Forage & Grain Report 1995
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
The Forage and Grain Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.
This report, along with the Cotton Report, was established by Hank Brubaker, Extension Agronomist, after seeing a similar report published by Texas A&M University in the mid-1970’s.
The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to farmers, researchers, and those in the agricultural industry. The research is conducted by University of Arizona and USDA-ARS scientists.
Both historical and current Forage and Grain Reports have been made available in the UA Campus Repository as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.
Contents for Forage & Grain Report 1995
- Alfalfa Variety Performance at Maricopa, 1993-1995
- Alfalfa Variety Trial in Southeastern Arizona, 1994
- Alfalfa Variety Trial, Gila Bend, AZ, 1994-1995
- Determination of Heat Unit Based Crop Coefficient for Alfalfa in Western Arizona
- Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Alfalfa Harvestern on Short Intervals
- Raised Bed Alfalfa Varietal Production in La Paz County, 1993-1994
- Durum Wheat Variety Trials on the Safford Agricultural Center, 1994
- Late Season Water and Nitrogen Effects on Durum Quality, 1995 (Preliminary)
- Seeding Rate and Phosphorous Fertilizer Effects on Durum Grain Protein Concentration
- Small Grains Variety Evaluation at the Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1994
- Small Grains Variety Evaluation at the Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1995 (Preliminary)
- Solum Barley Nitrogen and Phosphorous Fertilizer Trial
- Wheat, Barley, Durum and Advanced Strains Test, Gila Bend, AZ, 1995
- Wheat Variety Trials on the Safford Agricultural Center, 1994
- Corn Hybrid Evaluations in Bonita, 1993
- Double-crop Grain Sorghum Variety Trial in Graham County, 1994
- Grain Sorghum Variety Trial, Gila Bend, AZ, 1994
- National Dry Bean Nursey Trials in Bonita, 1994
- Planting Date and Nitrogen Fertility Test on Lesquerella in 1993-94
Planting Date and Nitrogen Fertility Test on Lesquerella in 1993-94Lesquerella is a potential crop plant that produces seeds containing hydroxy fatty acids similar to those in castor beans. An important step in the commercialization of this plant for Arizona farms is the development of an efficient agronomic production system. Research on planting dates and nitrogen fertility was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center in the 1991-92, 1992-93, and 1993-94 seasons. Results of the Planting date experiments indicate that early fall planting dates are superior to late fall planting dates in terms of seed yield February plantings appear to be too late for central Arizona production. In all years, lesquerella responded to nitrogen (N) fertilizer. In the 1993-94 test, an application of 54 lbs. N/acre gave a higher seed yield than when no N was applied and the same yield as 108 lbs. N/acre. Additional tests are being conducted to determine optimum timing for N fertilizer applications.
National Dry Bean Nursey Trials in Bonita, 1994Results of the 1994 National Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery Trials are reported in this report Thirty two varieties of eight different classes of beans were included in this replicated, small plot trial Bill-Z, the leading pinto bean variety in the area, was the highest yielding variety with a yield over 4200 pounds per acre. Chase, a pinto variety recently developed with strong rust tolerance, yielded over 4000 pounds per acre. Yields, seed per pound, days to bloom, seed fall duration and yield per day of seed fill are reported in this paper.
Grain Sorghum Variety Trial, Gila Bend, AZ, 1994Eight grain sorghum varieties were grown on two farms in the Gila Bend area of Arizona. Three additional varieties were only grown as entries on one farm or the other. No comparison of farm management techniques is attempted. Dekalb 51 was the highest yielding variety (5582 lb/Ac). Short, mid and full season varieties were included in the trial. The Short season varieties offer some advantages for farm management and rotation programs in the area.
Double-crop Grain Sorghum Variety Trial in Graham County, 1994Nine grain sorghum hybrids were compared in a replicated trial planted as a second crop after a small grain crop had already been harvested. Because of reduced season as a double-crop all the cultivars were mid- season or shorter. Cargill 727 was the highest yielding hybrid with a yield over 5100 pounds per acre.
Corn Hybrid Evaluations in Bonita, 19931994 was a poorer than average corn year, the summer was hot and dry and it was difficult to keep enough water under the crop. Pioneer 3162, the best yielding corn hybrid over a several year period, was the leading variety in this trial with a yield just under 12,000 pounds per acre. Two new hybrids from Pioneer and a hybrid from the HyPerformer Seed Company were just lower than Pioneer 3162.
Wheat Variety Trials on the Safford Agricultural Center, 1994Thirteen varieties of wheat were tested at the Safford Agricultural Center in 1994. An experimental variety, BR6053 was the highest yielding variety in the trial with a yield of 4453 pounds per acre.
Wheat, Barley, Durum and Advanced Strains Test, Gila Bend, AZ, 1995Advanced cultivars of small grains were compared with commercially available hybrids in on farm trials. Twenty three, 18 and 29 varieties of wheat, barley and durum were tested in a random complete block layout. All had at least one hybrid that yielded 6000 lb./ac or better. Wheat and barley had one hybrid each (Brooks, 6395 lb./ac; Max, 6356 lb./ac respectively) that had yields in excess of 6000 lb. /ac. Durum, had many superior hybrids that gave excellent yields (hybrids: Aconchi, 6772 lb./ac, V8001(WPB) 6320 lb./ac, V8013 (WPB) 6035 lb./ac, D1268 (FMC) 6023 lb./ac, V8010 (WPB), 5952 lb./ac, D8869, 5881 lb./ac). These yields were obtained with 42 water and 260 lb./ac NH₃ applied.
Late Season Water and Nitrogen Effects on Durum Quality, 1995 (Preliminary)Durum grain quality is affected by many factors, but water and nitrogen are factors that the grower can control. The purpose of this research was to determine 1) the nitrogen application rate required at pollen shed to maintain adequate grain protein levels if irrigation is excessive or deficient during grain fill and 2) if nitrogen applications during grain fill can elevate grain protein. Field research was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center using the durum varieties Duraking, Minos, and Turbo. The field was treated uniformly until pollen shed when nitrogen was applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 lbs /acre. During grain fill, the plots were irrigated based on 30, 50, or 70% moisture depletion. In a separate experiment, nitrogen fertilizer was applied at a rate of 30 lbs N /acre at pollen shed only, pollen shed and the first irrigation after pollen shed, and pollen shed and the first and second irrigation after pollen shed. Irrigation had no effect on grain protein level, although increasing nitrogen rates at pollen shed from 0 to 30 and 30 to 60 lbs N /acre increased protein by 1 percentage point. Nitrogen fertilizer application at the first irrigation after pollen shed increased grain protein content from 10.4 to 11.4% and application at the first and second irrigation after pollen shed increased grain protein content further to 11.9% averaged over varieties. Irrigation management during grain fill may not play as large a role in controlling grain protein content as was originally thought except perhaps on heavy soils, and nitrogen fertilizer application during grain fill may not be too late to increase grain protein content.
Durum Wheat Variety Trials on the Safford Agricultural Center, 1994Twenty two varieties of durum wheat were tested at the Safford Agricultural Center in 1994. One of the experimental lines, PH888-216, had the highest yield at 4152 pounds per acre. This yield was nearly 38% higher than Aldura, which has been the standard variety for many years. Durex was the highest yielding registered variety with a yield nearly 23% over that of Aldura It also achieved a top score for quality.
Raised Bed Alfalfa Varietal Production in La Paz County, 1993-1994Twenty alfalfa varieties grown in small plots on raised beds were evaluated for forage production beginning in 1993 after planting in the fall of 1992. Data from four harvests, generally covering the summer months, were obtained annually. No variety produced more forage than CUF 101 in both 1993 and 1994, but the varieties Tillman and Moapa had higher total production during the two year period The varieties Rio and WL 516 had least amounts of forage production over the two year period, primarily due to low production in 1993. Percentage bloom and plant height were very highly correlated from the July 1993 harvest. Total forage production from 1993 -1994 may be correlated to the bloom and height measurements taken in July 1993, as Tillman, Moapa and CUF 101 had the highest percentage bloom, while Rio and WL 516 had the least bloom. Cibola and CW 2981 had greater than 240,000 crowns per acre following the 1994 season, followed by Tillman and Condor; WL 516, Madera, and AB19182 each had fewer than 180, 000 crowns per acre.
Determination of Heat Unit Based Crop Coefficient for Alfalfa in Western ArizonaAlfalfa is the second largest production crop grown in Arizona with an estimated 150,000 acres of production in 1993. Water requirements for alfalfa have been estimated at 6 acre-feet per year. These two facts together make it imperative that data be gathered to help growers apply their irrigation water efficiently while maintaining their yields. In 1994, a study was initiated in the Parker Valley region of La Paz County, Arizona, to measure daily water use in alfalfa. Two sites were chosen for measurement: one site was a surface irrigated field located at the Quail Mesa Farm; the second site was a surface irrigated field located on the Colorado River Farm. The two sites were chosen to give a contrasting schedule of irrigation and allow for data collection at differing times throughout the year. Nine neutron probes were installed in each field, three 113 in from the head, three in the center, and three 113 in from the tail on one field at each location. Neutron probe readings were taken at 18", 30", 42", and 54" depths below the soil surface to measure soil moisture from 1' -2', 2' -3', 3'-4', 4' -5'. The soil moisture for the top foot was determined by gravimetric sampling. The data gathered by this study was used to compare with data used in AZSCHED, a computerized irrigation scheduling program. With this data, determination of alfalfa water used based on heat units after cutting was made to help growers better use their irrigation water.
Alfalfa Variety Trial, Gila Bend, AZ, 1994-1995Five Alfalfa varieties were planted in the fall of 1994. Each plot consisted of a 3 acre border and each variety was replicated 3 times. The plots have been under the current management regime of the cooperating grower. Samples have been collected and yield and quality parameters recorded. The experiment is planned to continue for at least one more season.
Alfalfa Variety Trial in Southeastern Arizona, 1994Twenty alfalfa varieties with Fall Dormancy ratings of 8 or 9 were tested in a replicated small plot trial on the Safford Agricultural Center to aid alfalfa growers in southeastern Arizona with their planting decisions. This multi -year study gives yield data by cutting in the current year and yearly averages throughout the study. The leading variety after three years of cuttings is Mena (formerly known as 84D92, an experimental from MBS, Inc). Two other varieties with FD ratings of 6 and 10 were included in the study for comparison. Heat units with thresholds of 77°F and 40°F are included for each cutting in the study.