Synthesis and hydrogen-1 NMR conformational analysis of potent and mu opioid receptor selective cyclic peptides: Topographical design utilizing a conformationally stable template.
KeywordsCyclic peptides -- Synthesis.
Proton magnetic resonance.
Opioids -- Receptors.
Structure-activity relationships (Biochemistry)
AdvisorHruby, Victor J.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractThere is a dogma in molecular biology that biological functions of peptides are determined by their structure ("function" code), coded in their primary structure ("structure" code). This work describes a new approach that attempts to elucidate these relationships by peptide topology design based on intriguing conformational properties of pipecolic acid based amino acids--like 1,2,3,4 tetrahydroisoquinoline (Tic). Opioid peptides, owing to the heterogeneity of opioid receptors, display a wide variety of physiological actions. The mu opioid receptor selective octapeptide I (D-Tic-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH₂) is a model compound for topographical modifications induced by sequential substitutions by Tic residue. Thus, the closely related peptides I and II (Gly-D-Tic-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH₂, obtained by coupling Gly residue to I) have contrasting affinities for the mu opioid receptor (IC₅₀ = 1.2 and 278 nM, respectively). Conformational analysis of I and II by means of 1D and 2D ¹H NMR spectroscopy allowed to determine dramatic differences in the side chain orientation of D-Tic in both peptides and to propose features of the bioactive conformation. The extended conformation of I (due to g(-) side chain conformation of D-Tic) is well recognized by the mu receptor in contrast to the folded conformation of II (due to a g(+) side chain conformation of D-Tic¹, that places the aromatic ring on the opposite side of the molecule), which is not. Peptide III (D-Phe-Cys-Tic-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH₂), featuring replacement of Tyr³ by Tic³, binds very weakly to the mu opioid receptor, due to rotation of the Tic aromatic side chain to the opposite side of the molecule (Tic side chain is in a g(+) conformation again). As these substitutions conserve the conformation of the backbone, constrained cyclic amino acids (picolic acid derivatives) can modify the topography of the peptide in a predictable manner, and (in conjunction with biological data) disclose structural elements of bioactive conformations. The mechanisms of pipecolic acid side chain rotamer selection, will be discussed in the context of design principles.