Forage & Grain Report 1999
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
The Forage and Grain Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.
This report, along with the Cotton Report, was established by Hank Brubaker, Extension Agronomist, after seeing a similar report published by Texas A&M University in the mid-1970’s.
The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to farmers, researchers, and those in the agricultural industry. The research is conducted by University of Arizona and USDA-ARS scientists.
Both historical and current Forage and Grain Reports have been made available in the UA Campus Repository as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.
Contents for Forage & Grain Report 1999Alfalfa
Production and Market
- Alfalfa Variety Trial in Graham County, Arizona, 1998
- Alfalfa Variety Trial in Cochise County, Arizona, 1998
- Alfalfa Variety Performance at Maricopa, 1997-1999
- First and Partial Second Year Evaluation of Nine Alfalfa Varieties Grown Under Grower Conditions on the Colorado River Indian Tribes Reservation
- First Year Effects of High Electroconductivity Field Conditions on Production of Six Alfalfa Varieties on the Colorado River Indian Tribes Reservation
- Effect of Late Winter 1998 Furadan4F Alfalfa Stubble Treatment on Alfalfa Growth and Alfalfa Weevil, Aphid, and Threecornered Alfalfa Hopper Populations
- Treehopper and Leafhopper Population Dynamics Following Spring Furadan Alfalfa Stubble Treatment
- Annual Grass Control in Established Mohave Valley Alfalfa Using Thiazopyr (Visor), Trifluralin (Treflan) and Norflurazon (Zorial)
- The Use of Norflurazon (Zorial 5G) in Parker Valley Alfalfa for Purple Nutsedge Suppression in 1998-99
- Influence of Ironite and Phosphorus on Wheat and Barley on the safford Agricultural Center, 1999
- Wheat and Barley Response to Pre-plant Phosphorus at Safford Agriculural Center, 1999
- Late Season Tissue Tests for Critical Grain Protein Content in Durum, Maricopa, 1999
- Developing Sap Nitrate Tests for Durum Wheat and Barley, Maricopa, 1999
- Tissue Testing Guidelines for N Management in Irrigated Malting Barley, Maricopa, 1999
- Small Grain Variety Trials, Safford Agricultural Center, 1999
- Small Grain Variety Evaluation at Yuma, 1999
Growth Characteristics, Hay Yield, and Feed Quality of Kenaf Grown in Mohave ValleyKenaf was grown as a hay crop in Mohave Valley to determine its growth characteristics, hay yield, and feed quality. The first cutting occurred 75 days after planting when plants were approximately 30 inches tall and had 30 nodes. Hay tonnage was only 1,000 lbs dry matter/acre, crude protein was 20.7 %, ADF was 40.2 %, and TDN was 57.5 %. Forage quality was adequate for beef cattle and sheep.
Kenaf Varietal Comparisons at the Safford Agricultural Center, 1998Cool spring weather delayed planting into mid May reducing the number of heat units available for plant development. A new variety to our testing program produced the highest yield, DRC 96-1 produced 4.58 tons per acre.
National Dry Bean Nursery Trials in Bonita, 1998Results of the 1998 National Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery Trials are reported in this paper. Forty one varieties of nine different classes of beans were included in this replicated, small plot trial. AC Calmont, a dark red kidney variety was the highest yielding variety in the study with a yield over 2800 pounds per acre. Kodiak was the highest yielding pinto variety with a yield over 2700 pounds per acre. Yields, seed per pound, aerial biomass, harvest index, plant population days to 50% bloom and days to 50% pod set are reported for this study. In addition to the small plot replicated trial, a pinto variety strip trial was conducted at this site. Nine varieties, including the best varieties from past trials, were tested in this study. ISB 2001 was the leading variety in this study with a yield of 3276 pounds per acre.
Corn Hybrid Evaluations, Graham County, 1998Three studies were performed in two different geographical areas in Graham County in 1998. A Bt hybrid comparison and a non-Bt hybrid comparison were grown in the Bonita area and a mixed (Bt and non-Bt) study was grown in the Eden area. Results of these three field studies are reported in this paper. Pioneer 33A14 was the leading cultivar in the Bonita Bt study with a yield of 13426 pounds per acre. Pioneer 32J55 had the highest yield in the non-Bt study in Bonita with a yield of 14630 pounds per acre. Novartis N7639 produced the highest yield in the Eden study but with a yield considerably lower than those seen in the Bonita area.
Small Grain Variety Evaluation at Yuma, 1999Small grain varieties are evaluated each year by industry and University of Arizona personnel. The purpose of these tests is to characterize varieties in terms of yield and other attributes. Variety performance varies greatly from year to year and several site-years are necessary to adequately characterize the yield potential of a variety. The results contained in this report will be combined with results from previous years in a summary available from Arizona Cooperative Extension.
Small Grain Variety Trials, Safford Agricultural Center, 1999Small plot replicate trials were established to test thirteen durum wheat varieties, nine varieties of bread/feed wheat, and five varieties of barley. Trump was the leading durum wheat variety with a yield of 3470 pounds per acre. Stander, a variety from Resources Seeds Intl in California, was the top producing wheat variety with a yield of 5780 pounds per acre and Max produced the highest barley yield with 5792 pounds per acre. Except for the durum varieties, most varieties in the study produced reasonable yields in 1999.
Durum Response to Soil Water Depletion LevelsResearch has not been conducted in Arizona to determine when to irrigate wheat based on soil water depletion levels. The purpose of this work is to establish the optimum irrigation timing based on depletion of plant available water in the soil. A field experiment was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center testing irrigation of wheat at 35, 50, 65, and 80% depletion of plant available water in the soil for two durum varieties, Kronos and Westbred 881. Grain yields averaged over the two varieties were 6479, 5099, 4283, and 4145 lbs/acre for the 35, 50, 65, and 80% depletion levels, respectively. The results of this study indicate that more frequent irrigations may be required than is typically practiced to optimize wheat grain yields in Arizona. This work will be repeated during the 1999-2000 growing season and the results from both years will be evaluated before general conclusions are drawn.
Tissue Testing Guidelines for N Management in Irrigated Malting Barley, Maricopa, 1999Malting barley is not a widely planted crop in the Southwest, due to grain protein contents that can sometimes exceed the industry standard of 11.4 %. To achieve < 11.4% grain protein, careful nitrogen (N) management is needed. Tissue testing guidelines for N management for reduced grain protein and acceptable yields have not yet been determined for malting barley in the Southwest. The objectives of this study were to: (i) correlate NO₃-N in dried stem tissue with sap NO₃-N, and (ii) develop stem NO₃-N guidelines for N management in malting barley. In November 1998 two varieties of malting barley, Morex and Crystal, were planted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center. Five N rates (0, 60, 120, 180, and 240 lbs/acre) were applied in four split applications. Each treatment was replicated three times in a randomized complete block design. Samples were collected from lower stems at the 3-4 leaf 2 node, and flag leaf visible growth stages. Grain yields ranged from 1011 lbs/A to 2677 lbs/A for Morex and 827 lbs/A to 2641 lbs/A for Crystal. Grain protein ranged from 6.94 -11.5% (Morex) and 8.48-13.0% (Crystal). Correlation coefficients between stem NO₃-N and sap NO₃-N were 0.83 for Morex and 0.85 for Crystal. For Morex and Crystal, grain protein was within the malting industry grain protein range of 10.5-11.4% and yield was optimized at 180 lbs N/A. Sap NO₃ analysis can be a useful tool for determining N status of malting barley.
Developing Sap Nitrate Tests for Durum Wheat and Barley, Maricopa, 1999The standard procedure for determining nitrogen (N) status in small grains is to sample lower stem tissue for nitrate (NO₃) analysis. The tissues are then submitted to a laboratory for analysis. Sap nitrate (NO₃) can be analyzed in the field, immediately after collecting the sample, using a Cardy meter. Guidelines for sap analysis have not yet been determined. The objectives of this study were to: (i) correlate NO₃-N in dried stem tissue with sap NO₃-N , and (ii) develop sap NO₃ test guidelines for N management in durum and feed barley. In November 1998 one variety of durum (Kronos) and one variety of feed barley (Gustoe) were planted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center. Three N rates (80, 200, and 400 lbs N/acre) were applied in four split applications. Each treatment was replicated five times in a randomized complete block design. Samples were collected from lower stems at the 3-4 leaf 2 node, flag leaf visible, and heading growth stages. Grain yields ranged from 4330 lbs/A to 6794 lbs/A for Kronos and 3220 lbs/A to 4533 lbs/A for Gustoe. Correlation coefficients between stem NO₃-N and sap NO₃-N were 0.76 for Kronos and 0.60 for Gustoe. Sap NO₃-N analysis can be used to determine N status during the season for Kronos. Results for the barley suggest at low concentrations of NO₃ in the lower stem, the Cardy meter may underestimate NO₃ concentrations. This may be due to changes in moisture content in the stem as the season progresses.
Late Season Tissue Tests for Critical Grain Protein Content in Durum, Maricopa, 1999Proper nutrient management is necessary for successful production of durum wheat in the desert. If grain protein content is less than 13 %, significant economic losses to growers can result. Late season nitrogen (N) fertilization can resolve this problem, but tissue test guidelines have not yet been established. The objectives of this study were to: (i) correlate NO₃-N in dried stem tissue with sap NO₃-N, (ii) determine the minimum NO₃-N concentration in lower stem tissue at heading associated with the critical grain protein content, and (iii) determine whether flag leaf head, or whole plant total N at heading can be used as indicators of N status. In November 1998 three varieties of durum wheat, Mohawk, Kronos, and Westbred 881, were planted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center. Five N rates (0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 lbs/A) were applied in four split applications. Each treatment was replicated three times in a randomized complete block design. Samples were collected from the lower stem, flag leaf head, and whole plant from each plot at heading and analyzed for total N. Grain yields ranged from 1937 to 6174 lbs /A for Mohawk, 1706 to 6161 lbs/A for Kronos, and 864 to 5162 lbs/A for Westbred 881. Grain protein content averaged 5.7% to 14.0% for Mohawk, 7.3% to 13.7% for Kronos, and 7.9% to 14.5% for Westbred 881. Correlation coefficients between stem NO₃-N and sap NO₃-N were 0.88 for Mohawk, 0.94 for Kronos, and 0.98 for Westbred 881. The critical NO₃-N concentration in the sap associated with >13% grain protein was 550 -770 ppm at heading for three varieties. Lower dried stem tissue critical NO₃-N concentration for Kronos was 4500 ppm NO₃-N, 4700 ppm NO₃-N for Mohawk, and 3600 ppm NO₃-N for Westbred 881 for a grain protein content of 13 %. Nitrogen concentration in flag leaves, heads, and whole plants were highly correlated with N rate. Therefore, N concentration in these tissues could potentially be used as indicators of late-season N status.
Wheat and Barley Response to Pre-plant Phosphorus at Safford Agriculural Center, 1999The economic effect of applying phosphorus at planting of durum wheat is directly correlated to the phosphorus that is available to the plants from the soil. In 1998 a study was done on a field with a bicarbonate soluble phosphorus level of 4.8 ppm, an a sizeable return on the phosphorous fertilizer investment was seen. In 1999 the test field had a phosphorous level of 13.0 ppm and as the University guidelines indicated, returns on phosphoroud expenditures were small. Negative returns were seen with barley and an increase of $61/ac was seen with 400 pounds of 16-20-0 on wheat.
Influence of Ironite and Phosphorus on Wheat and Barley on the safford Agricultural Center, 1999Ironite and phosphorus were applied to plots seeded to hard red wheat and barley to find their effect on crop yield and nutrient uptake at various stages of crop development. Phosphorous caused significant increases in yield in both wheat and barley, where Ironite caused few changes in yield. Ironite caused significant increases in percent of nutrients stored in barley grain, but generally had little effect on nutrient uptake by plants at boot or milk stage. Phosphorous tended to decrease the percent nutrient uptake by plants.
The Use of Norflurazon (Zorial 5G) in Parker Valley Alfalfa for Purple Nutsedge Suppression in 1998-99An experiment was conducted in 1998-99 to study the efficacy of spring (April 30, 1998 and March 4, 1999) applications of Zorial 5G (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 lb a.i./A), Treflan TRIO (2 lb a.i./A), and Visor 2.SG (0.25 and 0.5 lb a.i./A) on purple nutsedge control in alfalfa. The second half of split Zorial 5G (1+1, 1.5+1.5, and 2 +1 lb a.i./A per year) and Treflan TRIO (2+2 lb a.i./A per year) treatments were made each summer (September 8 and June 22). Purple nutsedge suppression on May 27, 1998 increased linearly as the rate of Zorial 5G applied increased from 1.5 to 3 lb a.i./A. The degree of nutsedge suppression resulting from the initial spring Zorial 5G applications increased with time, reached a maximum on August 4, 1998 (52 to 72 %), and declined later in the fall. Split spring and summer applications of Zorial 5G at annual rates of 2 or 3 lb a.i./A provided good (80-88 %) purple nutsedge suppression in the fall of the first year of this study although the single spring applications of 2 or 3 lb a.i./A provided greater suppression in the spring and early summer. Similar to 1998, there was a slow increase in Zorial 5G efficacy on purple nutsedge during the spring of 1999 with the single spring 1.5 to 3 lb a.i./A Zorial 5G applications resulting in very good control (89-96 %) on June 22, 1999. The annual application rate of 1 lb a.i./A Zorial 5G resulted in only fair purple nutsedge control (at best 75 %) and was significantly worse than the other Zorial treatments. During June, July and August of 1999, there were no significant differences between treatments that received 1.5, 2, 2.5 or 3 lb a.i./A Zorial in a single spring application. In addition, there were no significant differences in purple nutsedge control between treatments that received greater than 1.5 lb a.i./A in a single spring application versus treatments that received split applications of Zorial 5G. Thus, the split 2 lb a.i./A Zorial SG treatment and the two split 3 lb a.i./A treatments were not significantly better than the single spring applications of 2 and 3 lb a.i./A, respectively, during the second year of this study. To date, single applications of Visor 2.5G at 0.25 and 0.5 lb a.i./A and the split Treflan TRIO treatment (2+2 lb a.i./A per year) have provided poor purple nutsedge suppression in 1998 (0-25 %) and 1999 (0-5 %).
Annual Grass Control in Established Mohave Valley Alfalfa Using Thiazopyr (Visor), Trifluralin (Treflan) and Norflurazon (Zorial)Annual grasses such as wild barley and Mexican sprangletop are of economic concern to alfalfa growers in western Arizona. Thus, granular formulations of thiazopyr (Visor 2.5G), trifluralin (Treflan TR-I0), and norflurazon (Zorial 5G) herbicides were evaluated for annual grass control in an established alfalfa field in Mohave County when applied after the first hay cutting in early spring and prior to irrigation. Visor 2.5G was applied in spring 1998 and 1999 at application rates of 0.25, 0.38, and 0.5 lb a.i./acre. Treflan TR-10 was applied at 2.0 lb a.i./acre in early spring or in both early spring and late summer. Visor 2EC was applied at 0.5 lb a.i./acre in spring 1998 but was replaced with Zorial 5G at 2.0 lbs a.i./acre in spring 1999. In 1998, good wild barley control (81%) resulted from a spring application of Visor 2.5G at 0.50 lb a.i./acre. The Visor 2EC formulation at 0.5 lb a.i./acre provided poor weed control (40 %) due to the retention of herbicide on the alfalfa foliage and lack of incorporation into the soil by irrigation. In 1999, fair wild barley control (73 to 79 %) resulted from spring applications of Visor 2.5G at 0.50 lb a.i./acre and Zorial 5G at 2.0 lb a.i./acre. During summer 1998, good Mexican sprangletop control (83-93 %) resulted from Visor 2.5G applied at 0.38 and 0.50 lb a.i./acre and Treflan TR-10 applied in both spring and summer at 2.0 lb a.i./acre. No alfalfa phytotoxicity was observed at the rates applied in this study.
Treehopper and Leafhopper Population Dynamics Following Spring Furadan Alfalfa Stubble TreatmentA study was conducted in Mohave Valley to examine population dynamics, economic thresholds, and management strategies for potato leafhopper and treehopper (three cornered alfalfa hopper) in desert alfalfa. In 1998, three distinct peaks of adult treehoppers occurred in August, September, and October. Adult potato leafhoppers were detected earlier in the study, with four distinct peaks noted in June, July, August, and September. Spring Furadan alfalfa stubble treatment reduced initial adult treehopper infestation following application by 40-60% and the initial potato leafhopper infestation was reduced by 25-50 %.
Effect of Late Winter 1998 Furadan4F Alfalfa Stubble Treatment on Alfalfa Growth and Alfalfa Weevil, Aphid, and Threecornered Alfalfa Hopper PopulationsFuradan 4F was applied to alfalfa regrowth stubble following the first harvest of 1998 to examine treatment effects of alfalfa weevils, aphids, resultant plant growth, and threecornered alfalfa hoppers. Furadan 4F reduced larval numbers throughout the period that larvae were present (25 days after treatment). Little effect was noted for adult weevil numbers in field. Aphid numbers were also reduced by the treatment, and alfalfa stems in Furadan 4F plots were significantly taller at 21 days post treatment. Little, if any, effect from the Furadan 4F treatment was noted for adult threecornered alfalfa hopper populations during the five months following application.
First Year Effects of High Electroconductivity Field Conditions on Production of Six Alfalfa Varieties on the Colorado River Indian Tribes ReservationFive alfalfa varieties were planted and grown under grower conditions on a field section that had high conductivity, while two varieties were planted and grown on a normal field area. CUF 101, the variety grown in both areas, was the highest yielding variety in both area. Reduction in CUF 101 hay yield due to high conductivity was approximately one ton/acre in the first year of production, with a large amount of this noted in the first cutting. Yield differences between the areas was greatest in the early spring and late fall, with differences not noted in the June cutting. Salado was the second highest yielding variety in the high electroconductivity area, with Sal-T-96 and Leivas Best yielding less than 90% of CUF 101. Sal-T-96 also had the greatest number of weeds, due in part to very slow germination and fewer plants per acre compared with other varieties.
First and Partial Second Year Evaluation of Nine Alfalfa Varieties Grown Under Grower Conditions on the Colorado River Indian Tribes ReservationNine alfalfa varieties, most not previously tested under field conditions in Arizona, were planted October 29, 1997, using the same setting on a Great Plains Solid Stand 13 End Wheel drill. Varieties differed in lbs. of seed/acre planted, ranging from 28.0 for CUF 101 to 21.3 for Alto. Seven cuttings were obtained in1998, a year characterized by much cooler than normal temperatures during April through early July. The variety Alto yielded significantly more hay than CUF 101 in the first cutting and had the highest total yield (10.61 tons hay/acre) in 1998, 4.9% greater than the area standard, CUF 101. Varieties with fall dormancy class ratings of 8 (Alto, WL 525 HQ, and Baralfa 85) had the highest yields during 1998, yielding at least 103% of CUF 101. During the first half of 1999, the top yielding varieties were Baralfa 92, Beacon, and Baralfa 85, which all yielded at least 105% of CUF 101. These three varieties in addition to Alto have had accumulative yields of at least 103% of CUF 101 through the first 1.5 years of production (1998 -June 1999).