The reactions of depressives to depressives: The interpersonal consequences of depression.
AuthorRosenblatt, Abram B.
Interpersonal relations -- Psychological aspects.
Friendship -- Psychological aspects.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractTwo studies were conducted to examine the interpersonal world of the depressive. It was hypothesized that depressed subjects would not like nondepressed targets as much as would nondepressed subjects. In addition, it was hypothesized that depressed subjects would feel worse after speaking with nondepressed targets. Finally it was hypothesized that perceived similarity would mediate these effects by covarying with mood and liking measures. To assess these hypotheses, study one had depressed and nondepressed college students speak with one another in either depressed-depressed, nondepressed-depressed, or nondepressed-nondepressed pairs. Measures of liking for the person with whom they conversed, of perceived similarity toward the person with whom they conversed, and of the subject's mood were then taken. Although the results were mixed, it was found that depressed subjects felt worse after speaking to depressed targets, though there were no differences in liking or perceived similarity between the groups. Perceived similarity did covary with most of the liking measures for the depressed and nondepressed subjects. Study two examined whether depressives had best friends who were themselves more depressed than best friends who were nondepressives. It was hypothesized that the best friends of depressives would be more depressed. Furthermore, it was expected that the best friends would also be perceived as more depressed by the subjects. These hypotheses were confirmed when depressives brought their best friends in for a study and the level of depression for these best friends was measured. In addition, the depressed subjects reported feeling worse after speaking with their friends when compared to how the nondepressed subjects reported feeling after speaking with their best friends.
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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Depression across cultures: The construction of depressive disturbances in greater Sao Paulo, BrazilPereira de Miranda, Damiana (The University of Arizona., 1999)Described since the beginning of medicine and considered to be the oldest mental illness, depression is understood as a mood, symptom, syndrome and mental disease. It affects a large number of individuals, mainly women during their productive period, in different cultural environments. World Health officials suggest that over 200 million individuals worldwide are affected by one of the forms of depression. Epidemiological and biological studies have revealed the close relationship between depression and several factors, including sex, age, social environment, personality, and genetics. They utilize a single causal model of illness, and neglect the role played by culture in the expression and experience of depressive disorders. As a mood variation, depression is a panhuman phenomenon, but not all cultures recognize depressive disorders as a categorized ailment. Indeed, some cultures (Buddhist) give positive values for depressive complaints and even encourage them; other cultures (Western), however, tolerate depressive symptoms only as acute phenomena. Cross-cultural researchers have discussed the importance of culture for modeling the experience and effects of depression. It is culture which gives positive or negative meaning to depressive phenomena. In this way, anthropologists have questioned the universality of depressive disorders and suggested that depression is a cultural, Western construction. In the second half of the twentieth century, research studies have described the high prevalence rates of depression across cultures. Probably because of emotional and socioeconomic pressures, modern industrialized life exposes individuals to a high risk of depression. Indeed, Western researchers have demonstrated that in each new generation, a greater number of individuals have experienced depression. Contrary to the belief of Brazilian health professionals, lower class African Brazilians are at an increased risk for depressive disorders. The research study for this dissertation was realized in public health services in greater Sao Paulo, Brazil. I interviewed 565 patients and included 105 in the study. All patients presented clinical depression and the majority of them were considered to be chronically impaired. Psychosocial factors such as: gender, age, socioeconomic background, race, migration, marital status, educational background and religious preference were positively associated with the occurrence of depression.
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