A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF SIXTH, EIGHTH, AND TENTH GRADE READERS' PROCESSING OF NATURALLY OCCURRING TEXT METAPHORS.
AuthorALTWERGER, BESS ILENE.
Committee ChairGoodman, Kenneth
Goodman, Yetta M.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThis study is a descriptive, psycholinguistic analysis of three sixth-grade high, three eighth-grade average, and three tenth-grade low readers' processing of naturally occurring text metaphors. Subjects read a 3,667-word self-contained story. The oral reading miscues generated in reading the metaphors were analyzed according to the Goodman Taxonomy of Oral Reading Miscues. The taxonomy analyzes miscues on morphemic, syntactic, and semantic levels. Two additional categories were added to the taxonomy to determine the miscues' effect on the meaning and metaphoricality of the metaphors. Metaphors in the text were identified according to theoretically based criteria, and categorized on the basis of the Metaphor Feature Matrix. The primary purposes of the study were to determine how strategies and cuing systems are utilized in reading metaphoric expressions, the relationship between the processing of metaphoric expressions and comprehending of the text, and variations in processing the different kinds of metaphors found in the text. A secondary purpose was to compare the sixth, eighth, and tenth grade readers' processing of the metaphors. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, means, correlation coefficients, and cross-tabulations were utilized in analyzing the data. Among the major findings of the study were the following: (1) Metaphorical expressions were processed less successfully than the text as a whole. Metaphor processing involved less successful utilization of semantic and syntactic information, and of correction strategies. (2) Success in processing the text as a whole was positively related to success in processing the metaphoric expressions. (3) Retelling Scores were found to be positively related to no change in the meaning of the metaphors, and retention of metaphoricality with structural changes. (4) Metaphor processing is affected differently by the various kinds of metaphors found in the text. (5) The eighth-grade average readers were more successful processors of metaphors than the younger, more proficient sixth graders and the older, less proficient tenth graders. Findings of the study indicate a "psychologically real" difference between metaphorical and non-metaphorical language, as well as among various kinds of metaphors. Less successful processing of metaphors indicates that violations inherent in metaphorical language affect the predictive aspect of the reading process.
Degree ProgramElementary Education