Forage & Grain Report 2000
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
The Forage and Grain Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.
This report, along with the Cotton Report, was established by Hank Brubaker, Extension Agronomist, after seeing a similar report published by Texas A&M University in the mid-1970’s.
The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to farmers, researchers, and those in the agricultural industry. The research is conducted by University of Arizona and USDA-ARS scientists.
Both historical and current Forage and Grain Reports have been made available in the UA Campus Repository as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.
Contents for Forage & Grain Report 2000Alfalfa
- Comparisions of Differing Rates of Baythroid 2® and WarriorT® Insecticides for Insect Control in Fall Alfalfa
- New Alfalfa Variety Trial in Graham County, Arizona, 1999
- Alfalfa Variety Trial on Heavy Soil in Graham County Arizona, 1999
- Effects of High Electoconductivity Field Conditions on Production of Six Alfalfa Varieties on the Colorado River Indian Tribes Reservation
- Two Year Evaluation of Nine Alfalfa Varieties Grown Under Grower Conditions on the Colorado River Indian Tribes Reservation
- Alfalfa Tolerance to Norflurazon (Zorial 5G) on Coarse Textured Soils in Central Arizona
- Evaluation of Raptor 1AS and Other Herbicides for Sowthistle, Canarygrass, and Wild Oat Control in Alfalfa
- Response of Alfalfa Treatedwith Halosulfuron during the Summer of 1999
- Wheat and Barley Response to Pre-plant Phosphorus at Safford Agricultural Center, 2000
- Wheat and Barley Response to Nitrogen Fertilization at Safford Agricultural Center, 2000
- Durum Response to Soil Water Depletion Levels, 2000
- Barley Response to Soil Water Depletion Levels, 2000
- Irrigation Pracitices and Solum Barley Test Weight and Yield, 2000
- Small Grain Variety Evaluation at Arizona City, Eloy, Maricopa, and Yuma, 2000
- Small Grain Variety Trials Safford Agricultural Center, 2000
Sweet Resinbush Herbicide Study at Marijilda and Frye Mesa Sites, 1998-1999Ten herbicide treatments were applied to two sites containing high infestation levels of Sweet Resinbush (Euryops subcarnosus sub. Vulgaris, originally known as Euryops multifidus). Granular or pelleted materials were applied prior to monsoonal rainstorms and foliar materials were applied after the rains had promoted foliar growth. The most effective treatment was a 25 pound per acre rate of Pronone 10G granules with an average control of 98.8% one year after application.
National Dry Bean Nursery Trials in Bonita, 1999This report contains the results of the 1999 National Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery Trials. This replicated, small plot trial contains thirty nine varieties of ten different classes of beans. Buster, a pinto variety was the highest yielding variety in the study with a yield over 3700 pounds per acre. Yields, percent moisture, aerial biomass, harvest index, seeds per pound, and plant populations are reported for this study.
Nitrogen content of green cropsApplication of chemical fertilizer is not permitted in production of crops certified as organic, but green manure crops may be used to supply the nutrient needs of these crops. An experiment was conducted on a commercial farm near Litchfield Park to determine the nitrogen content at plowdown of barley mixed with Austrian winter peas, Magnus peas, and/or Lana woolleypod vetch. The crop was planted on 21 October and sampled for plowdown nitrogen content on 1 March. The peas and vetch comprised less than 10% of the dry weight of the mixture since the barley grew more vigorously. The barley contained 66 lbs N/acre in the forage while the legumes in the mixture contained 16 lbs N/acre on average. The amount of N in the green manure, even if 100% was available, was not enough to supply the needs of a 2 bale/acre organic cotton crop. The planting date, plowdown date, or species composition in the green manure mixture needs to be altered for green manure to supply the N needs of organic cotton.
Evaluation of Herbicides for Control of Littleseed Canarygrass in WheatThe two herbicides currently registered for the control of canarygrass in Arizona work by inhibiting lipid biosynthesis. The levels of control with these herbicides have been variable, ranging from 60 to 90 percent. Crop safety has been good. Two newer herbicides utilizing a different mode of action have provided more consistent and higher levels of weed control but with increased crop injury. These are numbered compounds (MKH6561 and F130060) and they are ALS inhibitors.
Small Grain Variety Trials Safford Agricultural Center, 2000Small plot replicate trials were established to test thirteen durum wheat varieties, seven varieties of bread/feed wheat and nine varieties of barley. Platinum was the leading durum wheat variety with a yield of 4550 pounds per acre and Experimental BR 4836 from World Wide Wheat the highest yielding bread/feed wheat variety with 5893 pounds per acre. Patti was the highest yielding barley variety with a yield of 4724 pounds per acre.
Small Grain Variety Evaluation at Arizona City, Eloy, Maricopa, and Yuma, 2000Small grain varieties are evaluated each year by University of Arizona personnel and industry cooperators. The purpose of these tests is to characterize varieties in terms of yield and other attributes. Variety performance varies greatly from year to year and several site-years are necessary to adequately characterize the yield potential of a variety. The results contained in this report will be combined with results from previous years in a summary available from Arizona Cooperative Extension.
Seeding Rate Effects on Durum Grain Protein ConcentrationIt has been observed in other wheat growing regions that stands that are thin rarely have problems with low grain protein. The purpose of this study was to determine if this is indeed the case in Arizona. A study was conducted at Maricopa where the durum varieties Duraking, Minos, and Turbo were sown at rates from 30 to 360 lbs seed/acre. Seeding rate had no effect on grain protein or yield in this study. The reported effects of thin stands on grain protein may be related to low yield rather than seeding rate per se.
Irrigation Pracitices and Solum Barley Test Weight and Yield, 2000Solum is a barley bred for reduced water use that tends to have low test weight. An experiment was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center to determine the effect of the number of irrigations and their timing on test weight and grain yield of Solum barley. Applying an irrigation at planting and a second irrigation at jointing resulted in the lowest test weight (44.4 lbs/bu) and nearly the highest grain yield (4315 lbs/acre) recorded in the test. All other irrigation treatments resulted in acceptable test weights above 48 lbs/bu except for irrigating at planting plus tillering, which resulted in 47.0 lb/bu test weight. Irrigating at planting and then delaying the second irrigation until boot or later resulted in acceptable test weight but decreased grain yield by 9% or more compared to applying the second irrigation at jointing. Grain yields similar to that obtained by applying a second irrigation at jointing was obtained by delaying the second irrigation until boot and applying a third irrigation at milk or soft dough. This experiment will be conducted a second year before conclusions are drawn.
Barley Response to Soil Water Depletion Levels, 2000This research represents the first year of a project to determine when to irrigate barley based on soil water depletion levels. The purpose of this work is to establish the optimum irrigation timing based on depletion of plant available water in the soil. A field experiment was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center testing irrigation of barley at 35, 50, 65, and 80% depletion of plant available water in the soil for two barley varieties, Baretta and Max. Grain yields averaged over the two varieties were 8415, 7735, 7512, and 4553 lbs/acre for the 35, 50, 65, and 80% depletion levels, respectively. The results of this study indicate irrigating at 35% soil water depletion is optimal for barley grain yield.
Durum Response to Soil Water Depletion Levels, 2000This research represents the second year of a project to determine when to irrigate wheat based on soil water depletion levels. The purpose of this work is to establish the optimum irrigation timing based on depletion of plant available water in the soil. A field experiment was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center testing irrigation of wheat at 35, 50, 65, and 80% depletion of plant available water in the soil for two durum varieties, Kronos and Westbred 881. Grain yields averaged over the two varieties were 6787, 6494, 5460, and 3067 lbs/acre for the 35, 50, 65, and 80% depletion levels, respectively. The results of this study indicate irrigating at 50% soil water depletion or less is optimal for wheat grain yield.
Wheat and Barley Response to Nitrogen Fertilization at Safford Agricultural Center, 2000Yields of both wheat and barley were increased with the addition of nitrogen and the largest gain was seen when it was applied at the initiation of growth or at boot stage. Effects of applied nitrogen were somewhat masked by the addition of nitrogen through the use of well water. Nitrogen level in the well water added 21 pounds of nitrogen per acre foot of irrigation, adding 48 pounds of nitrogen throughout the growing season. With the low value of grain and the given cost of nitrogen fertilizer, added nitrogen did not increase profitability for the producer.
Wheat and Barley Response to Pre-plant Phosphorus at Safford Agricultural Center, 2000Bread wheat and barley were seeded in low phosphorus soils which had had varying rates of ammonium phosphate-sulfate (16-20-0) applied. Statistical increases in yield were seen in the wheat study. The increased bottom line with the lowest rate of phosphorus declined as rates of phosphorus increased. Low crop values and high fertilizer costs made high application rates uneconomical. Barley yields were not statistically increased with the addition of phosphorus and the economics of applying phosphorus for this crop were negative. A two year summary is included in this report.
Response of Alfalfa Treatedwith Halosulfuron during the Summer of 1999The response of alfalfa regrowth, yield and plant populations to halosulfuron applied following cuttings and irrigations in the summer and fall of 1999 was studied in an experiment conducted at the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center. A single application of halosulfuron applied when there was little alfalfa foliage slightly reduced plant heights for several cutting cycles with increasing rate decreasing plant height. The cumulative forage fresh weight yields for the October 4th, November 15th, and February 22nd harvests for treatments receiving no halosulfuron or 0.032, 0.047, or 0.063 lb a.i./A were (means ± std. dev.): 15.94 ± 0.91, 14.99 ± 0.66, 14.80 ± 1.74, and 14.46 ± 0.97 tons/A, respectively. The trend of decreasing cumulative forage fresh weight with increasing halosulfuron rate was significant (Adj. R2 = 0.178, P = 0.015) indicating that for the three harvests after August 25th, halosulfuron had a small but negative effect on forage fresh weight. The harvest on April 5, 2000, the fourth harvest following the halosulfuron applications on August 25, 1999, indicated that there was no longer any residual effect of halosulfuron on alfalfa growth. Plant populations measured on April 10, 2000 were not affected by either one or two halosulfuron applications in this experiment. A set of sequential halosulfuron treatments applied when there was substantial alfalfa foliage (about 80% of the ground surface covered) severely suppressed alfalfa regrowth. Little regrowth occurred in these plots in October or November after the sequential applications compared to the untreated control or to the plots that received only the initial application of halosulfuron. The change in mean percent yield loss with successive harvests on November 15th, February 22nd and April 5th of 85, 40 and 14% indicated that the alfalfa plants were recovering from the halosulfuron applications. The cumulative forage fresh weight yields for treatments receiving sequential halosulfuron treatments (0.032+0.032, 0.047+0.047, or 0.063+0.063 lb a.i./A) were (means ± std. dev.): 11.67 ± 1.46, 10.85 ± 1.06, and 10.44 ± 0.98 tons/A, respectively, and were much less than the cumulative yield of 18.97 ± 1.17 tons/A from the untreated plots. The data suggest that the critical factor in determining the degree of alfalfa injury caused by halosulfuron is the amount of foliage present at the time of application.
Evaluation of Raptor 1AS and Other Herbicides for Sowthistle, Canarygrass, and Wild Oat Control in AlfalfaTwo rates of Raptor herbicide were evaluated for late winter weed control in alfalfa in combination with various types of surfactancts, the insecticide Furadan, and other alfalfa herbicides with known limited control spectrums. Herbicides that were combined with Raptor were also evaluated separately, as was Pursuit. Effects of treatments on wild oats, littleseed canarygrass and annual sowthistle were obtained. Treatments containing the active ingredient clethodim (Select/Prism) reduced canarygrass height and reproduction, while Raptor treatments increased numbers of inflorescences. No treatment provided effective control of sowthistle although some activity was noted from the Raptor treatments when numbers of reproductive structures and height were examined. Surfactants/ adjuvants greatly increased Raptor activity. Wild oat control was noted in treatments containing clethodim and several Raptor treatments when utilizing a surfactant/adjuvant.
Alfalfa Tolerance to Norflurazon (Zorial 5G) on Coarse Textured Soils in Central ArizonaThe tolerance of seedling alfalfa to norflurazon applied at various times after planting was evaluated at the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center (MAC) and in Glendale, AZ during 1998 and 1999. At each application date, rates of 0, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, or 4 lbs a.i./A of norflurazon formulated as a 5% sand granule (Zorial 5G) were applied using a ground driven Valmar granule applicator. Zorial 5G at rates ranging from 1.5 to 4.0 lbs a.i./acre applied as early as 25 days after planting (DAP) had no effect on alfalfa seedling emergence and stand establishment at (MAC). Significant alfalfa height reductions were observed as Zorial 5G rate was increased when Zorial was applied at 25 and 62 DAP (MAC) and 64 DAP (Glendale). Alfalfa fresh weight yield for the MAC location was reduced at the second cutting after application as Zorial 5G rate increased for the at planting and 25 DAP treatments. Alfalfa yields approximately one year after planting were not affected by applications of Zorial 5G at 25 DAP or later. Results suggest that Zorial applications at rates of 1 to 2 lbs a.i./A applied at the 3 to 4 trifoliate leaf stage (approximately 2 months after planting) have little effect on yield at first and second cuttings of alfalfa.
Two Year Evaluation of Nine Alfalfa Varieties Grown Under Grower Conditions on the Colorado River Indian Tribes ReservationNine alfalfa varieties, most not previously tested under field conditions in Arizona, were planted October 29, 1997, using the same setting on a Great Plains Solid Stand 13 End Wheel drill. Varieties differed in lbs. of seed/acre planted, ranging from 28.0 for CUF 101 to 21.3 for Alto. Seven cuttings were obtained in 1998, a year characterized by much cooler than normal temperatures during April through early July. The variety Alto yielded significantly more hay than CUF 101 in the first cutting and had the highest total yield (10.61 tons hay/acre) in 1998, 4.9% greater than the area standard, CUF 101. Varieties with fall dormancy class ratings of 8 (Alto, WL 525 HQ, and Baralfa 85) had the highest yields during 1998, yielding at least 103% of CUF 101. During 1999, the top yielding varieties were Baralfa 92, Beacon, and Baralfa 85, which all yielded at least 105% of CUF 101. These varieties in addition to Alto yielded 103+% of CUF 101 through the first two years of production.
Effects of High Electroconductivity Field Conditions on Production of Six Alfalfa Varieties on the Colorado River Indian Tribes ReservationFive alfalfa varieties were planted and grown under grower conditions on a field section that had high conductivity, while two varieties were planted and grown on a section of the same field much less affected. CUF 101, the variety grown in both areas, was the highest yielding variety in both area. Reduction in CUF 101 hay yield due to high conductivity was approximately one ton/acre in the first year of production, with a large amount of this noted in the first cutting. Yield reductions of CUF 101 due to field area and associated electroconductivity were greater the second year, with an average of 0.29 tons/acre/cutting. Total yield difference for CUF 101 was 1.72 tons/acre for the eight harvests for which data were available. Yield differences between the areas was greatest in the early spring and late fall of the first harvest year, with differences not noted in the June cutting; in year two yield differences were approximately 37% for each cutting. Salado was the second highest yielding variety in the high electroconductivity area in 1998, and equaled CUF 101 in yield from this area in 1999. Sal-T-96 and Leivas Best yielded less than 90% of CUF 101. Sal-T-96 also had the greatest number of weeds, due in part to very slow germination and fewer plants per acre compared with other varieties.
Alfalfa Variety Trial on Heavy Soil in Graham County Arizona, 1999Twenty four alfalfa varieties with fall dormancy ratings of 8 or 9 were tested in a replicated small plot trial on a heavy clay loam soil on the Safford Agricultural Center. This was the fourth year of the study. WL 91-224F was the highest yielding variety in 1999, but that still left it in second place behind Cuf 101 for the four year average. WL 91-224F yield was 8.35 tons per acre which is very close to its four year average of 8.32 tons per acre. CUF 101 only had the heaviest yield in one out of the past four years, but its high 1998 yield gave it the highest average yield over the four years of the study, at 8.37 tons per acre per year. Heat units with thresholds of 77o F and 41o F are included for each cutting in the study.
New Alfalfa Variety Trial in Graham County, Arizona, 1999Twenty six alfalfa varieties with fall dormancy ratings of 8 or 9 were tested in a replicated small plot trial on a sandy clay loam soil on the Safford Agricultural Center. This was the first year of the study. Mecca III was the highest yielding variety in 1999 with Coronado following closely behind. Both varieties produced a yield close to 9.5 tons per acre.
Comparisions of Differing Rates of Baythroid 2® and WarriorT® Insecticides for Insect Control in Fall AlfalfaVarious rates of two insecticides were tested for efficacy on threecornered alfalfa hopper and Empoasca sp. leafhoppers. Data were also collected for efficacy of insecticides on beneficial insects present. Hay quality samples were taken after baling. Both insecticides provided excellent control of threecornered alfalfa hopper, and Baythroid also controlled Empoasca sp.leafhoppers. Quality of hay was increased where threecornered alfalfa hoppers were controlled, although this control was for only eight days prior to cutting. A decrease in digestible hay protein was noted with increasing numbers of Empoasca sp. leafhoppers.