The reactions of depressives to depressives: The interpersonal consequences of depression.
AuthorRosenblatt, Abram B.
Interpersonal relations -- Psychological aspects.
Friendship -- Psychological aspects.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractTwo studies were conducted to examine the interpersonal world of the depressive. It was hypothesized that depressed subjects would not like nondepressed targets as much as would nondepressed subjects. In addition, it was hypothesized that depressed subjects would feel worse after speaking with nondepressed targets. Finally it was hypothesized that perceived similarity would mediate these effects by covarying with mood and liking measures. To assess these hypotheses, study one had depressed and nondepressed college students speak with one another in either depressed-depressed, nondepressed-depressed, or nondepressed-nondepressed pairs. Measures of liking for the person with whom they conversed, of perceived similarity toward the person with whom they conversed, and of the subject's mood were then taken. Although the results were mixed, it was found that depressed subjects felt worse after speaking to depressed targets, though there were no differences in liking or perceived similarity between the groups. Perceived similarity did covary with most of the liking measures for the depressed and nondepressed subjects. Study two examined whether depressives had best friends who were themselves more depressed than best friends who were nondepressives. It was hypothesized that the best friends of depressives would be more depressed. Furthermore, it was expected that the best friends would also be perceived as more depressed by the subjects. These hypotheses were confirmed when depressives brought their best friends in for a study and the level of depression for these best friends was measured. In addition, the depressed subjects reported feeling worse after speaking with their friends when compared to how the nondepressed subjects reported feeling after speaking with their best friends.
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
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DEPRESSION IN MARRIAGE: HUSBAND'S RESPONSES TO DEPRESSED WIVES.HOLLIDAY, STEPHEN LEE. (The University of Arizona., 1983)Previous research suggests that marital problems, inhibited communication, social rejection, and mutual hostility characterize the interpersonal behavior of depressed patients. The specificity and external validity of these results is questionable since most of this research used analogue designs or lacked important control groups necessary to separate the effects of depression from psychological disturbance in general. This study examined interpersonal aspects of depression within the context of the marital relationship. A battery of standardized and original questionnaires was administered to couples in three comparison groups defined by the wife's level of depression and psychotherapy patient status: a depressed patient group, a non-depressed patient group, and a normal control group. Results of planned comparisons revealed that, relative to the married couples with nondepressed patients and normal control wives, the depressed patients and their husbands saw their marriages as more maladjusted with less open communication. Husbands of the depressed patients also reported feeling more anxiety and acting less honestly or supportively specifically when interacting with their spouses. Husbands in the depressed patient group also rated their wives more negatively in terms of their overall interpersonal impact and saw their own actions as more generally negative when interacting with the depressed spouse. Both spouses in the depressed patient group rated themselves as feeling more hostile generally, while the husbands saw the depressed patients as specifically impacting them in a hostile manner. These results were seen as consistent with Coyne's interpersonal model of depression which suggests that depressed behavior and affect may be maintained by the responses it evokes from interacting others. The finding of greater hostility in both the depressed patients and their husbands replicates previous controlled research but contradicts most psychological theories of depression which predict lowered hostility in depression. Implications for further research and therapy with depressed patients are also discussed.
Patterns and predictors of depression treatment among adults with chronic kidney disease and depression in ambulatory care settings in the United StatesVadiei, Nina; Bhattacharjee, Sandipan; Univ Arizona, Coll Pharm, Dept Pharm Practice & Sci (SPRINGER, 2019-02-01)One in five adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States (US) suffers from depression. Comorbid depression in adults with CKD is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. This study used US national survey data to examine patterns and predictors of depression treatment among adults with non-dialysis-dependent CKD in the US. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted using 2014-2015 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) data. The final study sample consisted of visits by 9.02 million adults (unweighted n = 262; age ≥ 18 years) with CKD and depression in the US. Depression treatment was defined as antidepressant use with or without psychotherapy. To identify predictors of depression treatment, multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted adjusting for predisposing, enabling, and need factors. Approximately half of adults with CKD and depression received depression treatment. Primary care was the main setting of treatment, and the most commonly prescribed antidepressant class was selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Adults being seen for treatment of a chronic problem were 3.2 times more likely to receive depression treatment (OR 3.20; 95% CI 1.38-7.21). In addition, there was a 9% higher likelihood of receiving depression treatment for each unit increase in total number of medications (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.01-1.19). Finally, adults receiving care in the South were 63% less likely to receive depression treatment (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.15-0.89). Depression treatment was recorded in approximately half of US ambulatory care visits involving adults with CKD and depression from 2014 to 2015. Further research is warranted to determine how to appropriately manage treatment of depression in adults with CKD.
Patterns and Predictors of Depression Treatment among Older Adults with Parkinson’s Disease and Depression in Ambulatory Care Settings in the United StatesBhattacharjee, Sandipan; Vadiei, Nina; Goldstone, Lisa; Alrabiah, Ziyad; Sherman, Scott J.; Univ Arizona, Coll Med; Univ Arizona, Coll Pharmacy (Hindawi, 2018-03)Little is known regarding depression treatment patterns and predictors among older adults with comorbid Parkinson's disease and depression (dPD) in the United States (US). The objective of this study was to assess the patterns and predictors of depression treatment among older adults with dPD in the US. We adopted a cross-sectional study design by pooling multiple-year data (2005–2011) from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and the outpatient department of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). The final study sample consisted of visits by older adults with dPD. Depression treatment was defined as antidepressant use with or without psychotherapy. To identify predictors of depression treatment, multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted adjusting for predisposing, enabling, and need factors. Individuals with dPD and polypharmacy were 74% more likely to receive depression treatment (odds ratio = 1.743, 95% CI 1.376–2.209), while dPD subjects with comorbid chronic conditions were 44% less likely (odds ratio = 0.559, 95% CI 0.396–0.790) to receive depression treatment. Approximately six out of ten older adults with PD and depression received depression treatment. Treatment options for dPD are underutilized in routine clinical practice, and further research should explore how overall medical complexity presents a barrier to depression treatment.