AuthorSvensson, Barbro Christina.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractNonlinear phenomena originating from the distributed coupling process were observed when distributed couplers, such as prisms and gratings, were used to couple light into nonlinear ZnS thin film waveguides. The efficiency of the nonlinear distributed coupling process was found to depend on two independent parameters, the angle of the incident beam and the power of the incident beam. Depending on the detuning of the incident angle, from the optimum incident angle at low powers, either optical limiting, power-dependent switching, or power-dependent bistability of the coupling efficiency, and thereby of the in-coupled power, was observed. At zero detuning, a twenty-fold decrease of the coupling efficiency with increasing powers was measured. At a nonzero detuning of the incident angle, power-dependent switching at milliwatt powers was observed. At larger angular detunings, corresponding to the angular width. FWHM, of the coupling peak at low powers, power-dependent bistability was observed, and the width of the bistability loop was found to increase with increasing detunings. All-optical beam scanning via a nonlinear grating coupler was also demonstrated, utilizing a control-signal beam configuration, where the signal beam scanned through an angle of 0.5° when the power of the control beam was varied. The observed nonlinearity in ZnS was positive and of thermal origin. The power-induced change in the refractive index was found to be 0.01 and a relaxation time of 10 μsec was measured. Problems with the long-term stability of the nonlinear distributed coupling process were traced to the occurrence of desorption and adsorption of water vapor in the ZnS films.
Degree ProgramOptical Sciences