AdvisorPrice, Ralph L.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractThe biochemical activity of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in a 1:1 ratio (Chr. Hansen's Lab - CH-III) were studied at 43 C in goat and cow milk during the manufacture and storage of yogurt. Determination of pH, titratable acidity, lactose content, proteolytic activity, and enumeration of the starters were performed on samples taken at hourly intervals until the yogurt became set, and after 8, 16, 24 hours, 11 and 22 days of storage at 4 C. In goat milk the number of starter culture organisms showed higher values than those in cow milk. Fermentation was considered to be finished when the pH decreased to 4.7 and 0.7% of lactic acid was produced. Those values were reached after 3 and 4 hours for goat and cow milk respectively. The values for pH in both milks were stable at 4.7 during storage at 4 C. Goat milk and goat milk yogurt had higher levels of free amino acids (12.65 mg/dl and 24.39 mg/dl respectively) than cow milk (10.31 mg/dl) or cow milk yogurt (20.20 mg/dl). During storage at 4 C free amino acids in goat milk decreased by 20%, in cow milk they increased by 70% from values found in fresh yogurt. The proteinase activity in goat milk during elaboration of yogurt was from 2 to 3 hours after incubation, was then stable until 24 hours of storage at 4 C and then decreased. No change in the proteinase activity in cow milk yogurt was seen until 4 hours of incubation for experiments 1 and 2 and 3 hours in experiment 3. During the storage at 4 C, proteinase activity in cow milk yogurt was stable. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of caseins failed to reveal marked changes during the manufacture of yogurt and storage after 22 days at 4 C. However, a scanning gel densitometer showed that the area corresponding to alpha-casein decreased by 22% and for beta-casein 13.32% during the elaboration of goat milk yogurt. After 22 days of storage at 4 C, the alpha-casein fraction decreased an additional 14%, but no change was observed in beta-casein. The area corresponding to alpha- and beta-caseins decreased by 7.16 and 14.48% respectively during yogurt manufacture and an additional 6.74 and 8% during storage of cow milk yogurt. The overall results found in this study suggest that the metabolic activity of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus is greater in goat milk than in cow milk during elaboration and storage of yogurt.
Degree ProgramNutritional Sciences