THE ADAPTATION OF NEW WORLD MONKEYS TO NEW ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATIONS: FOOD ACQUISITION AND FOOD PROCESSING BEHAVIORS.
AuthorLANDAU, VIRGINIA ILENE.
KeywordsSquirrel monkeys -- Feeding and feeds.
Squirrel monkeys -- Behavior.
Capuchin monkeys -- Feeding and feeds.
Capuchin monkeys -- Behavior.
Committee ChairKing, J. E.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractFood cleaning behavior has been observed among laboratory squirrel monkeys. A Wilcoxon signed-ranks test showed that significantly more cleaning behavior occurred when hard monkey chow pellets and soft fruit were coated with edible debris. Monkeys removed fewer pieces of fruit from a food crock containing fruit coated with edible debris in a timed test. A principal component analysis of the food cleaning behaviors showed two underlying correlated factors. The first factor was the use of the body to clean food. The second factor was the use of the environment to clean food. Two groups of squirrel monkeys, one without previous learners and one with previous learners, were subjects in a fishing study. The presence of previous learners in the social group was not significant for monkeys fishing in water filled crocks. But there was a significant difference in the number of fishing attempts made by the No Previous Learners Group when fishing in wading pools. The Previous Learners group did not make significantly more fishing attempts fishing in wading pools than in crocks. A significant difference was observed in fishing attempts during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the wading pool experiment for both groups. All monkeys in the group fishing experiments ate fish when it could be obtained. Monkeys who did not learn to fish successfully learned alternative behaviors to obtain fish. The Previous Learners group in the wading pool experiment were subjects in a more difficult fishing test. Significantly fewer fishing attempts were made but the number of monkeys that caught fish was larger. Caged squirrel monkeys scored a lower percentage of fishing attempts than squirrel monkeys living in a social group. While Cebus monkeys caught fish, unlike squirrel monkeys, they did not attempt to eat them.
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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Monkeys, movements, and memories: Behavioral sequences and short-term memory in aged monkeys.King, James E.; Scott, Anne Grete.; Wetzel, Mary; Figueredo, A.J. (The University of Arizona., 1990)Six young and six old squirrel monkeys were tested on two different short-term memory tasks. One was a two-choice problem, the other a nine-choice problem. A baseline, or one-choice, problem was also included. A video camera recorded all behaviors displayed by the monkeys during testing. Behaviors coded were turning, aggression, displacement, exploratory, huddling, orienting, locomotion, screen activities, and visual scanning. Also recorded was correct or incorrect choice and whether the animal showed evidence of seeing the cue stimulus. Old animals committed more errors during both phases of the experiment. Older animals were also more likely to engage in active behaviors, such as turning, whereas young animals were more likely to manifest less active behaviors, such as visual scanning and orienting. Young animals were also more likely to see the stimulus. A path analytic procedure was used to determine direct effects of age on performance and indirect effects mediated through behaviors manifested prior to the choice. For the two-choice problem, approximately half of the age effects on performance were attributable to indirect effects. For the nine-choice problem almost three quarters of the age effects on performance were attributable to indirect effects. These findings indicate that age differences in short-term memory performance are not direct effects of age alone. The age effect also occurs because age affects the behaviors of the monkeys and that these behaviors have a large effect on subsequent memory performance.
BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO HALDOL AND SINEMET IN SQUIRREL MONKEYS.KIRKISH, PATRICIA MARIE. (The University of Arizona., 1983)Two dopaminergic altering drugs, haloperidol and carbidopa + levodopa, and juice only conditions, were given to six squirrel monkeys in factorial combination with two novel environments and an alone condition. The point of this research was to assess differences in subjects' adaptation to various stimulus conditions under the differential influence of the two drug conditions. Control conditions for both drug and environmental variables were included in the design, which provided a baseline for comparison with active variables. Although no significant interactions between drugs and environments were found, some interesting reactions to the non-drug-laced vehicle were noted. The drugs, haloperidol and carbidopa-levodopa, have been used in many past comparative studies. However, the thrust of most research has been focused upon changes in movement capability, or deterioration of movement ability. Extrapyramidal side-effects, such as bizarre facial and tongue movement and postural changes, have generally been included in these investigations. Little attention has been placed upon adaptive change to novel environments, which may occur with these drugs. This research represents an initial investigation of such changes, an important consideration in view of their widespread use as therapeutic agents with humans.