THE CHARACTERIZATION OF VIRUS INTERACTION WITH SELECTED SURFACE CONTACT DISINFECTANTS.
AuthorTHURMAN, ROBERT BRUCE.
AdvisorGerba, Charles P.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThe search for alternative water disinfectants to those commonly used, such as chlorine, probably began when the disadvantages of those disinfectants became known. Soluble disinfectants have short half-lives and need to be replenished periodically which requires monitoring the determination of appropriate concentrations for waters being treated. This disadvantage may be balanced by the ability to alter dose concentrations of soluble disinfectants to meet changes in demands. Maintenance of a residual disinfectant concentration which can act throughout a water distribution system is another advantage of soluble disinfectants. Disadvantages due to reaction of organic materials include the loss of disinfecting capability, health hazards related to the disinfectant and the potential loss of aesthetic water qualities such as taste, smell and color. The purpose of this study was to investigate different surface contact disinfectants which, while having an inflexible dose concentration capability and releasing no residual disinfectant concentration, do not require monitoring and do not significantly leach into the waters they contact. Powdered aluminum when mixed with a loamy sand reduces virus concentration 3-4 orders of magnitude better than controls while not significantly altering the pH or aluminum concentration of waters that pass through the soil columns. Labeled poliovirus 1 was found to adsorb onto the aluminum surface in batch experiments and undergo degradation or dissociation of the capsid proteins with release of viral fragments and clumps within 76 hours. Freon dispersion of the viral clumps showed the clumps to be non-infective. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of poliovirus 1 incubated with aluminum for 76 hours suggested degradation or dissociation of viral capsid proteins 1, 2 and 3. Magnesium peroxide and magnesium oxide, while effectively inactivating viruses, significantly increase the pH of water which they contact. Polyhalex resin and I5 resin reduce virus concentration, but release functional groups into the surrrounding water. Contact disinfectants such as aluminum, may find point-of-use application for drinking water, use in septic tank leachfields or sewage treatment infiltration basins to reduce the threat of spreading potential disease-causing organisms.
Degree ProgramMicrobiology and Immunology