Synthesis and application of alkyl dihydrochlorosilanes: A new approach to the surface modification of porous silica.
AuthorGolding, Randy Dale.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractThree alkyldihydrochlorosilanes were synthesized; ethyldihydrochlorosilane, octyldihydrochlorosilane and octadecyldihydrosilane. Ethyldihydrochlorosilane was produced by the reaction of ethylsilane with mercuric chloride and the other two chlorosilanes were produced by the reaction of the alkyl Grignard reagent with dichlorosilane. Each alkyldihydrochlorosilane was reacted with porous silica in an attempt to discover the extent of reaction or the highest surface concentration of bonded groups attainable. The reaction between these alkydihydrochlorosilanes and porous silica was compared to the reaction between silica and the analogous alkyldimethylchlorosilane. The rate of reaction of both type of chlorosilane was found to be essentially the same. The maximum surface concentration of bonded surface groups attainable by alkyldihydrochlorosilanes was found to be approximately 1.3 #moles/m² greater than that attainable by alkyldimethylchlorosilanes. This increased surface coverage seemed to depend very little on the chain length of the alkyl group and was attributed to the decrease in steric hindrance of the bonding silicon atom of the silane. Surface bound silyl hydrides could be oxidized selectively and sequentially to form silane silanols. Surface silanes also appeared to reduce chloroplatinic acid, but were not observed to add efficiently to olefins. The chromatographic properties of silica modified with alkyldihydrochlorosilanes were compared to those of equivalent silicas modified with alkyldimethylchlorosilanes and alkyltrichlorosilanes before and after the surface silanes were oxidized. Both normal and reversed-phase liquid chromatographic studies were conducted. In general, it was found that alkyldihydrochlorosilanes yielded the most polar modified silicas. This greater surface polarity was attributed to an increase in the activity of water in the near surface region of the bonded phase.