THE REPELLENT EFFECT OF PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES ON HONEY BEES (APIS MELLIFERA L, PERMETHRIN, CYPERMETHRIN, FENVALERATE).
AuthorRIETH, JOSEPH PAUL.
AdvisorLevin, M. D.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractA model for the repellent effect of pyrethroid insecticides on insects was developed. Experiments were conducted using a small colony of honey bees in a flight cage. Conditioning to scented feeders allowed the separation of foraging bees from a single colony into treatment and control groups. Permethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and flucythrinate were shown to be contact repellents to honey bees; exposure was primarily to the tarsi and ventral abdomen. The threshold dose of permethrin required to induce repellency was ca. 3.8 ng/bee. Repellency was fully reversible within 24 hours. No permanent effects on either memory or foraging efficiency were observed following acute exposure.