IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CEREAL GRAIN TISSUES RESISTANT TO RUMEN MICROBIAL DIGESTION USING IN SITU, IN VITRO AND SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUES.
AuthorDELFINO, FRANCIS JOSEPH.
AdvisorSwingle, R. Spencer
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractA series of studies was conducted using SEM in conjunction with chemical analysis, in situ and in vitro digestion techniques, to characterize the anatomical components from barley, corn, sorghum and wheat grains which constitute "fiber" and investigate their susceptibility to rumen microbial digestion. Fractured grains were used to identify anatomical features and cell types prior to and after extraction or digestion. Certain anatomical features, including pericarp tissue, aleurone cells, endosperm cell walls, corneous and floury endosperm tissue and lemma and palea from barley, were easily identifiable in fractured and ground grains, and in neutral detergent extracted or digested residues. In situ and in vitro incubation conditions were varied to assess the effect of concentrate and/or reduction of pH on the disappearance of identifiable grain fractions. In situ incubations were conducted using steers adapted to 0-, 30- and 90% concentrate diets. In vitro inoculum buffered at pH 7 or 6 was provided by a steer fed 0- or 90% concentrate. Tissues resistant to rumen microbial digestion during extended (144-h) in situ incubations and shorter term (12- to 48-h) in vitro incubations were primarily those identified in NDF, and included pericarp, lemma and palea, and small amounts of corneous endosperm. Remaining tissues identified included barley lemma, palea and pericarp; corn pericarp, tip cap and small amounts of corneous endosperm; sorghum pericarp and corneous endosperm with matrix and protein bodies; and wheat pericarp. In vitro disappearance of isolated NDF after 48-h ranged from 43% for barley to 89% for corn. Labile structures included embryonic tissue and portions of endosperm cell walls, protein matrix and residual starch. Resistant tissues included pericarp, aleurone cell walls, tip cap and portions of the corneous endosperm. Relative rankings of NDF digestibility under all conditions studied were similar (corn > sorghum > wheat > barley) whether determined using isolated NDF or calculated from TIVDMD residues. Neither concentrate level fed to the host animal nor pH of the in vitro incubation flask affected rankings among grains, although increasing concentrate level and/or reducing pH appeared to reduce in vitro NDF disappearance. Evaluation of electron micrographs of fractured grains suggested that similar anatomical structures in the various grains differed in their resistance to microbial digestion. For example, pericarp from barley and wheat appeared to be more resistant than that from corn or sorghum. Endosperm of barley was less resistant than that of sorghum.
Degree ProgramNutritional Sciences