Nabla spaces, the theory of the locally convex topologies (2-norms, etc.) which arise from the mensuration of triangles.
AuthorGriesan, Raymond William.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractMetric topologies can be viewed as one-dimensional measures. This dissertation is a topological study of two-dimensional measures. Attention is focused on locally convex vector topologies on infinite dimensional real spaces. A nabla (referred to in the literature as a 2-norm) is the analogue of a norm which assigns areas to the parallelograms. Nablas are defined for the classical normed spaces and techniques are developed for defining nablas on arbitrary spaces. The work here brings out a strong connection with tensor and wedge products. Aside from the normable theory, it is shown that nabla topologies need not be metrizable or Mackey. A class of concretely given non-Mackey nablas on the ℓp and Lp spaces is introduced and extensively analyzed. Among other results it is found that the topological dual of ℓ₁ with respect to these nabla topologies is C₀, one of the spaces infamous for having no normed predual. Also, a connection is made with the theory of two-norm convergence (not to be confused with 2-norms). In addition to the hard analysis on the classical spaces, a duality framework from which to study the softer aspects is introduced. This theory is developed in analogy with polar duality. The ideas corresponding to barrelledness, quasi-barrelledness, equicontinuity and so on are developed. This dissertation concludes with a discussion of angles in arbitrary normed spaces and a list of open questions.