Canonical equations of motion and estimation of parameters in the analysis of impact problems.
AdvisorNikravesh, Parviz E.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractThe transient dynamic analysis of constrained mechanical systems may require the solution of a mixed set of algebraic and differential equations of motion. The usual formulation of these equations is expressed in terms of the accelerations of the system components. A canonical form of the equations of motion in terms of the system velocities and the time derivative of the system momenta may be used instead. This is a natural form of the equations in which all the state variables are explicitly expressed, and have the same physical importance. The numerical solution obtained from the canonical equations shows more accuracy and stability, specifically for systems with large and fluctuating forces. For the mechanical systems that undergo an impact, the usual numerical solution of the equations of motion is not valid. Two different methods of analysis of impact problems are presented. In one method, the variations of the impulsive force during the contact period are directly added to the vector of forces in the canonical equations of motion. In the second method, based on the assumption of instantaneous nature of impact, a set of momentum balance-impulse equations is derived by explicitly integrating the canonical equations. These equations are solved at the time of impact for the jump in the system momenta right after impact. Necessary parameters are evaluated for the performance of the two methods of analysis. These parameters include the maximum relative indentation, the maximum contact force, and the coefficient of restitution. The parameters are determined for the collision between two bodies in a system with any general geometric or material properties. The influence of friction modeling in the magnitude and the direction of the total force at the contact surfaces is discussed. The dynamics of a vehicle collision is studied in order to illustrate the efficiency of obtaining a solution to the canonical equations, the simplicity of solving the momentum balance-impulse equations.
Degree ProgramAerospace and Mechanical Engineering