weights are reported for all varieties in both studies.
Evaluation of Mustang Max 0.8 EW on insects associated with bermudagrass seed production, 2003Two rates of the insect active ingredient zetacypermethrin (MustangMax) were evaluated for control of summer insect pests on bermudagrass, with application made about one month prior to harvest. Crop was 22 inches tall when treatments were applied and had a dense stand, which also intercepted much of the treatment. Little difference existed between the two rates of zetacypermethrin in this study. Treatments reduced planthopper numbers by slightly over 50% for the first 9 days after application. Reduction of bermudagrass mirid populations was 45% at two days post treatment, but numbers of this insect were numerically higher in MustangMax treated plants than in untreated plots at subsequent sample dates. Treatments also resulted in significantly lower numbers of damsel bugs and minute pirate bugs at two days post treatment, while only reducing grass thrips numbers by about 20% through 13 days after application. Bark lice were more prevalent in the treated plots, thought due to a reduction of predatory beneficial insects. More effectiveness from this chemistry would be expected earlier in the growing season when plants are shorter, therefore allowing greater coverage and contact with insects as this chemistry is not systemic.
Comparison of multiple rate of Apogee® and Palisade™ for 'Cheyenne' bermudagrass seed productionUsage of gibberellic acid inhibitors have been documented to increase seed harvest of grasses in the Pacific Northwest, but had not been evaluated for bermudagrass seed production in the low desert. Four rates of PalisadeTM (1-4 pts/acre)and three rates of Apogee7 (7-29 oz) were applied to 'Cheyenne' bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) to evaluate their effects on seed production. Treatments were applied just prior to inflorescence appearance, and lowest two rates of both chemistries included both single as well as double applications with second application approximately two weeks after experiment initiation. All PalisadeTM treatments significantly reduced plant heights and inflorescence heights, as did twice applied Apogee7 treatments for plant heights. Most PalisadeTM treatments also significantly reduced total inflorescence length as well as opened 'heads'. Data indicate that higher rates of both chemistries and especially PalisadeTM significantly reduced seeds per unit area. Of the treatments, only the lowest rate of Apogee7 (1 pt/acre) resulted in a numeric increase of seeds/acre compared with the untreated check.
Small Grain Variety Trials, Safford Agricultural Center, 2004Small plot replicate trials were established to test fifteen durum wheat varieties and thirteen varieties of barley (including six malting varieties from Colorado). Duraking from World Wide Wheat was the leading durum wheat variety with a yield just over two tons per acre. Max barley variety from World Wide Wheat was the highest yielding barley variety with a yield over two and three quarters tons per acre. A multi-year summary is also provided in this paper.
Small Grains Variety Evaluation at Arizona City, Maricopa, and Yuma, 2004Small grain varieties are evaluated each year by University of Arizona personnel. The purpose of these tests is to characterize varieties in terms of yield and other attributes. Variety performance varies greatly from year to year and several site-years are necessary to adequately characterize the yield potential of a variety. A summary of small grain variety trials conducted by the University of Arizona can be found online at http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/crops/az1265.pdf.
Evaluation of herbicides for control of littleseed canarygrass in wheat - 2004Four herbicides and combinations of these herbicides with MCPA were evaluated for the control of Littleseed canarygrass in durum wheat. The currently registered herbicides, Achieve and Puma (not registered in Arizona) produced control levels of 80 to 95 percent with good crop safety. The new herbicides being developed, Osprey and Olympus produced higher and more consistent levels of control of 95 to 99 percent but caused slight to moderate crop injury. Combinations of Achieve and Puma with MCPA, a broadleaf herbicide, resulted in decreased control. When Osprey was tank mixed with MCPA, crop injury was increased.
Irrigation scheduling on small grains using AZSCHED for Windows - Safford Agricultural Center, 2004The AZSCHED irrigation scheduling software was developed in the early 1990's to be used in a DOS environment on computers (1) and has been used extensively for irrigation scheduling on the Safford Agricultural Center since its development. The new Windows version of AZSCHED (2) was first tested for barley and wheat in 2003. This is a follow-up verification to the first test using a wider range of irrigation depletion levels.
Durum wheat response to nitrogen fertilization at Safford Agricultural Center, 2004This study was initiated in 2003 in response to a push by one of the grain buying companies to produce more durum wheat for export from Arizona. The export market required a minimum of 13% protein and other quality constraints. A nitrogen timing regime was established by the University to provide the crop with this nutrient according to its physiological development. This study had four nitrogen application treatments addressing different ways to provide the crop with its nitrogen needs. This second year of the study showed statistically different yields from the treatments applied and different inferences from the first year of the study. An economic analysis is included to show the profitability of nitrogen applications for this year and an economic summary for the last four years of nitrogen studies on durum wheat.
Alfalfa variety trial in Graham County Arizona, 2003Thirteen alfalfa varieties with fall dormancy ratings of 7 - 9 were tested in a replicated small plot trial on a clay loam soil on the Safford Agricultural Center. This was the first year of the study. Beacon was the highest yielding variety in 2003 with ZX 9899B and AmeriStand 801S following closely behind. All three varieties produced a yield over 9 tons per acre.
Effect of two-spotted spider mites and miticides on alfalfa hay produced for a late May cuttingThree miticide treatments (milbemectin, clarified neem oil, and chlorpyrifos plus dimethoate) were compared with an untreated check to obtain information on the effects of twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) feeding on alfalfa yields, quality and economics, as well as crop responses to miticides. Mite infested alfalfa was treated just prior to first irrigation after cutting in spring 2003, and numbers of spider mites and western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) were obtained at weekly intervals thereafter for the next seven weeks. Data for plant parameters (stem widths, numbers of leaves, internode lengths) were obtained at harvest, as were hay yields and quality. The milbemectin treatment resulted in quickest reduction of spider mites (88.5% at 5 days after application) and also resulted in significantly higher yields than the untreated check (0.18 tons of hay/acre), attributed to the longer internodes and resultant tallest plants and significantly thicker stems than the untreated check. Clarified neem oil and chlorpyrifos plus dimethoate treatments did not control spider mites as quickly as milbemectin and yields were increased by only 0.04-0.05 tons hay per acre in this experiment compared with the untreated check. These two treatments also differed in their effects on stem widths and internode lengths, indicating that some results noted were a result of interactions of miticides with alfalfa as well as spider mite control.
Comparisons of Insecticides on Fall Alfalfa Insect Populations, and Resultant Hay Yields and QualityThree insecticide active ingredients (cyfluthrin, indoxacarb, and zetacypermethrin) were evaluated for their efficacy on several insects found in fall alfalfa in the low desert. Both liquid and wettable formulations were included for both cyfluthrin and zetacypermethrin, and four rates of indoxacarb were applied. Insect pressures were fairly low throughout the study. Pyrethroid chemistries (cyfluthrin, zetacypermethrin) provided excellent control of threecornered alfalfa hoppers for seven days after application while cyfluthrin applications resulted in lowest numbers of pale striped flea beetles during the same time period. All chemistries resulted in excellent control of the South American bean thrips (Caliothrips phaseoli). Indoxacarb treatments resulted in significantly increased levels of spotted alfalfa aphid, thought due to a reduction of big eye bugs noted with usage of this chemistry. Wettable formulations of both cyfluthrin and zetacypermethrin resulted in significant hay yield increases (0.1 tons/acre) when compared with their liquid formulations. An inverse yield trend was noted with indoxacarb rate. Usage of the liquid cyfluthrin chemistry also resulted in an unexplained quality decrease in this experiment.
Evaluation of miticides for potential use in alfalfa hay, 2004Five treatments were applied at time of bale removal to evaluate several products for twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) management in alfalfa hay. Mite numbers were very high prior to this harvest and were assumed to be more than adequately present for this study. Data were obtained at six, fifteen and eighteen days post treatment. Data at six days after application documented that only ZealTM and Trilogy7 had fewer spider mites than the untreated check, but data also indicated that western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) were also probably present and feeding on mites. Western flower thrips were present in almost equal numbers as twospotted spider mites at fifteen days post treatment and mite numbers had decreased greatly from the previous sampling date. Mite numbers/stem were similar at eighteen days to that of fifteen days post treatment. Thrips predation was thought to obscure differences in spider mite populations resulting from treatments in this experiment, and therefore data from this experiment should be so noted when future treatment decisions are considered.