AuthorMorris, Kenneth Robert.
KeywordsAromatic compounds -- Solubility.
Benzene -- Solubility.
Naphthalene -- Solubility.
Anthracene -- Solubility.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThe solubilities of benzene, naphthalene and anthracene were measured in five binary solvent systems. These systems consised of water and one of the following water miscible organic solvents: acetone, acetonitrile, methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol. The measurements were made at intervals of 0.1 volume fractions of the organic cosolvent. Solubility data were also collected for the above solutes in mixed cosolvents. solvent systems containing three In addition, the solubilities of and six five other aromatic solutes were measured in the binary solvent systems of methanol/water and acetone/water. The data was used to test the log-linear solubility model of Yalkowsky (1981). The model predicts a linear relationship between the solubility of a solute in a binary solvent system (S(m)) and the volume fraction of cosolvent present (f(c)) log S(m) = σf(c) + log S(w) Where S(w) is the solubility of the solute in water and σ is the proportionality constant and slope of the curve. The model is easily extended to multiple mixed solvents by combining the σ values from the binary solvent systems. log (S(m)/S(w)) = Σ₁ (σ₁£₁) A method was developed to estimate σ in a given binary solvent system from the octanol-water partition coefficient of the solute. Combining this method with the generalized solubility equation of Yalkowsky to estimate S(w), allows a priori estimates of solubility in mixed solvents. Maximum deviations in the binary solvent systems studied were related to maxima in excess density. In the alcoholic binary solvent systems the minima were related to minima in the heats of mixing of the two cosolvents. The herbicide atrazine deviated dramatically from the model. The system was examined for possible changes in the crystal structure of atrazine. It was found that some crystal modification occured in the presence of mixed solvents. The rate of the change appears to be dependant on the concentration of the cosolvent. A change or modification in the crystal violates one of the basic assumptions of the log-linear model. The assumption is that the crystal contributes equally to the solubility behavior irrespective of the solvent system. It was determined that atrazine undergoes a polymorphic transition in the systems studied. It is postulated that this polymorphism is responsible for the anomolous solubility behavior observed for atrazine.
Degree ProgramPharmaceutical Sciences
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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Serum levels of two immunological markers, the soluble low affinity receptor for IgE (sFCepsilonRII, sCD23) and soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R), and their correlation with age, gender and the onset of childhood atopyHalonen, Marilyn J.; Miller, Alice Lorraine, 1953- (The University of Arizona., 1993)Identifying predictive indicators of atopy could allow for the early intervention and/or prevention of atopic associated diseases within individuals identified to be at high risk. Two immunological factors advanced as candidates for such a role are sCD23 and sCD25. Soluble CD23 and CD25 expression were therefore examined in the cord blood of over 300 healthy newborns enrolled in the Tucson Children's Respiratory study. Additionally these factors were measured in sera drawn from these patients between the ages of 4-9. Determinations were made using commercially available sCD23 and sCD25 ELISA assays. Results indicate these markers are measurable in cord samples, they are not influenced by gender, and soluble CD23 and CD25 levels decrease with age. Increasing levels of sCD23 and sCD25 did not correlate with increasing expression of IgE. Experimental data derived in this study indicate these factors will not serve as independent, predictive indicators of future asthma, hayfever or eczema.
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