Browsing Forage & Grain Report 1997 by Subjects
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Bermudagrass Control in Alfalfa Using Clethodim (Prism) and Two Formulations of Sethoxydim (Past Plus, Ultima)Two successive applications of Poast Plus (60 oz. product /A, 0.47 lb. sethoxydim /A), Ultima 160 (46 oz. product /A, 0.47 lb. sethoxydim /A), and Prism (34 oz. /A, 0.25 lb clethodim/A) were made on May 31 and June 27, 1996 to control bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) in a commercial alfalfa field. A crop oil concentrate was added to all herbicide solutions. Applications were made two days after the irrigations that followed removal of the cuttings. The bermudagrass density was high with extensive stolon development; the grass formed almost a complete mat in most of the plots. Percent control was visually estimated on June 27 (prior to second application) and on July 25, 28 days following the second application and after cutting of the alfalfa. Percent control was 84.5, 71.2, and 65% for Poast Plus, Ultima, and Prism, respectively, after one application. Percent control was 87.5, 72.5, and 90.5% for Poast Plus, Ultima, and Prism, respectively, after two applications. A single application of Poast Plus resulted in good bermudagrass control but single applications of Ultima or Prism resulted in marginal control. The second application of Prism significantly improved bermudagrass control but the second application of Poast Plus or Ultima did not improve control. The Poast Plus formulation of sethoxydim appeared to be superior to the Ultima 160 formulation of sethoxydim.
Efficacy of Imazameth (Cadre) for Nutsedge Control in Parker Valley AlfalfaSummer weeds including purple nutsedge are of economic concern to alfalfa growers in western Arizona. Application rates of Cadre 2 ASU, a new sulfonylurea herbicide chemistry currently registered for experimental use in peanuts, for purple nutsedge control in a roadway bordering established alfalfa were examined in a two year duration, replicated field study. Fair to good (35- 65%) purple nutsedge control was obtained when Cadre was applied at the 3 oz/acre rate to a severe initial nutsedge infestation (80- 100%). Control was most effective when Cadre was applied in late summer compared to early spring, and repeat split applications were necessary under the high weed pressure observed in this study.
Efficacy of Norflurazon for Nutsedge Control in Parker Valley AlfalfaSummer weeds such as nutsedge are of economic concern to alfalfa growers in western Arizona. A two year replicated evaluation of the effectiveness of granular norflurazon herbicide for purple nutsedge control was conducted on an established alfalfa field in La Paz County. Zorial Rapid 80 WP and Evital 5G herbicides were tested for their effectiveness at controlling purple nutsedge when applied following hay harvest but prior to irrigation in early spring and late summer. Zorial 80 WP was applied at 2.0 lb a. i. /acre. Evital 5G was applied in spring 1996 at application rates of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 lb a. i. /acre. Split applications were made the following summer to four plots for a total of 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 lb a. i. /acre/year. In 1996, purple nutsedge control resulting from a single application of Evital 5G at 2.0 lb a. i. /acre was 41, 82, and 35% at 35, 63, and 99 DAT, respectively. However, Zorial 80 WP applied at 2.0 lb a. i. /acre provided poor purple nutsedge control due to poor soil incorporation since the liquid was unable to penetrate the dense nutsedge foliage. The treatments were reapplied in spring and summer of 1997.
Feed Quality of Common Summer Grass and Broadleaf Weeds in Alfalfa HayLate summer grassy weed control is a questionable practice since it reduces alfalfa hay tonnage during summer slump, and the reduction in hay feed quality caused by these weeds in horse hay is questionable. A field experiment was conducted at the September alfalfa cutting to examine the feed quality of grassy and broadleaf weeds found in western Arizona hay fields at this time which corresponds with annual summer slump. These weeds included bermudagrass, junglerice (watergrass), Mexican sprangletop, Johnsongrass, purple nutsedge, and common purslane. Since hay cut during this period is used primarily for dry dairy cow and horse hay this study examined the suitability of alfalfa hay infested with these summer weeds as a feed for these animals. Based on this study, horse owners could benefit financially if they waited until late summer when hay prices slump, and purchase off-grade alfalfa hay containing less than one half grassy summer weeds for an economical, nutritious feed source.