AN ANALYSIS OF THE RESIDENTIAL DEMAND FOR ACCESS TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK (ECONOMETRICS).
AuthorKRIDEL, DONALD JACK.
KeywordsTelephone -- Supply and demand -- United States.
Telephone -- Rates -- United States.
Long distance telephone service -- Access charges.
Telephone -- United States -- Econometric models.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractUniversal service is the focal point of the economic dilemma faced by the telecommunications industry. The advent of competition spurred by several regulatory rulings is forcing rates towards economic costs. It is feared that this movement or the erosion of the toll-to-local subsidy with concomitant increases in local prices severely threatens the concept of universal service. To adequately address these fears, accurate elasticity of demand estimates for telephone access are required. This thesis develops estimates of these demand elasticities for access. These estimates are derived consistently from an underlying theory of demand for access. Furthermore, the simultaneous access and class-of-service choice problems are addressed similarly. This consistent development facilitates model usage and interpretation. For example, the model provides the best available estimate for the size of the network externality. Taking into account the underlying demand theory and acknowledging the problems associated with the aggregated nature of the data set (census tract data from 1980 Census), a modified probit technique is developed to estimate the demand model. The estimation methodology is implemented using an iterative least square procedure. To analyze the reasonableness of the algorithm and procedure, a Monte Carlo study is performed. In addition, a jackknife technique is employed to estimate variances of coefficients when the standard measures are unavailable. The model results are used to analyze the effect of current policy decisions. For example, for a proposed doubling of access prices the demand for access elasticity is found to be quite small, about -.04. A welfare analysis is performed to discuss the costs and benefits associated with moving to cost-based rates. This analysis also provides the basis for rate recommendations to facilitate the transition to competition while attempting to preserve the concept of universal service.
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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Feasibility and Acceptability of Timing a Quit Attempt to the Menstrual Phase in a Telephone-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention: Protocol of a Pilot Randomized Controlled TrialNair, Uma S; Miller, Elizabeth S; Bell, Melanie L; Allen, Sharon; Collins, Bradley N; Allen, Alicia M; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Family & Community MedBackground: Compared to men, women smoke for different reasons, have unique barriers to cessation, and are less likely to utilize quitline services. While current clinical recommendations have called for sex/gender-specific smoking cessation protocols, quitline protocols have not been expanded to address the unique needs of women. Menstrual cycles (and/or ovarian hormones) influence quit outcomes in women. This paper presents the rationale, study design, and protocol for a preliminary randomized control trial designed to test the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing menstrual cycle timing to improve quit outcomes in women of reproductive age. Methods/Design: Participants include treatment seeking women (n=116), between the ages of 18-40 with regular menstrual cycles. Eligible participants are randomized to either the Follicular Phase (FP) or Standard Care (SC) control group. Counseling included six weekly telephone sessions with four week of nicotine replacement therapy. The timing and frequency of sessions is identical to both conditions, with the exception of the quit day (week 3 of counseling). Quit day for FP participants is scheduled within 6-8 days post onset of menses; the SC group quit day is set for Week 3 of counseling regardless of their menstrual cycle phase. Discussion: If feasible and acceptable, our behavioral counseling intervention that times the quit day to the follicular phase of the menstrual may increase quit outcomes among women. Moreover, our telephone based approach that is similar to quitline protocols also allows for wide dissemination across quitlines nationally
A Telephone-Based Guided Imagery Tobacco Cessation Intervention: Results of a Randomized Feasibility TrialGordon, Judith S.; Bell, Melanie L; Armin, Julie; Giacobbi, Peter, Jr.; Nair, Uma S; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth; Univ Arizona, Coll Nursing; Univ Arizona, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Family & Community MedBackground: Evidence supports the use of guided imagery for smoking cessation; however, scalable delivery methods are needed to make it a viable approach. Telephone-based tobacco quitlines are a standard of care, but reach is limited. Adding guided imagery to quitline services might increase reach by offering an alternative approach. Purpose: We developed and tested the feasibility and potential impact of a guided imagery-based tobacco cessation intervention delivered using a quitline model. Methods: Participants for this randomized feasibility trial were recruited statewide through a quitline or community-based methods. Participants were randomized to guided imagery Intervention Condition (IC) or active behavioral Control Condition (CC). After withdrawals, there were 105 participants (IC=56; CC=49). The IC consisted of 6 sessions in which participants created guided imagery audio files. The CC used a standard 6-session behavioral protocol. Feasibility measures included recruitment rate, retention, and adherence to treatment. We also assessed 6-month quit rates and consumer satisfaction. Results: Both the IC and CC protocols were feasible to deliver. We finalized protocols and materials for participants, coaches and study staff, and delivered the protocols with fidelity. We developed successful recruitment methods, and experienced high retention (6 months=81.9%) and adherence (all sessions=66.7%). Long-term quit rates (IC=27.9%; CC=38.1%) compared favorably to those of quitlines, and program satisfaction was high, suggesting that the protocols are acceptable to smokers and may contribute to smoking abstinence. Conclusions: The guided imagery intervention is feasible and promising, suggesting that a fully-powered RCT to test the efficacy of the intervention is warranted.
The Process of Care Delivery in Telephone Nursing Practice: A Grounded Theory ApproachVerran, Joyce A.; Greenberg, Mary E; Verran, Joyce A.; Lamb, Gerri S.; McEwan, Marylyn Morris; Effken, Judith A. (The University of Arizona., 2005)Telephone nursing (TpN) care is delivered in a wide range of settings and provides a variety of services to individuals and populations across the age span. Although a viable specialty practice, there is little evidence regarding how the process of care delivery contributes to successful outcomes. To study the effects of TpN care, and to develop appropriate clinical and education interventions, a solid understanding of the process is needed. This study utilized grounded theory method to identify and describe the core concepts of the TpN process, the relationships among these concepts, and the factors influencing the process. Study findings were validated through peer and participant review. Based on interviews with ten telephone nurses from four sites, the following components were identified and organized into a conceptual model of the TpN process. The process generally proceeds through three phases, gathering information to cognitive processing to output. Throughout these phases, the nurse engages in a goal oriented parallel process focusing on both explicit (e.g., verbal, physical) and implicit (non-verbal, contextual) dimensions. Inherent to this parallel process is a two-way interpreting process in which information from the caller is translated into health care language for processing and then health care information is translated back into the language of the caller to identify and meet their needs. Factors influencing the process include prioritization and the level of complexity of the call, resources of the nurse and the organization, and the nurse's desire for validation of the service and the appropriateness of the output. The model highlights the need for research further delineating how implicit information is gathered and processed and how it influences output. Research is also needed on the value of implicit output and on the effects of feedback regarding output on nurse performance and satisfaction. The model suggests that more nursing education should be focused on the sub-processes within the three phases, the interpreting process, and implicit aspects of the process. Finally, the model suggests that formal feedback regarding the quality of call output should be provided and the value of implicit nursing output should be recognized.